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THE LIBRARY 



The Ontario Institute 



for Studies in Education 



Toronto, Canada 




{ 



Crown 8vo, price 6s. 6d. 

TEACHING AND ORGANISATION 

With Special Reference to Secondary Sctiools. 

A MANUAL OF PRACTICE. > 

Edited by P. A. BARNETT, M.A. 



CHAPTER 

I. The Criterion in Education. 

By P. A. Barnett, M.A., late 
Principal of the Isleworth Train- 
ing College. 

II. Organisation and Curricula in 
Boys' Schools. By A. T. 

Pollard, M.A., Head Master 
of the City of London School. 

III. Kindergarten. By Elinor 

Welldon, Head Mistress of the 
Kindergarten Department, The 
Ladies' College, Cheltenham. 

IV. Reading. By Arthur Burrell, 

M.A., Assistant Master in Brad- 
ford Grammar School. 

V. Drawing and Writing. By I. 

H. Morris, Head Master of the 
Gleadless Road Board School, 
Sheffield. 

VI. Arithmetic and Mathematics. 

By R. WoRMELL, D.Sc, Head 
Master of the City Foundation 
Schools, London. 

VII. English Grammar and Com = 
position. By E. A. Abbott, 
D.D., late Head Master of the 
City of London School. 



VIII. English Literature. 

Editor. 



By the 



IX. Modern History. By R. Somer- 
vell, M.A., Assistant Master in 
Harrow School. 

X;. Ancient History. By H. L. 

Withers, M.A., Principal of 
the Isleworth Training College. 

XI. Geography. By E. C. K. Gon- 
NER, M.A., Professor of Political 
Economy in University College, 
Liverpool. 



chapter 

XII. Classics. By E. Lyttelton, 
M.A., Head Master of Hailey- 
bury College. 

XIII. Science. By L. C. Miall, F.R.S., 

Professor of Biology in the York- 
shire College, Leeds. 

XIV. Modern Languages. By F. 

Storr, B.A., Chief Master of 
Modern Subjects in Merchant 
Taylors' School. 

XV. Vocal Music. By W. G. Mc- 

Naught, Mus.Doc. and H.M. 
Assistant Inspector of Music in 
Training Colleges. 

XVI. Discipline. Bv A. Sidgwick, 
M. A., Fellow and Tutor of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford. 

XVII. Ineffectiveness in Teaching. 

By G. E. Buckle, Master of 
Method in the Isleworth Train- 
ing College for Schoolmasters. 

XVIII. Specialisation. By M.G. Glaze- 
brook, M.A., Head Master of 
Clifton College. 

XIX. School Libraries. By A. T. 

Martin, M.A., Assistant Mas- 
ter in Clifton College. 

XX. School Hygiene. By C. Dukes, 
M.D., Lond. Medical Officer in 
Rugby School. 

XXI. Apparatus and Furniture. By 

W. K. Hill, B.A., late Head 
Master of Kentish Town High 
School. 

XXII. Organisation and Curricula in 
Girls' Schools. By M. E. 

Sandford, Head Mistress of 
the Queen's School, Chester. 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON; 

NEW YORK, AND BOMBAY. 



WORK AND PLAY IN GIRLS' SCHOOLS 



LIBRARY 

THE ONTARIO INSTITUTE 

FOR ST I S ! 4 EDUCATION 

T " \DA 



FEB 25 1968 



WORK AND PLAY 



GIRLS' SCHOOLS 



THREE HEAD MISTRESSES 

DOROTHEA BEALE 
LUCY H. M. SOULSBY 
JANE FRANCES DOVE 




LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY 



PREFACE. 

The book is divided into three Sections, and 
each of the writers is responsible only for her 
own part, and yet I hope it will not be merely 
a composite book ; all the contributors are 
members of the teaching staff of the Chelten- 
ham Ladies' College, or have at some time 
formed part of it, and now, as then, there is I 
believe a unity of purpose, which will give 
harmony to the work. 

The book is intended to be a practical one, 
helpful chiefly to teachers in our large Secondary 
Schools ; the limits imposed compel us ( i ) to 
deal more with methods than the underlying 
principles ; (2) to isolate more or less the in- 
fluences of the school from those of the manifold 
environment, which are at the same time form- 
ing the body, mind and character of the child, 
and which seem to make the school-life of re- 
latively small moment ; (3) we have to treat only 
of a few years of life ; for, like the bird of the 
fable, the soul of the child comes to us often 
from some unknown region, stays for a while in 



vi Preface. 

our banqueting hall, and then passes again into 
the darkness. 

Yet I suppose the experience of most of us 
bears witness to the great importance of the 
school-life as one of the factors in the " de- 
velopment of a soul ". '' The atmosphere, the 
discipline, the life " of the school is so potent, 
that the word education has been often limited 
to the school period, and the pupils of an Aris- 
totle, an Ascham, an Arnold, speak of their 
teachers as having given them a new life. 
Our work is not insignificant, and our earnest 
study must be by instruction and discipline, 
by what Plato calls music and gymnastic, to 
promote the harmonious development of the 
character ; to bring our children into sympa- 
thetic relations with the noble and the good 
of all ages ; to lead them into the possession 
of that good land, " flowing with milk and 
honey," the spiritual inheritance of humanity. 

I would fain hope, that one day all teachers 
will endeavour to spend at least some time, before 
entering on professional work, in studying the 
art, the science, the philosophy of education. 
In this little book we have had to restrict 
ourselves almost to the first, but we have 
referred to works which deal with the higher 
aspects of the subject. I would earnestly press 
on all my readers, that their own education must 



Prefa 



ce. vii 



never be regarded as finished ; if we cease to 
learn, we lose the power of sympathy with our 
pupils, and a teacher without intellectual and 
moral sympathy has no dynamic, no inspiring 
force. Especially should all teachers be students 
of psychology, of that marvellous instrument, 
from which it is ours to draw forth heavenly 
harmonies. To many a teacher might the words 
of Hamlet be addressed by her pupils : — 

How unworthy a thing you make of me ! You would 
play upon me ; you would seem to know my stops ; you 
would pluck out the heart of my mystery ; you would sound 
me from my lowest note to the top of my compass ; and 
there is much music, excellent voice in this little organ ; yet 
cannot you make it speak. Do you think I am easier to be 
played on than a pipe ? Though you can fret me, yet 
cannot you play upon me. 

Dorothea Beale. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION I. 

INTELLECTUAL EDUCATION. Edited by DOROTHEA BEALE, 
Principal of the Cheltenham Ladies' College; formerly Mathe- 
matical AND Classical Tutor, Queen's College, London. 

PAGE 

Introduction Dorothea Bcale i 

A Few Practical Precepts ... ,, >> "37 

PART I. HUMANITIES. 

English Language Generally — Reading, Writing, Gram- 
mar, Composition Dorothea Beale 44 

Classical Studies . , . William H. D. Rouse, M.A. 67 
Modern Languages . . . . . Dorothea Beale 94 

Spelling Reform „ ,, 106 

History as an Educational Subject . „ ,, 114 

Teaching Modern History TO Senior Classes Alice Andrews 124 
The Teaching of Ancient History . Mary Hanbidge, M.A. 159 

Time-Maps Dorothea Beale 168 

Margaret Bridges 186 

Amy Lurnhy 192 

Dorothea Beale 202 



Economics for Girls . 
English Literature . 
Philosophy and Religion 



PART II. MATHEMATICS. 

Arithmetic ' Dorothea Beale 216 

Mathematics ,, ,, 239 

PART III. SCIENCE. 

Introduction — Psychological Order of Study with Special 

Reference to Scientific Teaching . Dorothea Beale 251 

The Teaching of the Biological Sciences Charlotte L. Laurie 260 

Geography Margery Reid, B.Sc. (Loud.) 275 

Physics .... Agatha Leonard, B.Sc. [Lond.) 291 

The Teaching of Chemistry 

Clare de Brereton Evans, D.Sc. {Lond.) 307 



f 



'IT'' 

Contents. 
PART IV. ESTHETICS. 



PAGE 

^:'\ Introduction — Art . . . . . Dorothea Beale 320 

Pianoforte Teaching Dometiico Barnett 326 

The Violin Lewis Hann 338 

Class-Singing Florence Mosley 340 

Singing. Tonic Sol-fa Rhoda Rooney 344 

Elocution Rose Seafon 346 

Drawing, Painting, etc. . . . Pauline M. Randerson 348 

Brush Drawing Mary Farbrother 354 

Painting Arthur Richardson 356 

Fresco Eadie Reid 358 

China Painting Minna Crawley 360 

Art Needlework ,, ,, 361' 

Wood-Carving, etc M.S. Lyndon Smith 362 

Modelling Evangeline Stirling 363 

Sloyd ,, ,, 366 

Conclusion — Relation of School to Home Dorothea Beale 367 



SECTION II., p. 374- 

THE MORAL SIDE OF EDUCATION. By LUCY H. M. SOULSBY, 
OF Manor House School, Brondesbury, N.W.; late Head Mistress 
OF the Oxford High School. 



SECTION III., p. 396. 



CULTIVATION OF THE BODY. By JANE FRANCES DOVE, of 
Wycombe Abbey School; late Head Mistress of St. Leonard's 
School, St. Andrews, N.B. 



INDEX 



425 



SECTION I. 

INTRODUCTION. 
By Dorothea Beale. 

I HAVE been asked to undertake one section of a book 
on the education of srirls, and to confine ,, ^. 

° Subject, 

myself, as far as possible, to the intellec- 
tual aspects of education, leaving to others the task 
of dealing with the physical and moral aspects. I 
shall try to keep within the assigned limits — abstain 
from any systematic treatment of the laws of hygiene, 
and write no formal treatise on school ethics — but all 
the intellectual work must of course be conditioned by 
the necessities of the physical life, and the final cause 
of all education must be the development of a right 
character. 

I am to treat the subject too with special reference 
to the large secondary schools which have Education of 
come into existence during the last fifty fecondarv 
years, and in doing so, I must dwell briefly schools, 
upon the changes which have taken place in the ideals 
and theories regarding the education of girls, which 
have found expression in these schools, and in the 
Women's Colleges. I shall speak of what has yet to 
be accomplished, for we are still in a period of transi- 
tion, and I shall consider by what means we may best 
realise our ideals. 



2 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Now in education there is always a twofold object. 
Aim of Bacon tells us the furthest end of know- 

education ledge is " the glory of the Creator and the 
relief of man's estate " — in other words, the perfection 
of the individual, and the good of the community. 
In some periods, indeed in pre-Christian times gener- 
ally, the latter was emphasised,^ men were to live 
for the commonwealth ; the individual was regarded as 
an instrument for accomplishing certain work — he was 
not thought of as an end in himself Thus even the 
most enlightened among ancient writers have spoken 
of slaves, as if they were mere chattels. Our moral 
sense is shocked by much that we read in Plato and 
Aristotle, and still more by what the laws of Rome 
permitted. Christianity on the other hand taught that 
the primary relationship of each was to the All- 
Father, the primary duty of each to realise God's 
ideal for His children, to become perfect, and by 
glorifying human nature to glorify God. This was 
the first commandment, but the second was implied 
in the first — self-love was not selfish, the love of God 
descending from heaven became the enthusiasm of 
humanity. 

" Education," writes Mr. Ruskin {Queen's Gardens), 
" is the leadine: human souls to what is best 

as regards => 

the individ- and making what is best out of them ; and 
these two objects are always attainable to- 
gether, and by the same means ; the training which 
makes men happiest in themselves, also makes them 
most serviceable to others." " The only safe course," 

^ Even Milton writes : " I call a complete and generous education 
that which fits a man to perform justly, skilfully and magnanimously 
all the offices to the public and private, of peace and war ". 



Introduction. 3 

writes Miss Shirreff {^Intellectual Education), " is to 
hold up individual perfectness as the aim of education." 
And so the task of the educator is in the first instance 
to develop to the highest perfection all the powers of 
the child, that he may realise the ideal of the All-Father. 
But the perfection of man " the thinker," the anthropos, 
''the upward looker," can be attained only when as a 
son he enters into, and co-operates with the Divine pur- 
pose in thought and act: therefore to know God and His 
laws for His children's education and development, is the 
beginning and the end. These laws man reads (i) in 
the world of Nature with which science has to do ; (2) 
in human history and institutions ; (3) in the hidden 
life of the soul — of which philosophy and religion and 
ethics treat. He has to seek first to know truth, to 
bring his will into conformity with the Divine thought, 
and then to utter what is true and right in word and 
deed ; only thus will the kingdom of righteousness be 
set up, and the perfection of the whole — the 

. as regards 

well-being of the commonwealth— of " man thecom- 

• , 1 >> u J T^i L. • •!• J monwealth. 

writ large be secured. The most civilised 
nations are devoting their best energies to the work 
of education, realising that upon this depends their 
very existence^ — that it is not by starving the indi- 
vidual life, and merging it in the general, but by de- 
veloping each to perfection, that the common good will 
be secured. They trust less to the power of laws and 
institutions, more to the power of a right education — 
less to external restraint, more to the wisdom that 
comes of a wisely directed experience. 

These principles have guided the new move- 
ment for women's education, and those Reforms 
who have followed the changes in public ^'"^*^ ^^^s. 



4 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

opinion, since people have thought more of each in- 
dividual as an end in himself, are full of confidence 
and hope. The reformers said : " Let us give to girls 
an invigorating dietary, physical, intellectual, moral ; 
seclusion from evil is impossible, but we can strengthen 
the patient to resist it ". 

'Tis life, not death for which we pant, 
More life and fuller, that we want ! 

Such were, I believe, the feelings and the thoughts 
of those who initiated just fifty years ago the great 
movement, which found its first visible expression in 
the foundation of Queen's College by Maurice and 
Kingsley and Trench and others like-minded and less 
known. This was soon followed by the opening of 
Bedford College, 1849, and. the Cheltenham Ladies' 
College, 1853. Miss Buss and her brothers, in 
association with Mr. Laing, established the first great 
High School, and Mrs. Grey and Miss Shirreff carried 
on the movement in that direction ; from the Union 
founded by them grew up the G.P.D.S. Co., while 
Miss Davies with far-seeing wisdom won over Cam- 
bridge professors (amongst whom I may specially 
mention Professor Henry Sidgwick and James Stuart) 
to offer the highest culture to women. 

The leaders had to ask and answer many questions. 
What direction, what shape should the new movement 
for higher education take? Should there be two 
sorts of education for girls and boys ? The Schools' 
Inquiry Commission had shown that a specially 
feminine education had not produced very successful 
results, and the leaders said : Let us give to girls the 
solid teaching in languages and mathematics and 



Introduction. 5 

science, which are found to strengthen the powers of 
boys, and prepare them to do good work of many kinds. 
If it was objected that women were to rule in the home, 
and men in the larger world, they argued, that for girls 
as for boys, the right course was to give a liberal educa- 
cation. The boy does not learn in the school the things 
which will be required in his future business or pro- 
fession, but he brings to these the cultivated mind, the 
power of work, the disciplined will. 

And the world is more and more recognising that 
the leaders were right, and schools have arisen in" all 
our great towns. Fifty years ago there were dismal 
prophecies — an outcry that study would ruin health. 
Now it is a common remark that there is a general 
improvement in physique. Women too „ ^ 
are more conscious of their responsi- physical and 
bilities in the life of the family, as well ^^^^- 
as in that of the country, especially in social and 
church life. They feel, that though they may 
have but the " smallest scruple " of excellence, they 
must render for it " thanks and use ". Besides, 
another good has been more and more realised ; as 
Mrs. Jameson, in her beautiful lecture,^ set forth, girls 
taught on the same lines, and women who can enter 
into the subjects of study and thougTit which occupy 
the minds of their fathers, husbands, sons, have more 
understanding, more sympathy, more power to make 
the home what it should be ; the only healthy intel- 
lectual companionship is communion between active 
minds, and the highest purposes of marriage are un- 
fulfilled, if either husband or wife lives in a region 

1 " Communion of Labour." 



6 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

of thought which the other cannot enter. Besides, 
those many women who remain unmarried can, if 
well educated, find in some form of service the 
satisfaction of their higher nature. Surely women 
trained in good schools and colleges have as wives and 
mothers shared the labours and entered more fully as 
companions into the lives of husbands and children. 
The names of many will occur to my readers, but one 
cares not to name the living. We see every year at 
the Conference of Women Workers, that the seed 
sown in faith has brought forth fruit ; that the whole 
aspect of the woman's realm has changed since the days 
of Evelina and Miss Austen. 

But none of us may rest in that which has been 
attained. We ask for the " wages of going on and not 
to die". There is earnest endeavour on the part of 
all engaged in the work of education, which has found 
expression in such societies as the Parents' Educa- 
tional Union, the Child Study Society,and the Teachers' 
Guild. Teachers are not content with the school 
year, but holiday courses are the order of the day, and 
many are seeking training, and others ask for a year 
or a term to improve, and books on education are pour- 
ing from the press, and some of us, who have gained 
experience which maybe helpful to others, feel bound, 
though much hindered by the calls of active life, 
to share those experiences, and say what we can about 
the ideals, the principles, the methods, which, we trust, 
have already, in spite of the gloomy portents of years 
gone by, improved the physical, the intellectual and 
moral vigour of those who have shared the larger life, 
entered into the higher intellectual interests, and under- 
gone the strengthening discipline of our large schools. 



Introduction. 7 

With these preliminary remarks, I enter upon the 
subject of the curriculum ; I have drawn up a 

1 • 1 r 1 1 1 1 T T 1 Curriculum. 

table which 1 shall proceed to discuss. 1 have 
classed the subjects of education under five heads, and 
divided the pupils in a general way also into five 
classes. But before 1 deal with the practical, let me 
speak of the ideal. There is nothing so practical as 
ideas — these are the moving power of all our acts. 

If what I have said is true, the subject cannot be 
treated in reference to girls only; not because I would 
assimilate the teaching of girls to that of boys, but 
because the teaching of both should aim at developing 
to the highest excellence the intellectual powers 
common to both. The teaching of modern science 
tells us that both pass through the same lower stages, 
that they may rise into the higher, and all history tells 
us that men and women 

Rise or sink 
Together, dwarfed or godlike, bond or free. 

So we ask generally what is the Education of Man ? 
Frobel has rightly emphasised the last word. It is the 
development of that which distinguishes man from all 
the lower forms of life " summed up " in him, that can 
alone be properly called the Education of Man : other 
creatures can live, as he does, the nutritive or vege- 
table life, which goes on of itself — other animals live 
the conscious life, they see and know, but to man alone 
it is possible to objectify all things by transcending 
them, and even that lower self, which is part of his dual 
nature ; he is able to know himself both as " I " and 
" me " ; he brings to sensation the formative power 
of his own thought, makes, as Kant has said, the 



8 "Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 

universe which he did not create. And so man does 
not merely perceive, but apperceive, takes into his own 
being ideas, thoughts ; combines, associates these, — 
and indeed it is difficult to speak of these ideas other- 
wise than Herbart does, as entities, by which the mind 
grows, fashioning them to its own uses, as the body does, 
the food on which it Hves. Because he can objectify 
thus, language is possible. Man gives to thoughts, these 
" airy nothings, a local habitation and a name " ; he is 
able to plan, to project and therefore to form judgments. 
But if he is related to that world to which the senses 
reach, he is also in relation, through an inward feeling 
which we call sympathy, with other " subjects," able to 
recognise in others that which he knows in himself as 
mind ; if he finds himself so related to the world of sense, 
that he responds to its touch, much more nearly is he 
in relation with other personalities ; these he knows, be- 
fore he recognises objective nature ; through other minds 
his own is educated, and so the humanities take the first 
place ; he enters into relations through the communis 
sensus with a world of thinking beings. These persons 
communicate thoughts, specially through {a) language 
immediate, and through written language. By written 
speech the limitations of space and time are abolished, 
and we are able to speak not only of men, but of 
man, for not only is his physical life continuous, but 
his mental and moral life through the ages is one. So 
from language we pass to [b) history and literature and 
historic act, the record of what men have done and 
suffered and thought and recorded, not in books only 
but in all material things ; for man the dead live ; 
and as the actors pass from the stage, history, no less 
than philosophy and science, tends upwards to those 



Introduction. 9 

higher regions of thought, where we ponder on the 
{c) mysteries of man's self-conscious Hfe, on his rela- 
tion to other minds, and to the One whose offspring 
we are, and in Whom all things live and move and 
have their being. 

The subjects of study then may also be classified 
under five headings : — 

I. The Humanities : which have to do with man, 
known objectively through word and deed, in lan- 
guage and literature, in history and art ; subjectively, 
as in ethics, religion, philosophy. 

II. Mathematics: embracing three divisions relating 
to space, number, energy in the abstract — these have 
to do with necessary truth. 

III. Science: which rests not on a basis of thought 
only, but on facts given through sense objectively. 

IV. ^Esthetics : which may be classed under the 
three heads, as music, painting and the other arts — 
considered subjectively. 

V. The exercises suitable for the physical develop- 
ment. 

It is with the first section that every teacher has 
to do ; though he may be a specialist for science or 
mathematics or music, he has always to do with man 
in his manifold relations, he has ever to do with the 
humanities. It must be the constant study of the 
teacher to find the best means of developing the powers 
of thought, of calling forth right motives of action, de- 
veloping right habits, and so forming noble characters, 
which is the final cause of all his labours. Ever through- 
out life he will by study and experience deepen and ex- 
tend his knowledge, but it is earnestly to be desired that 
he should have some leisure for definite preparation by 



00 
M 

1 


An additional lan- 
guage, Greek or 
Italian. 

Ancient classics in 
the original or trans- 
lations. Foreign 
classics and view of 
European literature. 

Fundamental ideas 
of philosophy. Chris- 
tian dogmatics and 
ethics. 


It 

<J 3 

-1 


French, German or 
Latin. In some cases 
one other language. 

English constitu- 
tional history. Spe- 
cial period of Eng- 
lish. Also of ancient 
or modern. Diffi- 
cult books in English. 

St. John or epistles. 
Doctrinal teach- 
ing. 

Advanced pure and 
mixed mathematics. 


li 

6< 


Grammar ; increasing 
attention to philology ; 
French, with German, or 
Latin. 

English history in 
periods and correspond- 
ing literary periods with 
special books. Outlines 
of general history, an- 
cient and modern, with 
time maps. 

A gospel. Instruction 
in the prayer-book, etc. 

Arithmetic and algebra 
to quadratics. 

Euclid I. and II., or 
equivalent. 

Elementary mixed 
mathematics. 


.•a 


N « in 






Elementary ideas of 
grammar, French v. voce, 
and reading and transla- 
tion into English, learn- 
ing poetry, dialogues, etc. 

Time maps and epochs 
in world's history. Eng- 
lish history treated bio- 
graphically. Stories from 
ancient history. Learn- 
ing poetry. 

Bible lessons selected. 
Learning simple passages 
from New Testament, 
hymns and collects. 

Arithmetic in some 
cases generalised to al- 
gebra for older children, 
for younger still much 
concrete. 

Elementary practical 
geometry. Many pro- 
blems. In some cases a 
beginning of logical de- 
monstrations. 


1 

00 

n 
O 

< 


English reading and 
French v. voce. 

Mythological tales and 
stories from history. 
Learning poetry. 

Bible stories, simple 
hymns and prayers. 

Arithmetic, chiefly with 
concrete objects. 

Simple ideas of form. 


3 
CO 


I. Language. 

3. Man r Ethics, 
subject- -! Religion. 

ively. 1^ Philosophy. 

4. Arithmetic and Al- 

gebra. 

5. Geometry. 

r Kinematics. 

6. J. MixedMathemats., 

ye.g., Mechanics. 






 


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12 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

the study of education as an art, a science, a philosophy, 
before entering on his responsible work. In this, as in 
everything else, only those who have gained the know- 
ledge are really judges of its value. The man who knows 
no foreign tongue, supposes he understands English, but 
we know in how poor and faulty a way. A study of the 
mysteries of our own being, of the fundamental basis 
of philosophy and psychology, personal knowledge of 
and sympathy with the great thinkers and philosophers 
and martyrs of education, must move us to more purpose- 
ful and thoughtful and devoted lives, and give us a joy 
that we cannot feel when we are working blindly and 
mechanically, without the faith which works by love. 

I have mentioned at the close of the introduction 
some books not too large or difficult which will be 
helpful to those who desire to begin the serious study 
of the subjects included under the general heading of 
pedagogy. 

In the table (p. lo) I have arranged courses of study 
and grouped pupils according to age, but only for those 
called B and C have I attempted to give the time 
each week, which might be allowed on an average for 
serious study. I think the Bs generally and the Cs 
almost always should follow a fixed course, though 
some variation should be permitted to the Cs. The 
Ds and Es should take special directions, dropping 
some subjects and giving much time to others. Under 
the head of B, I have given what is perhaps the 
nearest approach to the normal type in my own school. 
Those who do not learn music, can of course take an 
extra language, or otherwise cultivate a special subject ; 
those who are but slightly pervious to mathematical 
ideas are allowed to drop Euclid, after having done 



Introduction. 13 

enough to profit by the wholesome discipline of writ- 
ing out propositions say up to Euclid I. 26. These 
may perhaps add another musical instrument or 
some manual work. 

The principle I would insist on is that our curri- 
culum should, to use a sensible figure, be pyramidal, 
having a broad base and narrowing; the total cubic 
content might be the same each year, but in proportion 
as the subjects taken were fewer, there would be greater 
depth. Thus the Cs would specialise to a slight 
extent, the Ds should do so still more, and the Es 
have found out their vocation, so that for these last 
no time-table can be given. 

In drawing up a time-table I have given only the 
general lines, and assigned an average time for each 
section ; the case of every individual must be separ- 
ately considered, and there should always remain 
some hours of leisure — in the highest classes I have 
arranged for school work about eight hours out 
of the twenty-four. If we give four hours to 
meals and outdoor exercise, and eight to sleep, we 
have a margin of four hours — a considerable amount 
of time, if multiplied by six ; part of this may 
be given to general reading, part to social and 
family life, but for the growing and developing 
mind there must be time for solitude, for entering 
into the secret chamber, and listening for the voice 
heard only in the stillness. We read much in praise 
of " Eyes " and much in dis-praise of " No-eyes," 
but there are times when great thinkers are blind to 
outward things, and deaf to earthly voices ; it is at 
such times there rise before the mind's eye ideals which 
fashion the whole life. I am sure that in these days the 



14 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

young lose much for want of more quiet on Sundays. 
There may have been over strictness in the past — 
there is now a surprising ignorance of the Bible and 
the grounds of faith. The silence rules of a good 
school tend to produce a spirit of repose, 
and a library where no speaking is allowed 
is a help. Rules which hinder idle talk in the bed- 
rooms are a great boon to those who find the value of 
quiet at the beginning and end of the day, and I 
earnestly hope that the excitement of the playground 
may never supersede the country rambles which have 
been fruitful of spiritual health to many of us. 

In considering how I shall best make this small volume 
of use to teachers in high schools, I propose to adopt the 
following plan. First to treat of a few general matters 
which belong to organisation and the methods of 
management — 3.g-., distribution and economy of time, 
corrections, marks, etc. 

Then to deal with the subjects of the curriculum in 
order, in a series of papers by myself and my colleagues. 

In Part I. I have written first of language gener- 
ally, embracing reading, speaking, grammar, composi- 
tion, foreign tongues. It will be clear to all that I 
could not possibly, in the few pages assigned to each 
subject, treat the matter exhaustively, but I hope I 
may strike out some lines of thought which will be 
helpful, and the lists of books may assist teachers in 
their studies. In most subjects I have been able to 
get a few papers from members of my staff, past and 
present. Under the head of Language I have one from 
Mr. Rouse, a most able teacher, who had many years' 
experience with our elder pupils, specially those reading 
for classical honours in the University of London. 



Introduction. I J 

In History and Literature I have papers by Miss A. 
Andrews, Miss Hanbidge and Miss Lumby, the very 
successful teachers who take these subjects in the 
London and Higher Cambridge class ; there is also 
a paper on Economics by Miss Bridges. 

In Part HI. I have papers by four specially 
able and experienced teachers — Miss de Brereton 
Evans, D.Sc. Lond., Miss Reid, B.Sc. Lond., Miss 
Leonard, B.Sc. Lond., and Miss Laurie. 

In Part IV. I have a number of short papers by 
members of our teaching staff. 

Section II. has been assigned by the publishers to 
another hand, and for that I am not responsible. Upon 
the basis of this classification, I have drawn up a table 
showing how the methods of teaching these subjects 
will vary with the age of the pupil, and what is, I 
consider, the best order of subjects. I have also added 
some chapters on various subjects — as Spelling Re- 
form and the Relation of School to Home. 

Before proceeding further it will be best to consider 
what is the amount of time at our disposal for Time avail- 
school teaching. The division of the year ^^^^• 
into three terms of about twelve weeks, consisting of 
five or six days each, is so generally adopted that we 
may take that for granted. The years of school life are 
at the utmost about ten — in the case of most girls far 
less. 

For day schools in large towns, attended by pupils 
from considerable distances, two attendances are im- 
possible, and the morning has to last from about 9 or 
9*30 to I or 1 -30. Of the four hours about three and a half 
are available for lessons, the remaining half-hour being 
taken upwith the general assembly for prayers and a brief 



1 6 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

interval for recreation ; but these twenty-one or twenty- 
four hours are not spent, as parents are apt to imagine, 
in poring over books, but are varied by lessons in 
gymnastics, drawing, singing. Some pupils in large 
towns remain to dine at the school, and have after- 
noon teaching in accomplishments. In small towns 
they return. Thirty hours a week should, I think, be 
the limit of time given to study for girls of school age. 
Students fully grown may study six hours a day. 
Eight should, I think, not be exceeded by any. 

In arranging the time-table, several things have to be 
Length of considered, (i) A, the youngest children, 
lesson. would havc no lessons of more than half an 

hour, and not more than two hours of definite instruction, 
the remainder being occupied with games, drill, sing- 
ing and various hand occupations. Those under eight 
would have a larger proportion of these last, and perhaps 
attend for a shorter time. The elder children can 
have a reading lesson before the general assembly, and 
the little ones might leave half an hour before the 
morning closes. If they wait for elder sisters, amuse- 
ments may be devised. (2) In the case of all, an en- 
deavour should be made to place those studies which 
make the heaviest demands on the attention as far as 
possible in the early morning hours. (3) The lessons 
for Sections B and C would average about fifty minutes, 
some being thirty minutes, others an hour, the drawing 
lesson being perhaps longer, whilst religious instruction 
following upon prayers would occupy half an hour, as 
would drill and singing. (4) Care should be taken to 
vary the subjects, so that if possible two lecture lessons 
should not follow one another, nor two on language, 
nor two mathematical lessons. 



Introduction. 17 

We have next to consider the order of study, what 
subjects are best adapted to the state of order of 
development of the child, or in what dif- ^^^^y- 
ferent ways the same subject may be treated to 
make it suitable at different ages. In this matter 
fatal mistakes are still made.^ Happily the teachings 
of educational reformers have brought before us the 
evils of the neglect of psychological principles. We 
are shocked when we hear of mothers ignorant of 
physiology, feeding infants on bread and tea, and giving 
soothing syrups ; we recognise the danger of too many 
sweets, and of cigars for growing boys — these have 
their parallels in the mental dietary. But it Dietary, 
is not so much giving wrong things as the deprivation of 
right things at the right time that is fatal. It is wonderful 
how much unwholesome food can be disposed of by a 
vigorous child — there is a fit of sickness and it is gone ; 
but we see in the adult bodily framework, the stunted 
skeleton, the decaying teeth, etc., the effect of starva- 
tion during years of growth. To deprive the child of 
the mental food and exercise necessary for his develop- 
ment at each period of his growth is a fatal error, .the 
consequences of which are irreparable. This has been 
forcibly put by Dr. Harris, Chief Commissioner of 
Education, U.S.A. Speaking of the prolongation for 
man of the period of infancy required for his develop- 



^ "The logical order ofa good course of instruction," writes Compayre 
{Psychology Applied to Education), " must correspond to the chrono- 
logical order of development of the mental powers." " If," writes Her- 
bert Spencer, " the higher faculties are taxed by presenting an order of 
knowledge more complex and abstract than can be readily assimilated, 
the abnormal result so produced will be accompanied by equivalent 
evil." 

2 



1 8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

ment, that he may be adapted to the spiritual en- 
vironment of the social community into which he is 
born, he writes : " Is it not evident that if the child 
is at any epoch inured into any habit or fixed 
form of activity belonging to a lower stage of de- 
velopment, the tendency will be to arrest growth at 
that point, and make it difficult or next to impossible 
to continue the growth of the child into higher and 
more civilised forms of soul-activity? A severe 
drill in mechanical habits of memorising, any over- 
cultivation of sense-perception in tender years, may 
arrest the development of the soul, form a mechanical 
method of thinking, and prevent the further growth 
into spiritual insight — especially on the second plane 
of thought, that which follows sense-perception, namely, 
the stage of classifying or even the search for causal 
relations, there is most danger of this arrested develop- 
ment. The absorption of the gaze upon the adjustments 
within the machine, prevents us from seeing it as a 
whole. The attention to details of colouring or draw- 
ing may prevent one from seeing the significance of the 
great works of art. . . . To keep the intellect out of the 
abyss of habit, and to make the ethical behaviour more 
and more a matter of unquestioning habit, seems to be 
the desideratum." 

Tradition furnishes those who have made no formal 
study of the subject of mental growth with some 
empirical rules for a healthy dietary, — as Mr. Barnett 
has shown, ^ or our children would fare badly ; but 
the evils of misplacing subjects in the order of study, 
of neglecting to teach the right subjects at the right 

1 Teaching and Organisation, p. 5. 



Introduction. 19 

time, and of partial starvation, are too apparent. Let 
me conclude with an illustrative anecdote — an object 
lesson. At school I always kept caterpillars ; they 
were regularly fed, and seldom failed to come out in 
perfect condition. Once some "woolly bears" escaped ; 
they were found after a few days, and again provided 
with ample food ; but it was too late, they came out 
with only rudimentary wings. 

But not only have we to provide the right subjects at 
the right time, we have to consider how the manner of 
teaching the same subject may be adapted to the age 
of the pupil. In an excellent Report on the Schools 
of St. Louis some years ago, Dr. Harris expounded the 
spiral system. In studying say botany in the lowest 
class, the children would learn to observe the forms of 
plant life, and become familiar with the main facts of 
classificatory botany, the observing power being chiefly 
called into action. Then the subject would be dropped, 
and taken up years after from the physiological point 
of view, when the learners would be able to understand 
the chemical changes, the process of development, etc., 
as they could not in earlier years. Similarly all 
Herbartians know how the teaching of history proceeds 
from the mythological story, through biography to his- 
tory, and some of us have seen the bad results of giving 
little children formularies which have no meaning for 
them, instead of seeking to develop in them through 
the discipline of home, and Bible teaching regarding 
the lives of the good, feelings of filial trust and rever- 
ence and obedience. For examples of this I may 
refer to Miss Bremner's book on the Education of 
Girls. 

In the accompanying time-table I have endeavoured 



20 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

to make a double classification in reference to the 
subjects taught, and the age of the learners. In 
discussing it I shall continue to use the word faculty, 
in spite of Herbartian protests, meaning thereby the 
power of doing certain special acts, which vary in 
character. We have the power of directing our at- 
tention to the objects of sense, or of withdrawing 
it from these, and becoming conscious only of the 
working of our own mind ; we have, i.e., the faculty 
of observation and of reflection ; by the use of the 
word faculty — etymologically, the power of doing — 
we need not dismember the Subject, but think of 
the One person as acting in different ways. 

Part I., the humanities, should throughout the 
whole course be represented in all its branches ; to it 
belong specially the cultur-studien. I think of some 
miserable starved specimens of girls I have known, fed 
upon an almost unmixed diet of either classics or 
mathematics ; their physique had suffered, and they 
had no mental elasticity, their one idea being to win 
scholarships : they did this, but never flourished at the 
university, for want of all-round culture. Others I 
have known, who thought they could be high-class 
musicians by practising their fingers, without culti- 
vating their minds ; the results were lamentable ; 
whereas those who gave half the time to music and 
half to cultur-studien, did more in the limited time. 
Is not the overwork of which many complain later, 
due to the too undivided work at one subject during 
the undergraduate period at the university ? Mathe- 
matics relieves the strain of classics ; specialising may 
be comparatively harmless to the full-grown man, but 
the child-specialist will grow up deformed. 



Introduction. 21 

Shall teaching be by class teachers or by specialists ? 
Once every teacher was expected to take 
all the subjects with her class, now the teachers and 
tendency is towards specialisation. In junior ^P^^'^^^^- 
classes the class mistress has many advantages over 
the specialist, for she knows what the children can do, 
the character and difficulties of each, and can adapt 
her teaching to her pupils. In any case she must 
exercise control over specialists, each of whom is in- 
clined to think her subject the most important. She 
can get hold of children, and exercise a stronger 
influence than an occasional teacher, and the more 
subjects she teaches, the more intimate will be the 
relation to her pupils. On the other hand, it is not 
good for children to be shut up to one personality, 
though it is not well for them to be under too many, 
and there ought always to be one predominant ; for 
this reason special arrangements are made in some 
..boys' schools for a tutor to follow the boy's career all 
the way up the school. A class teacher too can cor- 
relate the different subjects, and make one help the 
other ; being always at hand, she can give such help 
as is needed at odd times, to bring up laggards, and 
generally bring the intellectual to act upon the moral. 

On the other hand, a specialist can attain to greater 
excellence, throw more life into the subject, keep up 
with new discoveries and methods ; the best plan is 
perhaps for the class teacher, at least in junior classes, 
to hear and help to bring home to her pupils the teach- 
ing of specialists ; this is desirable with some foreign 
teachers, who fail to understand the exact difficulties 
of English children. It can, however, only be done 
when the staff is large. The case is different with upper 



22 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

classes, which should be taught almost entirely by 
specialists, though there should be always some one 
person responsible for each class. 

There seems to be a great difference between the 
Head kind of influence and control exercised by 

mistress. ^ Head Master, and a Head Mistress. 
The government of a boys' school approaches more 
nearly to a republic, of a girls' school to a con- 
stitutional monarchy ; whilst classes and teachers 
change for the child each year, the head mistress is 
permanent, ^nd follows each through all the classes, 
knowing her in all her phases. She reads marks, 
gives encouragement and admonition, and is in imme- 
diate relation with the other controlling influences, 
parents and teachers. Then — owing possibly to the 
fact that many women have not degrees — the head 
mistress permits herself to criticise and advise her 
teachers in a way that no young master fresh from 
the Honour Schools would permit. " I hear you go and 
listen to your teachers," said the head of an Oxford 
College to me — his face, on my admitting it, expressed 
more than his words. Again, the head mistress con- 
siders herself responsible for good order in every 
class, whereas in boys' schools the entire responsibility 
seems to rest on the individual master ; this must 
always be the case to a certain extent ; head mistresses 
try to avoid indiscipline by insisting on the training of 
teachers, and resorting to various devices, e.g., a junior 
teacher is made assistant to a senior, and entrusted with 
a class of her own, only when she has shown herself 
able; or — until she has well grasped the reins — she is set 
to teach in a large room in which there may be the head 
mistress and some other teacher capable of overawing 



Introduction. 23 

the restless ; or if she is a specialist the class teacher 
may be in the room. If the class is insubordinate 
owing to the bad teaching they get, there is of course 
no alternative but to change the teacher, or to improve 
her. 

Here let me touch on some of the chief perplexities of 
modern teachers. Professor Miall {Thirty Economy of 
Years of Teaching) writes: "No one can time, 
write on education without insisting on new subjects; and 
yettheold claims arenotrelaxed. We must have science 
in several branches, modern languages (more efficient 
than heretofore), drawing and gymnastics, but classics 
and mathematics and divinity must be kept up and 
improved. Increased hours are not to be thought of, 
fewer lessons, shorter lessons, and not so much home- 
work, are the cry. More potatoes to carry, and a smaller 
basket to carry them in. ... I believe the problem 
is not an insoluble one after all." 

The remedy, or perhaps I ought to say rather the 
mitigation of the teacher's difficulties, is to be found 
in four directions. (i) In increasing the number of 
school years. The well-trained kindergarten child 
comes with an interest in lessons, a power of atten- 
tion, a considerable amount of knowledge, and a clear 
understanding of much that formerly children knew 
nothing about, so that we gain time at the beginning. 
(2) Then if girls come earlier to school and stay later, 
if we have a girl from eight to eighteen, we can give many 
things in succession, which we once had to attempt 
simultaneously, when girls came " to finish " in a year, 
or at most two years. (3) If the hours are shorter, 
we can get more work done than was the case when 
children were wearied out with long hours ; when 



24 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

I began my teaching Hfe at Cheltenham, children came 
back sleepy for two hours of afternoon lessons, and 
returned to do home work, when they should have been 
in bed. (4) Better methods economise time, but this 
matter is so important that I shall insist on it at 
some length. 

{a) First let me beg a teacher to think how easy it 
r is to waste half an hour in one minute. 

Economy of 

time in Vou have thirty girls before you and you 

school. ,. -^r •IT • i. 

say: "Now, girls, I am gomg to give you 
a lesson, and you must be very attentive," and so on for 
one minute. Let every teacher use as few words as 
possible. Let there be no preambles, no repetitions : 
" Now, my dear child, I wonder whether, if I asked, 
you would be able to tell me at once," etc. Let the 
question be direct. " As I have said just now," then do 
not say it again. 

Wordiness must be avoided. We all know how weari- 
some it is to hear the same thing repeated in the 
same or different words. If we see this in a book, 
we skim ; if it is done in lesson or lecture, we let our 
thoughts wander. Children do the same. I once 
heard a mistress of method recommend teachers to 
repeat themselves ! 

{b) Learn what not to say, e.g., a name that you do 
not want remembered. I knew some boys who were 
set to learn the names of the " Do nothing" kings ; the 
memory must not be loaded with useless luggage. 

{c) In giving a dictation, some teachers will habitually 
repeat twice ; the consequence is that many do not listen 
the first time, and a third repetition is often asked for. 
Let it be understood that the sentence will be given 
distinctly, and not repeated. 



Introduction. 25 

{d) In English dictations do not ask that every word 
should be written, but emphasise those required — " Each 
separate parcel was received''. "I did wot perceive his 
meaning." " He did not succeed in persuading her to 
seceded 

{e) If a lesson has been set, we must ascertain that 
every one has learnt it, but there should be no question- 
ing round and round a class. If a question and answer 
take one and a half minutes in a class of thirty, the whole 
time is gone, and the teacher has no distinct impression 
of which pupils have answered well ; but if two questions 
in succession are asked of each and are promptly 
answered, the whole lesson may be considered to be 
known. Suppose there is a French dialogue to be heard, 
or an exercise has been learned, the teacher should not 
read the English ; the sentences should all be numbered, 
the teacher call the number, and the child read the 
French from the English. The sentences in some 
books are not numbered, and some dialogue books are 
so printed, that the French cannot be covered ; these 
are time-wasting books. A prompt reply must always 
be given ; since we speak at the rate of over a hundred 
words in a minute, three children could say two short 
sentences each in half a minute. Thus a class of twenty 
could be heard in ten minutes, or if the class teacher 
is assisting, and takes half the class, five minutes only 
would be necessary, and time saved for oral composi- 
tion, or reading exercises at sight, or training in pro- 
nunciation, etc. Some teachers, if unanswered, repeat 
a question. A girl who is not sure will often give an 
[indistinct reply ; one who does this robs her compan- 
ions ; the time of the class cannot be wasted thus, 
she must come in the afternoon and say it by herself; 



26 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

it will generally be found that her vocal powers are 
improved by this exercise. 

{f) In many subjects a so-called written viva voce 
may be properly substituted — say six questions written 
on the blackboard with numbers, the answers promptly 
written in class, the papers of different girls ex- 
changed, the faults underlined and the name of the 
corrector signed. The answers can be quickly marked 
by the class teacher at home. This has been dwelt 
on in Miss Andrews' paper. 

If French verbs have to be heard, table should be 
suspended, and the teacher point to a tense and a 
number. Here is a portion of one : — 





Sing. 


Plur. 


Indic. Pres. 


I, 2, 3. 


I, 2, 3 


Imperf. 






Passe defini, etc. 







Of course this rapid questioning is suitable only 
when we wish to ascertain whether a lesson has been 
learned, not to such viva 7'oces as are dialectic, in- 
tended to elucidate a subject and make pupils think. 

Note-taking should never be allowed in junior classes ; 
a syllabus may in some cases be profitably supplied, or 
the lesson may be an amplification of a text-book which 
the pupils have read, or questions may be set calculated 
to bring out the main points of the lesson. It should 
be an invariable rule that whatever is written is 
looked over and corrected ; if this is not done, we 
shall certainly get bad writing, slovenly work and 
general inaccuracy. Should this not be possible with- 
out over-working the staff, the written work of the 



Introduction. 27 

pupils muat be diminished, or the number of teachers 
increased. 

The work of correcting is not mere drudgery, and 
it is essential, not for the sake of the pupil 

11 r 1 TTT' 1 • Corrections. 

only, but of the teacher. Without written 
exercises she may imagine she is teaching, whilst her 
pupils are not learning. A lesson she felt to be good, 
she will find perhaps has been ill-adapted to the class, 
and therefore relatively bad. She will find she has 
not emphasised the important matters, she has given a 
confused picture in which one fails to see the wood 
for the trees. There are no teachers like one's own 
pupils if one will learn of them : they convict us of 
disorder, inaccuracy, vagueness, etc. 

It is important however that the teacher should be 
spared as much as possible unnecessary labour and 
waste of time. It is one of the most urgent duties of 
the head mistress to see that the teachers have not so 
much to do in the way of correcting, as to stupefy 
them, and deprive them of the time required for pre- 
paring lessons. The work of correcting should be re- 
duced as far as practicable for the teacher, and made 
as profitable as possible for the pupil. 

Suppose the teachers to be free after one o'clock, an 
hour may be given in the afternoon to correcting, and 
one in the evening. Language teachers, whose prepara- 
tion is light, might do more, those who give lectures less ; 
the work of correction must be fairly distributed, and 
a junior teacher trained to correct, by taking books 
first, and having these revised and given out in class, 
in her presence by a senior teacher. 

Very strict rules must be made regarding the giving 
up of books at the right time by the pupils, and their 



2 8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

being returned punctually in class by the teacher with 
Giving up explanations and comments. The books 
books. should always be in uniform, and some rules, 

e.g., respecting French being red, German, blue, etc., 
are very useful. Outside should be a label with the 
name of the pupil, the class and the boarding-house. 
This is important in the case of derelicts. All correc- 
tions should be made in red ink', and the exercise 
signed with the initials of the corrector. 

Suppose we have a foreign language exercise to be 
Giving out given out. The teacher should come into 
books. , class with memoranda of faults which have 
commonly occurred, and mention these to the class 
generally. Faults of mere carelessness should have a 
special indication in the book of the offender, and 
need not be spoken of further to the class. Each 
pupil should, before writing the next exercise, divide 
the page, write on one side correctly the sentence in 
which the fault occurred, underlining the words that 
were wrong, but on no account writing the mistakes 
again, and on the other explain why it was wrong. 

When an arithmetic paper has been set the teacher 
may read out the answer, and each girl write W or R. 
The papers may be then collected, and it will only re- 
main for the teacher to see whether the method was 
good. If not, she can write L W for " long way," give 
explanations at the next lesson, and have the sum done 
again. Slates should not be used, nor loose papers, for 
such exercises. 

If the paper is an essay, or answers to questions, 
the teacher should make notes of the subjects in 
which the class generally has gone wrong, and ex- 
plain these. She may select specimens of broken 



Introduction. 29 

figures, bad grammar, etc., but it is very profitable to 
read out good specimens ; it is a great help to us to 
see others succeed, when we have tried and failed, and 
there is nothing that many need more than a word of 
encouragement to make them feel able to try. One 
who has done well may be requested to enter good 
paragraphs in a book (what I think Dr. Kennedy called 
a " Golden Book ") for the benefit of the class, and the 
worst writers desired to copy it ; this would have done 
them no good, had they not tried and failed, but after- 
wards it helps us much to see how well another can 
express what we could not. The teacher may herself 
write in the book of the most painstaking pupil, things 
which she has failed to make clear, and ask her to copy 
that into the aforesaid book ; it will do her good and help 
others. Certain conventional marks may be agreed on, 
e.g., L would stand for wordiness, C P for common- 
place, S for satisfactory, G for good, Fig. for broken 
metaphors, etc. 

Diagrams and apparatus may be reckoned amongst 
time-saving things, but like ready-made, tpys 

, 11/^,1 ,Mi 1 Apparatus. 

these may be less profitable to children than » 
very simple things, which they put together themselves, 
and the more they make for themselves, the more they 
appreciate and profit by the labours of others. Fergus- 
son, lying on his back with a brown paper roll for a 
telescope, and watching the movement of the stars, 
learned more than many who are provided with an 
elaborate orery, and the Edgworths learned more 
about the reason of a rainbow from their glass of 
water, than many from the lens. As Miss Leonard 
has said in her paper, many things are not necessary 
in teaching elementary science, and it is a great 



30 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

pleasure to children to make anything for themselves. 
Here the kindergarten training will tell. For higher 
work well-equipped laboratories are good, but these 
are an expensive luxury, especially as new things are 
being constantly invented. 

Physiological models arealmostindispensableforclass 
teaching, and excellent botanical ones are obtainable. 
A museum in which lessons can be given, and specimens 
referred to, is very desirable for natural science, but 
children should have their own private ones. Maps of 
physical geography should be constantly before the eye, 
but wall maps of political and historical geography 
cannot be so well seen ; the teacher should be able to 
draw on the board or on paper, maps bringing out the 
special features of the lesson. It is understood that no 
class on history or geography is given without large 
maps both of space and time.^ 

Working models of pumps, archimedean screws, 
mechanical powers, and steam engines are within the 
reach of most, and some simple forms of orery. There 
is an inexpensive one with the world inside a glass 
globe, on which are engraved a few circles, and this 
removes the difficulty which most children feel on 
seeing a pair of globes. 

In former times when lessons were made less inter- 
Marks, esting, many ways were employed to keep 
reports, up attention. Place-taking, by which each 

prizes, . o' y 

place- child took down all above her who failed to 

^^ ^"^" answer a particular question. This was most 

distracting ; and so much depended on accident, that 

^ And here let me protest against the mischievous practice of having 
a round roller at the bottom, but a flat piece of wood at the top of maps. 
They are sure to be rolled on the latter and the map cut to pieces. 



1 



Introduction. 31 

it was impossible by means of it to arrive at any trust- 
worthy conclusions. Except for small children it has 
wholly gone out. The giving of counters has found 
more favour on the Continent, but this lends itself to 
barter, and anything which fosters the habit of con- 
sidering what we can get by knowledge, is destructive 
of that calmness, that " wise passiveness " which is as 
necessary for mental, as for physical assimilation ; it 
is equivalent to playing games, or running about during 
dinner-time. Some record there should be of each 
exercise, some " stock-taking " at intervals, and these 
intervals should for little ones be short, for time passes 
more slowly with them. If the head mistress each 
week looks over the mark-book in the presence of the 
class and the teacher, she is kept in touch with all, 
comes to know if there are girls who are wasting their 
time, and is able to give encouragement or reproof, 
and strengthen the hands of teachers. If there 
are a great number of lessons returned, she may find that 
a specialist is making unreasonable demands ; she sees 
if corrections have been omitted by the teacher — in fact, 
notices things which, if left to the end of the term, 
might have resulted in considerable mischief It is un- 
desirable, however, to take up much of the teacher's time 
in adding up marks, and placing pupil's in order of 
merit ; it may be left to individual class teachers to do 
as they think best ; there is no need in this for uni- 
formity of practice, and it is always well to give every 
teacher as much liberty in following her own methods, 
as is consistent with the general management. 

In language exercises the number of faults can be 
written at the end, and classified as mere careless ones, 
and those for which there is at least some excuse —  



32 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 



the former being counted double. In these and other 
exercises a maximum say often marks may be given; 
in many the teacher can give only a general estimate, 
but when returning books, she can show why she puts a 
higher estimate on one than on another. In junior 
classes the marks may be added, read with comments, 
and perhaps sent home each week. A sort of weather 
chart is used by us in the youngest classes — showing 
for each week whether they have risen or fallen in the 
number of marks. 



100 

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30 

20 

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Prizes, in part determined by work done at home, are 
dangerous, the temptation to get undue help is great ; 
a conscientious child will reject such assistance as would 
be really good for her, lest she should gain an unfair 
advantage. Prizes given on the result of examina- 
tions, provided they are given not to the best, but to all 
who have attained a certain standard, are less objec- 
tionable ; we cannot make it too clear that good may be 
better than best, and that the only praise we should 
desire is to hear : " She hath done what she could ", 



Introduction. 33 

Public prize-livings seem to me very undesirable. 
A terminal report parents may reasonably look for, 
and words of blame or encouragement may be made 
very helpful to the child. Punishments in the shape of 
doubled lessons, lines, etc., are objectionable ; if a duty 
has been neglected, or badly done, it has to be done at 
an inconvenient time — say in the afternoon. A fine 
may be required for untidiness and damage — in order 
to compensate others for trouble and expense, but 
to inflict a fine for breaking rules is altogether wrong. 
At a school I knew, where this was done, girls would 
deliberately break rules, e.g., talk at prohibited times, 
and say they were going to have " three pennyworth ". 
Into a matter of right and wrong, money cannot enter ; 
so also conduct prizes should, I think, never be given ; 
the proper reward for doing right is a good conscience, 
and the trust, friendship, respect of others. «/ 

Having lived through the pre-examination period, 
and seen the great evils which resulted useofex- 
from there being no test, I cannot join in aminations. 
the popular condemnation. There is no unmixed 
good, and many mistakes, which we learn to avoid 
later, are made when a system is new. I shall regard . 
examinations only from the point of view of their value 
educationally, (i) They are useful as a test of what 
we really know ; preparation for them enables us to 
find out what are our permanent possessions ; (2) com- 
petitive examination compels us to set these in order, 
and estimate their relative importance. (3) Examina- 
tions tend to produce presence of mind, mental self- 
control, (4) to suppress wordiness and abolish a florid 
style, and (5) to make us feel the supreme importance 
of clearness and accuracy. 

3 



34 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Examining is a difficult art, and examiners have to 
learn their metier. All are not perfect ; the process of 
reading papers is exhausting, and after reading ninety- 
nine, an examiner may fail to appreciate the exquisite 
thought and philosophic insight of the hundredth. It 
is possible he may form an erroneous opinion re- 
garding some unusual performance — there have been 
reviewers who failed to appreciate the early volumes 
of Wordsworth, Tennyson and Browning ; there are 
examiners, however, really sympathetic, laborious, and 
anxious to see what has been done (which is limited) 
rather than find out what has not been done (which is un- 
limited), and these may give much help both by their 
criticisms and their encouragement. It is good for all 
of us to have our work tested by a competent critic. 

An internal examination, if well conducted, is most 
valuable, as it can better follow the work, but on the 
other hand, many teachers feel that an internal exami- 
nation places them too much at the mercy of caprice, 
or personal feeling, and hence prefer a central one, 
such as the University Locals. 

Schools must insist on punctuality in returning, and 
Regular at- "^ unnecessary absences should be allowed. 
tendance. Children who are absent cannot follow the 
teaching in the next lesson, and laggards demoralise 
the class and distract the teacher, who feels she is not 
understood. 

In conclusion let me say the teacher must have the 

power of holding the class. She must be 

with the sensitive to the least inattention, quick to 

discern whether it is her fault or that of the 

pupil, and take her measures accordingly, acting always 

upon the wholesome maxim (which should never be 



Introduction. 35 

heard outside the common room), certainly never whis- 
pered to parents, that it is always the teacher's fault, 
if pupils do not learn. When she fails to establish the 
rapport between herself and her class, she must try to 
discover the cause of her failure. Young children, like 
wild animals, are tamed by the eye, and a class is con- 
trolled by a teacher who sees everything that goes on. 
If a teacher when using the board turns away and 
writes in silence, a restless child is almost sure to play 
some amusing trick, and it may take a considerable 
time to recover attention. If experiments are per- 
formed, the teacher, like the conjurer, should never 
cease talking or questioning. If she cannot manage 
to do both, she must have an assistant. 

She must avoid awkward tricks. I knew two very 
distinguished teachers whose lectures were j3j.ggg 
admirable, but one had a habit of pulling a manner, etc. 
tuft of hair, and another would stuff his handkerchief 
carefully into his folded hand, and then draw it out 
again — to the great distraction of the class. We have 
all heard of the parliamentary orator and his button. 

A study of the Pedagogical Seminary for August, 
1897, would be profitable to teachers careless about 
externals. The article is called " A Study in Morals ". 
The question was put in writing and answered by 
twenty-three boys and one hundred and sixty girls : 
" Reflect which teachers, from kindergarten to college, 
you have liked best, and been influenced most by, and 
try to state wherein the influence was felt. Account 
if you can for the exceptional influence of that par- 
ticular teacher. Was it connected with dress, manner, 
voice, looks, bearing, learning, religious activity, etc. ? 
Four out of five mentioned the manner of the teacher 



36 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

as exerting an influence. One in three speaks of the 
voice, one in four speaks of dress." These externals, 
as we are apt to call them, are the outcome of the 
personality, or they would not exert influence. We 
must therefore so order our inner being that manner, 
voice, dress, should express self-respect and unselfish- 
ness, right feeling, love of order, good taste. 

If I were writing a treatise on psychology, I might 
insist on the teacher's gaining an insight into the 
contents of the child's mind — what Herbart calls 
apperception-masses, but in this short introduction 
I can only touch on the subject. I subjoin a short 
list of books not too difficult for teachers. I conclude 
with a few common rules derived from psychological 
observation and a few practical hints for the school- 
room. 



37 



A FEW PRACTICAL PRECEPTS. 

This is not a treatise on psychology but a practical 
hand-book for young teachers. Before entering on the 
special subjects, it may be well to say something of 
the application of the principles which arc familiar to all 
who are trained, and dwell upon a few of the most im- 
portant. 

(i) There is the fundamental precept, awaken interest. 
Have you seen the Medusa spreading its tentacles idly 
on the waves ? Have you watched the change as it fastens 
on its prey ? So does the mind grasp that which is suit- 
able for its nourishment. As the intelligence of the child 
awakens, it no longer perceives in the lazy, dreamy way \\\ 
which the infant is conscious of a light ; it apperceives, 
takes into itself the object, the word, the thought, and 
grows thereby. 

(2) Avoid distractions. The senses and the mind 
must be fixed on the subject of instruction. When a, 
bird is to be taught to speak, he is placed in a dark room, 
shielded from the distractions of sight, until the words 
are acquired, then the use of other senses than hearing 
is permitted ; so little children require more quietness 
and isolation than older ones. 

Distractions are not all of sense. The mind is dis- 
tracted by fear. How dreadful are the old pictures of the 
dame, teaching rod in hand, or the master with his cane ; 
some may remember the music teacher ready to rap the 
knuckles, and know how all sense of harmony was 



38 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

destroyed. And it is so also with the seeking of rewards. 
I hope place-taking and prizes and scholarships will one 
day follow the rod and the cane, and children be led 
from their earliest years to feel, what is really natural to 
them, that knowledge is in itself a pleasure and a good. 

(3) Proceed from the known to the unknown. Observe 
the laws of association ; for this a teacher must be in 
intellectual sympathy with her pupils — know and feel 
by an inner sense, when mind is responding to mind. 
I have heard some so-called teachers, who spoke like a 
book, who were lecturers; they saw their own thoughts, 
but not those of their pupils, and were therefore unable 
to lead them on. E.g.^ if a sum was wrong, they would 
say, " Do it thus," instead of inquiring into the cause of 
the mistake. In questioning they would not try to see 
into the child's mind. 

It is more difficult to enter into intellectual sympathy 
with very little ones, hence we need specially able 
teachers for them. It is also better for class teachers 
not to change too often, as it takes time to get into 
sympathy with a new class. Of course specialists have 
to do this ; it is one reason why aeteris paribus they 
are less successful than class teachers. 

(4) Proceed in classifying by noticing first the like- 
nesses, then the differences — in other words, proceed from 
the genus to the species. There are some excellent 
chapters on this in Rosmini's Method of Education, 
translated by Mrs. Grey, p. 15. 

(5) Make lessons pleasant. This does not imply 
that the act of learning should be always easy or 
amusing. Children like to feel they are making 
progress, and a teacher wearies them who is always 
trying to be amusing, but does not really get them 



A few Practical Precepts. 39 

on. Porridge has a very plain taste, but for every- 
day fare even children prefer it to tarts for break- 
fast. A London confectioner was asked, if he did 
not find the many boys he employed make depre- 
dations. " No," he said, " when first they come I tell 
them they may eat what they like ; in a few days 
they make themselves sick and eat no more." There 
was a book called the Decoy, a story mixed with con- 
versations on grammar ; children always managed to 
get the story without the grammar. They like sums 
and history for regular meals, fairy tales for dessert. 

(6) Teaching umst be adapted to the mental state 
of the pupil, and be just a little above his unassisted 
intelligence. It is a worse fault to teach below than 
above the powers of the child. I shall never forget 
my indignation at having a book given me, which was 
below my powers, nor the stimulus of trying to do 
what was hard. One who was afterwards a distin- 
guished teacher, told me how the Maurice lectures 
helped him, by making him feel there were regions of 
thought on which he had not yet entered. Knowledge 
quite within reach does not promote progress. A 
friend who had a night school was told by its members, 
" We want to be taught something as we can't under- 
stand ". They meant something they could not learn 
without help ; they wanted to overcome difficulties. 

(7) Form right habits. We should as far as possible 
prevent the making of mistakes even once. A child 
when reading the Bible miscalled the word patriarch, 
reading it partridge ; when an old man, he never 
saw the word without recalling his error. Hence we 
should not give children misspelt words, or bad 
L^rammar to correct, or let them write exercises be- 



40 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

fore the ear has been cultivated to know what is 
right. I knew a music master who would anticipate 
mistakes, and stop the pupil, saying : " You shall 
not play that wrong note ". 

On the other hand each repetition of a right action 
makes it easier, and the prime work of the educator is 
to form right habits ; these should become instinctive, 
and so set free thought for ever higher and more per- 
fect performance. 

(8) Awaken and sustain the spirit of inquiry. We 
need, however, to be very careful not to ask questions, 
which the child cannot possibly answer. This en- 
courages mere guessing, and the habit of deciding upon 
insufficient data. We should question the pupils, and 
build on their knowledge, but as they get older the viva 
voce questioning may be overdone — and for the highest 
classes it would be simply a distraction. For these it 
is well to give questions to be thought out, and answered 
in writing. Pascal's father shut him up alone to find 
out the translation of a classical author ; there are so 
many helps now, that people rely upon them when they 
might gain vigour by grappling with difficulties. No 
intellectual habit is more essential than the habit of 
patient, sustained inquiry, that described by Newton 
when he said: " I keep the subject of my inquiry con- 
tinually before me, till the first dawning opens gradually 
by little and little to the perfect day ". 

(9) Foster intellectual ambition. Help the child 
to feel the joy of surmounting difficulties, of climbing 
the heights. This invigorates the intellectual life. Some 
can remember how, e.g., they grappled with the dull work 
of early mathematical study, that they might one day 
learn to solve the problems of astronomy, or went 



A few Practical Precepts. 41 

through the labour of learning irregular verbs, that they 
might read the poetry and philosophy of Greece. 

(10) Put before pupils the Jiighest ideals ivhich they 
can appropriate. These are not the same at each 
stage of development. The little child desires first to 
have something, and this is not wrong. Later it feels 
more the need of love, of approbation, and this is a 
legitimate and right motive ; it is generally his best 
guide, until he can exercise himself, irrespective of the 
outward voice, to have a "conscience void of offence". 
VVc have to teach him to discriminate voices which are 
in harmony with, from those in discord from, that in- 
ward voice, and to make this ultimately his supreme 
law. 

(11) The ultimate ideal or final cause should be 
implied in all that we teach, vis., the attainment of the 
perfect development of the individual, through bringing 
each into harmony with the environment, the universal, 
and thereby on the other hand helping to perfect the 
whole. For this, wisdom and self-denial and sympathy 
with the noblest and the best are to be sought, and 
above all with the One, the Infinite Wisdom revealed in 
Nature, in the world of thinking beings and in the self- 
conscious m.ind. All should feel in their inmost soul 
what Milton has expressed : — 

How charming is Divine philosophy, 

Not harsh and crabbed as dull fools suppose, 

But musical as is Apollo's lute, 

And a perpetual feast of nectared sweets, 

Where no dull surfeit reigns. 



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44 



PART I. HUMANITIES. 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE GENERALLY— READING, 
WRITING, GRAMMAR, COMPOSITION. 

By Dorothea Beale. 

I PROPOSE to treat in order of the different subjects 
of our school curriculum. The first of these is language 
generally. 

As a branch of formal instruction, we begin with 
reading. A more aggravating subject of dis- 
^^ '"^" pute can hardly be found than that which re- 
latestothe teachingof reading. The pure Frobellian will 
have none of it before the child is seven years old, and 
occasionally children do come to school unable to read, 
but with the senses awakened to all sorts of other rela- 
tions except that of articulate sounds to written forms. In 
spite of the reproaches of those who build the sepulchres 
of the prophets, we teach reading when a child seems 
ready for it, and maintain that the principles of Frobel 
are best carried out when we improve on his methods, 
and adapt ourselves to new circumstances ; we urge that 
the children from intellectual homes are different from 
the class of children with whom he had most to do. 

I would not press reading upon infants, nor require the 
When be- close and continuous attention that reading 
gun- implies, but as soon as the appetite for any 

special kind of knowledge is shown, we may conclude, 



English Language Generally. 45 

on Frobellian principles, that the child is fit for it. Our 
order is : (i) drawing, (2) writing, (3) reading. 

The kindergarten child has learned to draw lines, 
straight and curved, developing into simple pi^g^ ig^. 
objects and curious patterns — rude picture- ^ons. 
writing, it may be called. We lead on to writing in 
some such way as this. 

" How^ did men at first send silent messages to one 
another when they were far off? If you wanted a 
doll, you might draw a picture of one and send it to 
mother on your birthday. A man might make a" 
picture of a fish, and send it to a fisherman with a 
piece of money, and the fisherman would understand ; 
or one might want to sell a sheep, and send a pic- 
ture to his neighbour ; this would be easier than 
sending the sheep. In fact, the first letter of the 
alphabet is a rude picture of the head of an ox, V- 
People were not particular, as we see on old monu- 
ments, which way the letter stood, and so we have 
it sometimes topsy-turvy, sometimes sideways, <[ ; 
this is like a Greek alpha, y, (DC. Beth in Hebrew was 
a dwelling, two tents AA, Gimel T, the 
camel's head and long neck. Delta Pi, a door. 
Kappa K, a bird with its wings out. Rho P, a man's 
head. But with pictures only it is hard to make sen- 
tences ; e.g., if you wanted to say, " I have found some 
water," you might draw --n^, but you would have to 
find some way of showing whether you meant ' I 
have ' or ' I want ' ; and if somebody sent you the pic- 
ture of a man walking, you might not know whether you 
were expected to come or to go. It is hard to represent 
verbs by pictures, though it is so easy in speaking." 

Some pictures of Egyptian hieroglyphics and expla- 



46 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

nations will here be found to interest children much — 
part of their drawing lesson might be to copy a hiero- 
glyph alphabet. Then we might enlarge on the need for 
words to tell people what to do. Baby says '' mamma," 
" doll," " puss," but it wants also to say " come," "give," 
"go," and this cannot be pictured, so people seem to 
have tried to represent sounds by drawing a picture 
of the mouth making the different sounds. 

I suppose the first sound most babies make is a 
sort of mumbling, and if they open their mouths we 
get a sound like ma ; now in all languages via stands 
for mother, with some slight alterations. What is M 
like? Is it not much like a mouth shut up? and 
suppose you add a round shape to represent an open 
mouth you would get something like picture-writing 
7//. 6//. Vou might put the two side by side, a picture 
of a woman and ;;2^— the Egyptians often had the two 
signs. The next easy sound is pa, and this stands in 
all languages that I know, for father. How could this 
be written? If you say ap you will notice a move- 
ment of the lips, which open with a sort of bursting 
sound. We may represent that movement by a stroke 
and put a round after it to stand for the open mouth P. 
There is another sound very like P, but not quite so 
sharply said. We hear it in ab. We can make the 
stroke as before, and put the loop lower down, to 
show that ba is a quieter sound than pa — so shorthand 
writers make a long stroke for the b and a short one 
for /> ( I ^ I p) and put no loop. 

Thus we get three lip letters, but we can shut up 
the mouth in the middle — half shut it and we get n, 
which is half in. The breath will have to come of 
course through the nose. We can move the tongue 



English Language Generally. 47 

suddenly from the teeth and get d as in ad, and write 
a stroke as before, but put a loop representing the 
open mouth behind it ; the sound nearest to it which 
we hear in at would have the loop at the top, q, as 
we had in pa, but in our alphabet the loop has dis- 
appeared and we have only t. In shorthand we write 
a long horizontal stroke for d and a short one for /. 
Thus we have three dentals. 

We may also shut up the throat and let the breath 
g. ) through the nose, as in sing, or we may make the 
sudden movement quite in the throat. We could take 
the bird shape but think of the two strokes as if point- 
ing down the throat in K, and for the softer sound 
only one pointer T, this was the Greek G. We make 
it rounder at the bottom now. For the first of the 
throat sounds we have no single letter, but we write 
an ;/ to show it is a nose letter, and a ^ to show the 
shutting up is to be done in the throat. 

So now you see we have got nine letters — three 
made with the lips, three with the tongue near the 
middle of the mouth, three in the throat. Three are 
made by sending the breath through the nose, three 
are made by a sudden opening and sending the breath 
through it with force, and three by sending the breath 
more gently. The names given to these different sorts 
of letters 1 may now give and the shorthand signs : — ^ 



Lip letters - 
Tooth letters 


Nasals. 

- m ^ 

- n ^ 


Hard. 
P 1 
t - 


Soft. 
b| 
d — 


Throat letters 


- ng/^ 


k^ 


g U 


Reading books 


published by A. 


Chrysogon Beale 



1 1 give the characters of the script, which is much simpler for chil- 
dren than Pitman's. 



48 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

(Sonnenschein) are perhaps the best for beginners. 
There are coloured pictures of the mouth ; the deaf 
alphabet is given, and the words which are not written 
phonetically are gradually introduced. Sonnenschein's 
books are also good, and Miss Soames' hitroduction 
to Phonetics. 

Thus the child could be taught to observe the move- 
ments for articulation, be interested in early writings, 
and prepared to look intelligently at ancient monu- 
ments. 

In teaching, the sounds of the letters will be given 
of course, not their names, and the alphabet will 
be from the first classified, and a basis laid for philo- 
logical study. A shorthand alphabet will be learned 
side by side without trouble, and besides this, the 
pronunciation will be improved— all this without any 
over-pressure or giving any instructions unsuited for a 
small child. 

In a later lesson the meaning of an aspirate should 
be explained, and added to each of the mutes ; we then 
get four varieties under the heads of labial, dental and 
guttural. The sibilants, which are in some respects 
aspirates, may be classified, and the feeble lip aspirate 
in when (written in old English hwen) should be 
noticed. The relation of palatals / and r, and the 
different kinds of palatals, may be dwelt on. 

I give a comprehensive table, founded on one in 
Professor Key's volume on the alphabet. The three 
horizontal planes give gutturals, dentals and labials. 
The front plane the sharp mutes, the back the flat 
mutes ; the right plane the sharp aspirates, the left 
the flat aspirates ; the sibilants are classed as dental 
aspirates and the nasals appended. 



English Language Generally. 



49 



Other classifications are noticed in the paper on 
Spelling Reform. 



Qyo, 



(jf^ey 




The classification of vowels is more difficult, and it 
may be pointed out how easily these pass into one 
another. How difficult it is too for English people to 
sustain a pure vowel, o, without passing into u, a 
into ai. The vocal triangle as given in Brachet's dic- 
tionary, adapted from Helmholtz and Briicke, is per- 
haps most easily understood. 




OZ^ 



For those who do not use the alphabet of the muHre 
phonetique, tables such as those of Larousse should be 

4 



50 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

always at hand to hang on the wall, when French 
lessons are given. These tables enable one to draw 
attention to sounds which English people do not dis- 
criminate, or which offer special difficulty, e.g.^ e, c, e, 
ai's, az, ou, u, eu, e ; to the feebly nasalised vowels as in 
F TGnch pam, pronounced Anglice, pang ; to the forma- 
tion of the sound constantly changed by English people 
into ou, when a vowel follows, e.g., loui for lui ; to the 
proper pronunciation of moi, inwa, not nnvau ; to the 
addition of a syllable, as in deer for di-\-r; to the at- 
tractive power of labial consonants, making impossible 
inpossible, and so on. Systematic teaching saves much 
time. 

For older pupils it is an instructive and amusing 
exercise to work out the combinations of two vowels 
to produce a multitude of mixed or diphthongal forms ; 
such an exercise will do much to teach delicate dis- 
crimination of sounds, and it is important early to 
cultivate the ear and the vocal organs. I append the 
diphthong table — to read it proceed from one vowel to 
another, following the arrow head. 

The classification of letters is of the greatest impor- 
Tnterchange ^ance as the basis of linguistic study, and so 
of letters. the matter should early be made interest- 
ing and intelligible, not only for the sake of pro- 
nunciation, but as accounting for, and simplifying a 
great many rules of grammar, and enabling pupils 
to acquire quickly a large vocabulary, when they 
begin foreign tongues, by observing such laws as are 
expounded by Grimm and Vernier, and thus helping 
them later to recognise that there is such a thing as 
a science of language, something more than a weari- 
some list of empirical rules and unreasonable excep- 



English Language Generally. 



5 



tions. Thus reading, if taught as it should be, 
conforms to the psychological principles (i) that we 
should develop the powers of observation, (2) let the 
child do or make something, (3) show the uses of what 
is produced, (4) plant some root principles which may 
grow up and bear fruit in later studies, (5) associate the 
different studies wdth one another. The reason why 




teaching is often so dull, is that teachers do not take a 
large view of the field of instruction, but work like day- 
labourers, and adopt that fatal maxim, you should 
" throw it all off, out of school hours ". " I am a gentle- 
man after four o'clock," said a schoolmaster ! Now I 
should like those who are going to teach the alphabet 



52 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

to read Max Miiller's Science of Thought in their leisure 
hours. It is too ponderous a volume to buy — 660 pages 
— but it should be in the Teachers' Library. There is 
a most interesting chapter on the origin of roots, which 
he traces to imperatives. I need hardly say that the 
two volumes o{ Lectures on Language should be familiar 
to all, and that the teacher should work out roots for her- 
self after the model of " Mar ". She must not, however, 
bury the important things under a mass of erudition ; 
the larger her store the more should she be able to 
select by the discursive faculty (I ask pardon of Her- 
bart) what is most illustrative of her subject for the 
special class : it is very important to know what not to 
say. 

Melville Bell's Visible Speech is very instructive read- 
ing, and all should be familiar with Le Mestr. : Fonetig 
of Paul Passy. I abstain from recommending some 
of the very learned books " made in Germany ". These 
are not suited to persons of limited leisure, but are 
rather for the Grammarian who said : — 

Let me know all ! Prate not of most or least, 

Painful or easy, 
Even to the crumbs, I'd fain eat up the feast, 

Ay, nor feel queasy. 

If reading is begun early, taught in the way sug- 
gested, and the sounds insisted on, to the exclusion 
of the absurd spelling, which pretends to produce cat 
from see ay tee, children seem to get on slowly at first, 
but the progress is rapid, when they have once mastered 
the signs, i.e., as rapid as is possible with our caco- 
graphy. 

In an excursus I have insisted on the great impor- 
tance of reformed spelling. It is difficult to get people 



English Language Generally. 53 

to agree, but any system, Soames' or Pitman's or 
Bell's, would be better than our present chaos. If 
Government would give liberty to those who teach 
a phonetic system, things would improve, and chil- 
dren would easily read ordinary characters after- 
wards. All who write shorthand must spell phoneti- 
cally. 

Not only right articulation needs attention, but what 
is called voice production. The health of voice 
many a delicate girl may be greatly strength- Production. 
ened by habituating her to breathe as she ought, and the 
whole class of what are called clergymen's throats are in 
great measure, if not entirely due to the improper use 
of the organs of speech. There will be little difficulty 
later, if we, from the beginning, make children stand 
and breathe rightly, speak and read with due atten- 
tion to stops and emphasis, and to those subtle changes 
of voice on which expression depends so much. 

Children should never be allowed to learn a poem 
without preparation, or to memorise it by gabbling 
it over ; as well might we expect them to become 
musicians by rattling off pieces unstudied, without 
regard to time and accent. At first, the poems to be 
learned should be repeated viva voce by the teacher 
to the little ones. Later, a special study should be 
made of anything set to a class, and it should be 
learned by the mind, not the ear. In France and 
Germany a poem is not set until it has been discussed 
and explained, points of importance insisted on, special 
beauties, etc. 

A reading class should not be one in which each 
girl has to listen to the bad reading of another. I 
know no manual so good for the teacher, and for elder 



54 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

pupils, as Professor Meiklejohn's Expressive Reading. 
There are some good remarks in a brief paper by 
Mr. Birrell in Barnetfs Teaching and Organisation, 
and I may draw attention to page 131 of Spenser's 
chapters on Teaching, for all these books should be in 
the Teachers' Library. 

From the first, children should learn poetry by 
heart — poetry suited to their understanding. A child 
was heard to drone forth : — 

Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tower 
The lowing herd doth to the moon complain. 

The reflections of the poet were utterly uninteresting 
to him ; he did not perceive the absurdity of cows 
ascending a tower. 

I cannot sufficiently deprecate the setting of 
melodramatic pieces chosen not for their intrinsic 
beauty, but to show the power of execution — to 
borrow a musical term. The pieces learned need 
not be all poetry. Some of Hans Andersen's Mahr- 
chen are excellent. Scenes in which several can take 
part help to give animation. 

Throughout their school life children should con- 
Learning tinue to store their memory, during the years 
by heart. jj^ ^y^jch it is casy to learn, with masterpieces 
in prose and poetry ; because learning by heart was for- 
merly overdone it is much neglected now. These early 
acquisitions are a treasure all one's life. Familiarity 
with really good writers is the first thing necessary 
for writing well ; it is good to let children write from 
memory passages learned instead of giving dictation. 

Looking at the higher aspects, I can hardly ex- 
ae^crcrate the importance of e^ettincr children 

Recitation. ^^ , -if , i- , • , 

to speak wMth the understand mg and right 



English Language Generally. 55 

expression ; for this teachers must make them enter 
into the meaning of the writer, realising the imagery, 
the feelings, the thoughts ; this calls out right emo- 
tion, and thus elocution becomes of no small 
value as a part of moral training. Plato dwells 
much on the influence for good or evil upon the 
actor who realises the character he represents, and 
as Aristotle has said that through the drama one may 
purify the soul, so we may help our pupils to feel 
all the grand music of our great poets, and to enter 
with fuller sympathy into the teaching of the sacred 
scriptures of the world. 

There is an excellent article in the volume of 
Special Reports issued by the Education Office by 
Mr. Dale of Merton College, from which I give ex- 
tracts. 

*' Before the reading of Geibel's poem on Frederick 
Barbarossa (the story of the sleeping kaiser who wakes 
to grasp the sceptre once more) a scholar was bidden 
to relate the fairy tale of the sleeping princess. 

" The analysis of the piece into sections was giv^en, 
each with a brief title indicating its subject-matter, 
and the exposition of their relation to one another, 
showing it had a distinct purpose and value." 

The practice of composition may begin systematic- 
ally in quite early years. Mr. Dale has oraicom- 
given an interesting account of the way in position, 
which children are taught orally, and one who attended 
a Ferien-Kursus at Jena has explained the matter fully 
to me. First, the teacher always insisted upon answers 
to questions being complete sentences. I quote once 
more from Mr. Dale, but the whole article should be 
read. 



56 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

" The first division of the subject in the German 
code is 'exercises in speaking' \ and the careful and 
admirable training in oral expression is worthy of 
special attention. It is of frequent occurrence to 
hear a boy when called upon for an answer speak with 
but little hesitation for two or three minutes, using 
grammatical and connected language, and displaying 
a vocabulary which might have been supposed to be 
too wide for any but adults. This result is the work- 
ing, primarily, of a principle which has always lain 
deep in the German conception of teaching, and which 
has been reinforced by the influence of Herbart and his 
followers, that in every lesson the child should take an 
active part. It is given as a precept to every seminar 
student, ' Let the teacher speak little, the children much'. 

" The teaching of composition is one of the most 
valuable parts of the work done in the German schools. 
It is begun at a very early age and practised steadily 
throughout the course. 

" The composition is conducted by word of mouth. 
' Who,' asks the teacher, ' can give me a sentence to 
begin the first section ? ' One is suggested, and criti- 
cised. 'Can any one else give me a better?' The 
others then suggest, if necessary with a little help, 
their variants, and finally one version is accepted. 
In the case of the youngest children this is written 
on the blackboard. The same process is pursued 
with each section till the piece is finished. With the 
older boys the blackboard is not used, save for the 
titles indicating the outline of each section. The class 
then writes it out from memory. 

" The fundamental presupposition of this method is 
the inability of young pupils to compose and think 



English Language Generally. 57 

out a series of ideas without much assistance, even 
though the subject be a famiHar one. Their thoughts 
need concentration and guidance, and this help is 
given them by the working out of the matter in class. 
Yet individual liberty of expression is by no means 
sacrificed. The sentences are the children's own, and 
for the purpose of good composition the oral method 
is invaluable. It proceeds on the sound principle that 
a child should be taught to test style by the ear and 
not by the eye alone. It makes short work of a 
lumbering period. 

" On the other hand, the activity and interest of 
every scholar are kept up by the desire to improve 
on his fellows, and to have his own version accepted. 
Constant practice, moreover, is gained in the art of 
finding synonyms, and it affords an admirable oppor- 
tunity of instruction in grammar and orthography. 
Indeed, the practising school at Jena, following a 
suggestion of Professor Ziller, removes grammatical 
explanations altogether from the reading piece, and 
transfers them to the child's own composition, an 
expedient which avoids the fault of defacing the 
beauty and unity of a poem by picking it to pieces 
for the sake of illustration." 

Sometimes a picture is used to form' a subject of 
conversation, questioning and explanation. Thus is 
the valuable power of oral composition formed, a good 
vocabulary obtained, taste cultivated, and that respect 
for the mother tongue which is so sadly wanting in 
many P2nglish people. Children gain a facility in 
writing which no dissection into different clauses, 
enlargements of predicates, etc., can give. Rules are 
introduced with the reasons for such rules, and only 



58 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

at last a grammar is placed in the pupil's hands — 
even as a Euclid is given when it is all known. I 
have heard a small kindergarten boy stand up and 
give in a clear and quiet way quite a long story which 
he had studied. The habit of accurate expression will 
thus be formed and the thought become clear, for it is 
language alone which gives form and body to thought 
— gives it " a local habitation to a name ". 

In the higher schools, Mr. Dale writes, the practice 
of oral composition is continued (p. 573) : — 

" The practice of oral paraphrase which we saw 
existing in the elementary schools here reaches its 
climax. The scholars are bidden to prepare a scene 
or passage of some author, or to read up some period 
of literary history at home. The next morning, before 
the lesson begins, one of them is called upon to 
give a summary of what he has read, a sort of short 
essay by word of mouth — lasting three or four minutes, 
and souietimes even longer. The correctness both of 
style and matter, with which this difficult task is per- 
formed, needs to be heard in order to be fully appreciated 
at its true value. It combines many of the advantages 
gained from a debating society with those of an essay. 
It cultivates readiness of speech and thought, while, 
like an essay, by enabling the teacher to gauge the 
points on which interest has centred, it lends him a 
proper starting-place for his lecture." 

This oral composition tells very advantageously 
upon the written work, and could be introduced more 
generally into English schools ; but from quite early 
years children should be accustomed to write answers 
to questions upon their lessons, or to tell something 
that they know^ Later, subjects may be given to be 



English Language Generally. 59 

thought out or a resume given of a lesson ; and lastly 
the pupils of the higher class required to read up a 
subject, and write upon it, or compose an essay. 

As regards the formal teaching of English grammar, 
I shall say but little. I may instead refer ^ 

-' ^ Grammar 

my readers to the long and interesting paper taught in- 
by Dr. Abbott in the volume edited by Mr. "^^'^^>'' 
Barnett, and to his book. How to Tell the Parts of 
Speech. The system he recommends will form a 
good foundation for the acquisition of foreign tongues. 
Pupils are led to make their own definitions, and in 
part their own grammar. A class thus taught French 
by our present Mistress of Method were astonished 
and delighted to find they knew already the chief 
rules of their French grammar, when at length 
it was placed in their hands. It is impossible and 
unnecessary to insist upon all grammatical forms being 
obtained inductively ; life is too short to carry it out 
in all its details, and so the tabulation and learning 
of various paradigms becomes necessary ; but pupils 
should learn to form them. I am sure there is much 
less use in the old-fashioned parsing exercises than is 
generally supposed; parsing becomes mechanical; nine- 
tenths of what they have to write children know, and 
need not think about, and when sentences are given to 
parse, certain words only should be underlined for 
parsing. I first questioned its usefulness when I 
found at school that one who was so dull, that we 
used to regard her as somewhat of an idiot, always 
came to the top when we took places for parsing. 
What the French call analyse logique — classifying 
all words and phrases according to their function in 
the sentence — is valuable. 



6o Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Mr. Blakiston in his School MaiiagejiieJit G^ndor^Q^ this 
Logical and view, and recommends the teaching of logi- 
tlcaiTnaiy- ^^^ GWQw beforc grammatical parsing. Mr. 
sis- Fearon in School Inspection writes : " What 

is wanted is to get as quickly as possible a notion 
of the structure of the sentence, and the logical re- 
lation of its parts. The teaching of English should 
be based on the analysis of sentences. Some may 
think the teaching of English grammar by means of 
logical analysis more difficult than the old method. I 
am perfectly convinced from observation and experience, 
both as a teacher and as an inspector, that this is not 
the case. They are not more difficult than the terms 
which it is necessary to use in teaching grammar on 
the old system. The great point is to make children 
have an intelligent understanding of the real things 
which underlie them and which they represent." 

Professor Woodward {Monographs on Education) 
writes : " There is need of preparatory drill in forms 
and language study, to bring a child to the intelligent 
study of construction, but this done, the analytical 
method of sentence-study commends itself Intelli- 
gence is called into play, for the pupil is no longer 
studying words as words, but as the expression of 
thought ; memory is subordinate and reason to the 
front — nouns, verbs, etc., are in some languages stamped 
with distinguishing marks, and can be recognised by 
their forms, but in English the power of any word and 
its influence in the sentence are rarely dependent on its 
form ; the part of speech cannot be determined at sight, 
but by its connection and dependency." 

The analysis of sentences is of course very important 
in the study of foreign languages. Hosts of rules about 



English Language Generally. 



6i 



conjunctions, governing moods, etc., can be discarded 
if once children can recognise a dependent sentence. 
Various models of analysis are given in all good gram- 
mars. Here is a form which has many recommenda- 
tions as showing clearly the structure of a complex 
sentence : — 





Sentence. 


I 


The man > 


2 


who 


3 


wrote 


4 


that letter 


5 


said 


6 


that 


7 


he 


8 


would return J 


9 


but 


o 


he 


I 


did not 



Dependent. 

subj. of 3 1 

pred. of 2 r adjective 

obj. of 3 J 



Principal. 
subject of 5 

extension of i 

predicate of i 



conj. 

subj. of 8 ^ 

pred. of 7 / substantive ^ object of 5 

conj. 

subj. of II 
pred. of 10 



Another matter which should have great attention 
is the use of tenses. There is nothing perhaps so diffi- 
cult for foreigners to acquire as the power of discrimi- 
nating tenses. Owing to the want of the present and 
future imperfect in French verbs, many children get an 
idea that imperfect means past, and few know until 
they learn Greek that " I have written "is a present 
tense. Such a table as this can be used to contrast 
languages : — 



Indefinite. Imperfect. Perfect. 

Present I write am writing have written 

Past Wrote was writing had written 

Future Shall write shall be writing shall have written 



62 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

The authors of the Parallel Grammar Series have 
sought to reduce the time occupied in learning grammar. 
In one book the general rules only need be given, and 
the variations from these rules appear in other gram- 
mars. Thus the tiresome repetitions in each gram- 
mar of the letters of the alphabet — the definitions of 
the parts of speech of many rules regarding concords 
— could appear once for all. 

Let me in conclusion quote a portion of the resolu- 
tions concerning the teaching of English passed by the 
Conference called by the Committee of Ten.^ 

" The main direct object of the teaching of English 
in schools is (i) to enable the pupil to understand the 
expressed thoughts of others and to give expression to 
thoughts of his own ; and (2) to cultivate a taste for 
reading, to give the pupil some acquaintance with good 
literature, and to furnish him with the means of extend- 
ing that acquaintance. Incidentally, other ends may 
be subserved, but such subsidiary interests should never 
be allowed to encroach on the two main purposes. 
Though it may be necessary to consider these separ- 
ately, in practice they should never be dissociated in the 
mindof the teacher, and their mutual dependence should 
be kept constantly present to the mind of the pupils. 

" If the pupil is to secure control of the language as 
an instrument for the expression of his thoughts, it is 
necessary (i) that during the period of life when imi- 
tation is the chief motive principle in education, he 
should be kept so far as possible away from the in- 
fluence of bad models and under the influence of good 
models, and (2) that every thought which he expresses, 

^ Report of the Committee of Ten on secondary studies, 1892, 
Washington. 



English Language Generally. 6^ 

whether orally or on paper, should be regarded as a 
proper subject for criticism as to language. Thus 
every lesson should become a part of the pupil's 
training in English. There can be no more appro- 
priate moment for a brief lesson in expression than 
the moment when the pupil has something which he is 
trying to express. 

" In addition to this incidental training, appropriate 
special instruction in English should form a part of 
the curriculum from the beginning. This special in- 
struction may be considered under three heads : A. 
Language and composition. During the first two 
years at school, children (under eight) may acquire some 
fluency of expression by reproducing orally in their 
own words stories told them by their teachers, and by 
inventing stories about objects and pictures. 

" In the third school year children should begin to 
compose in writing ; they should copy and write from 
dictation and from memory short and easy passages of 
prose and verse. 

*' The subjects assigned should gradually increase in 
difficulty. (The paraphrasing of poetry is n(jt to be 
commended.) Pains should be taken to improve the 
child's vocabulary by suggesting to him, for the ex- 
pression of his thoughts, better words than those he 
may himself have chosen. He should also be trained 
to perceive the larger divisions of thought which are 
conventionally indicated by paragraphs. The teacher 
should bear in mind the necessity of correctness in the 
formation of sentences and paragraphs. 

" Compositions and all other written exercises should 
receive careful and appropriate criticism, and the staff 
of instructors should be large enough to protect every 



64 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

teacher from an excess of this peculiarly exacting and 
fatiguing work. 

" B. Formal or systematic grammar. Not earlier than 
twelve years of age the study of formal grammar, 
with drill in fundamental analysis, may be taken up. 
It should not be pursued as a separate study longer 
than is necessary to familiarise the pupil with the main 
principles. Probably a single year will be sufficient. 
Subsequently, although grammatical analysis may 
properly accompany reading and the study of com- 
position, it should not be regarded as a separate subject 
in the curriculum. The teaching of formal grammar 
should aim principally to enable the pupil (i) to 
recognise the parts of speech, and (2) to analyse sen- 
tences both as to structure and as to syntax. Routine 
parsing should be avoided. 

"With regard to the study of formal grammar the 
Conference wishes to lay stress on three points: (i) 
a student may be taught to speak and write good 
English without receiving any special instruction in 
formal grammar ; (2) the study of formal grammar is 
valuable as training in thought, but has only an in- 
direct bearing on the art of writing and speaking ; and 
(3) the teaching of formal grammar should be as far 
as possible incidental, and should be brought into close 
connection with the pupil's work in reading and com- 
position. These principles explain the considerable 
reduction recommended by the Conference in the 
amount of time allowed to this study. 

" The best results in the teaching of English in high 
schools cannot be secured without the aid given by 
the study of some other language. Latin and German 
are especially suited to this end. 



English Language Generally. 6^ 

" Every teacher, whatever his department, should 
feel responsible for the use of good English by his 
pupils." 

One would Hke to say much on the study of language 
generally, and not only of its mere formal elements — 
of the " fossil poetry " to be found in figures of speech ; 
of the metaphors which express the same thought in 
different languages. . I give the names of some useful 
books, but there are many other good grammars. 



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TO XI 

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U y U 0.£ 






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S^ • • •• 

CU in O "5 

C -C 

!S is ~— " F ** c 



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otQ S 



;S S 



S ti S VOVO 



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>> W. « « S •" 4) 



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67 



CLASSICAL STUDIES. 

By W. H. D. Rouse, M.A., formerly Fellow of Christ's College in 
Cambridge, and a Master at Rugby School. 

It were idle to expect that classics can be studied with 
the same thoroue^hness in skirls' schools as 
in boys. Girls schools have grown up with girl's educa- 
other traditions ; music and drawing and ^'°"' 
modern languages have so long been the staple of a 
girl's education, that it is perhaps too late now to 
make any radical change. Nor is it clear that even 
if possible, it would be well to substitute classics for 
these subjects. If the object of girls' education be, 
as many think, not so much to turn out finished scholars 
as to give an intelligent and sympathetic interest in 
life, this can be better achieved by grafting classics 
upon the existing curriculum, than by ousting other 
studies for the sake of these. Nevertheless, there will 
be many whose aim it is to give themselves to teach- 
ing as a profession, and some who are scholars born, 
and willing to spend their life in research and study. 
A good school must provide for these ; and we have to 
consider how to combine the interests of both classes. 
The result will naturally be a compromise : the average 
pupil getting less than the average boy gets, while the 
few specialists will need to make up for lost time, and 
to compress their work into a shorter period than is 
usually given to it. The object of teaching will be the 



68 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

same in any case : a mastery of the matter perfect as 
far as it goes ; and at the outset, the methods will be 
much the same. 

It is scarcely necessary to insist on the value of Latin 
Importance ^^r every educated man or woman. It is not 
of Latin in Q^ly valuable as a thoroup^h training of the 

all schemes '^ /=> o 

of higher mind, in close reasoning and unremitting 

education. ^.i. x." i • . ^i 

attention ; nor only as opening to the 
student a literature of great interest : it is actually 
useful in a practical way. It is the key to all the 
Romance languages ; Latin once mastered, French 
and Italian, Spanish and Portuguese are brought within 
easy reach. Almost all that has then to be learnt is 
the grammar of these languages ; for the body of the 
words is already familiar. Certainly much study and 
practice will be needed before these languages can be 
spoken ; but is it nothing to be able to read ? Men 
who are preparing for the Civil Service in India learn 
Sanskrit ; not because the Government is interested in 
the training of their minds, but because this is the key 
to the spoken dialects of India. As this dead language 
is practically useful in learning Hindi or Bengali, so 
Latin is practically useful in learning Italian or French. 
Then again, the grammatical drill is much more rigid 
and effective in teaching Latin than in teaching French, 
Italian, or even German. The relation of action to 
object, the subordination of thought to thought, the 
dependence of an oblique statement, all become clear 
to the mind in English or French when they have 
been made clear to the eye by Latin. Nor must we 
forget that without Latin no one can really understand 
English, especially the English of such writers as 
Milton and Bacon. And besides these advantages, 



Classical Studies. 69 

Latin has a direct use in several professions, which are 
now or may yet be open to women : in medicine, in 
the law, in letters ; and even in business a knowledge 
of it, as already pointed out, will enable any one to 
become fit for foreign correspondence with far less diffi- 
culty than otherwise. 

We will assume, then, that Latin will be begun 
even in girls' schools early enough (say at thirteen 
or fourteen) to get through the grammar, without 
undue pressure, by the time the specialist will wish 
to begin Greek. There may be at that time a certain 
amount of work yet to get through which a boy of 
the same age would have done ; but this will have 
to be done more quickly, that is all. It must not be 
slurred or neglected, certainly ; but the student will 
probably find that the work progresses at a rather 
quicker rate than might be expected, because the 
mind is already better trained and stored than is 
usual at that stage of the study. 

The right method of teaching a language may be 
put in a nutshell : grammar, reading, writing The right 
and conversation should go side by side. t^ach?ng°a 
For convenience, and because of the impor- language. . 
tance of the subjects, grammar and exercises in com- 
position will naturally have special times assigned to 
them ; but they should never be left out of sight. 
No construing lesson ought to be done without some 
grammatical drill, or without a few sentences of con- 
versation, which is in fact composition in brief The 
importance of grammar can hardly be over- (i) Gram- 
estimated ; and the first thing the learner "^''^^• 
must understand is that the skeleton of the language, 
the inflections, have to be known by heart. A know- 



yo Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

ledge of cognate languages may help, and compara- 
tive tables of forms may help both intelligence and 
memory, but in the end it all comes to the same 
thing : however the pupil may have learnt them, he 
must be prepared to say off his declensions and con- 
jugations from memory in the usual tabular form. 
There are, in this slipshod age, those who affect to 
despise precise knowledge, such as geographical names 
and facts, historical dates, and the paradigms of a 
To "learn grammar. " Learn by reading" is their motto 
by reading" in language ; a most false and pernicious 

not sufficient. ... , . -r r i 

prmciple, as 1 can testily from sad expe- 
rience. It has been my lot to learn one or two 
languages sufficiently well to enable me to read in 
them, and I grieve to relate that in these I shirked 
the drudgery of the grammar. The result is that 
although a certain amount of grammar has soaked 
in, I cannot yet read without a manual by my side. 
The most such a method can do is to give the 
general sense of a sentence ; but it often fails to do 
even that, inasmuch as the general sense of a sentence 
is made up of the precise sense of its parts. Exact- 
ness in understanding is not to be had without paying 
the price, and the price is an exact knowledge of 
grammar. The rottenness of this system is shown 
when it comes to writing ; and the productions of 
these empirics might well make Quintilian stare and 
gasp. Thus, however the grammar may be taught 
to begin with, the class should always have handy 
some book containing just the facts of the lan- 
guage, arranged in the usual fashion, and not en- 
cumbered with exercises. They will need this in the 
end, and they may as well have it at the beginning. 



Classical Studies. 71 

The most useful books of the kind are Kennedy's 
Revised Latin Primer (or Postgate's Neiv Latin 
Primer, which is in some respects better, notably in 
the marking of quantities) and Abbott and Mansfield's 
Greek Grammar. If no book of exercises is used, it 
is hardly necessary to say that these books cannot be 
learnt straight through from cover to cover. Indeed, 
the very first pages of both are unintelligible to be- 
ginners. In that case the teacher must himself select 
what is to be learnt ; and the tables which follow 
(pp. 87-8) are meant to assist in this. 

As soon as the pupil is able to understand a simple 
sentence, he should begin to use some read- (2) Reading 
ing book. One of the most satisfactory 1° ^oonTs" 
Latin readers I have had to do with is possible. 
Abbott's Dux Latinus ; some of the books err in not 
being simple enough in the structure of the sen- 
tences. Equally good and more easy to work with 
are the cheap Single Term Readers of Messrs. Riv- 
ington. The sooner the pupil can be put on to a 
genuine classical author, the better. Eutropius, Nepos 
or Phcedrus is better suited for beginners than Ccesar ; 
CcBsar will come next. Stories from Ovid may follow, 
and some of Cicero's lucid and interesting narrative ; 
the best selection is that of Wal ford (Clarendon Press). 
Virgil may be well begun in Allcroft's Story of ^neas 
(Blackie). Once the pupil has attained this stage, 
further selection should be easy ; only, be it said, too 
many notes spoil the scholar. 

The student will be able sooner to tackle an author 
in Greek than in Latin, because of the greater simplicity 
of the language. In a very short time he ought to 
pass on to the excellent Clarendon Press Easy Selec- 



72 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

tions from Xenophon, or some adaptation of stories 
from Herodotus, or parts of Lucian. He may then 
take one of the Rugby Scenes from Greek Plays 
(Rivingtons), and the easier parts of Thucydides, as 
edited in Rivington's Middle Form Greek Readers. 
In the construing lesson, the teacher will of course 
try to ijive each pupil a small portion to 

Construing. , , • i i r r 

translate ; and with a class of twenty-five 
this can easily be done in three quarters of an hour, 
leaving time for questions. He will then go through 
the passage himself, asking a question or two now 
and then to rivet their attention ; and then one and 
another should be called upon to decline or con- 
jugate as many of the words (regular as well as 
irregular) as can be got into the time. It is need- 
less to insist that constant practice is necessary 
in grammar and parsing. In this manner the acci- 
dence will be kept fresh in the mind, and at last 
(it is to be hoped) firmly impressed upon it. But 
one most important aid to learning is so often 
neglected, that it will be necessary to speak about 
(3) Conver- ^^ rather fully. This is conversation. First 
sation. jg^ ^ig g^y that nothing is meant resembling 

the method of Gouin. What may be the merits of 
that method in the case of French or German, it 
is needless to ask here ; but I am confident that a 
syntax and accidence so elaborate as those of Greek 
could not possibly be taught by that method in any 
reasonable time, and I do not believe they could be so 
taught at all. Simple conversation can be begun as 
soon as the pupil begins to read. We will suppose 
the reading book contains the sentence. Post triduum 
Ccesar equitatum ad Labienum misit. The teacher will 



Classical Studies. 73 

ask, Quid fecit Ccesar ? and the pupil must be made 
to answer, at first by prompting if necessary, j^^^ ^^ ^^ 
Misit equitatum Ccesar. The next question ^^d- 
may be, Ad quern misit equitatum ? the reply, Ad 
Labieniun misit equitatum CcEsar. Other questions 
may be got out of this short sentence ; such as Quis 
misit ? quid ? quando ? The class should be made 
to give always a complete sentence in reply. At 
first they may have the book open before them ; 
but so soon as they are used to the sound of the 
words, they should be made to shut the book and 
answer from memory. Five minutes at the end of 
a lesson is not much to give, and it is surprising 
how this kind of thing quickens interest and memory. 
The pupils find the advantage when they its great 
sit down to write their exercises, for now advantages, 
the words and constructions come quickly into 
the mind. Moreover, they will find that they have 
learnt unconsciously the difference in emphasis which 
position makes ; for it will be observed that in the 
simple answers given above, the words which answer 
the question, and are therefore the most important, 
come first in the answer. The teacher should ring 
the changes on his reading exercise in this way, 
until after a term or two he will be able to begin 
talking to them on other subjects : such as the 
weather, the pictures on the walls, the pupils' dress, 
their inky fingers, anything that occurs to him. He 
must take every opportunity of dropping in the 
accusative and infinitive, a phrase of purpose or 
consequence, or the like ; and thus, without much 
trouble, these bugbears will be got rid of If a pupil 
can answer no more than Nescio quid dicaSy it is 



74 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

something that he uses the subjunctive in a dependent 
question. 

But it will be asked, where are the teachers to be 
A difficulty found who can do this ? The answer is, that 
"^et. it is perfectly easy to learn, and only needs 

practice. The teacher will have his own book open 
before him, and need not go beyond its words till he 
has gained confidence ; then by degrees he will do it 
more and more easily, and in a while talking will come 
quite naturally to him. In more discursive conversa- 
tions, it is true, some preparation will be necessary, but 
it is quite worth the while. There are one or two little 
books that teachers will find useful,^ but they will best 
make their own collections. A few hours' reading will 
give an ample store of colloquialisms from Plato, 
Aristophanes and Lucian, from Plautus, Terence, and 
Cicero's letters. It is not a bad plan to compile lists 
of colloquial sentences, say a hundred, and make every 
pupil learn them by heart. 

It may be worth while saying that the writer has 
A practical tested this method, and found it practicable 
test. ^ith young and old. Moreover it has been 

applied, within his knowledge, to the teachingof Russian, 
a language hardly less difficult than Greek ; and it is 
found possible, by combining conversation, reading, 
writing and learning by heart, to teach even obtuse per- 
sons how to read an ordinary novel or newspaper, to 
write a social or official letter, and to converse on ordi- 
nary topics, in three months, although before they began 
this course they knew not even the Russian alphabet. 

^Sprechen Sie Attisch? loannides: Koch, Leipzig, 1889. Sprechen 
Sie Lateinisch ? Id. Sargent, Greek Prose Composition. Blackie, 
Gr. Conversation. 



Classical Studies. 75 

For Latin composition the teacher can hardly do 
better than begin with Abbott's Via Latina ; ^^^ compo- 
for Greek, Ritchie's Practical Greek Method ^^^io"- 
is to be recommended, though not so unreservedly. 
What books are best to follow up with may be seen 
from the lists given below. But after all, it is not 
books that teach, so much as the teacher ; and he had 
better fix on the subjects that are to be taught at each 
stage, and select or make the exercises necessary to 
teach them. 

Every exercise will of course be corrected, and the 
pupil should never pass on without having 
written out a correct translation of the exer- hints for 
cise himself. If it is practicable, the best '^^^ '"^''' 
thing is for him to be told his mistakes, and then to 
rewrite the exercise, doing it again and again until 
it is right. But if time permits not this, the teacher 
may do a good deal to encourage self-help by going 
round the class whilst they are writing, and under- 
lining all mistakes, which the pupils are then to 
correct, if they can. As soon as possible, pieces 
of continuous prose should be done as well as 
sentences ; and this can be begun quite early, in fact 
after a couple of terms' work. The same plan of 
underlining mistakes may be followed with these ; but 
it will be found advantageous, as the work increases in 
difficulty, to give more and more often fair copies of 
the teacher's, or by some other competent person. In 
all composition it is useful to dictate the fair copy, and 
then to give a few minutes for the class to learn it. 
The class should then be called up, the copy taken 
away, and the English should be translated viva voce. 
Of course any reasonable translation will be accepted ; 



76 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

it is not meant that only the very words of the copy 
given will do. Let the old pieces be done over now 
and again at sight ; and the results cannot fail to be 
good. 

Most of the exercise books have explanations pre- 
Type-sen- fixed to each exercise, with examples. All 
learnt by ^^ '''^^h examples, or at least one of each con- 
heart, struction, should be learnt by heart. The 
same should be done with the syntax rules of any 
grammar which may be in use. These should all be 
so well drilled into the pupils, that when a rule is 
given, or a heading, or (for beginners) the English 
meaning, the pupils should be able to reel off the 
example without hesitation. A certain portion of 
syntax, or of the exercise book, or both, should be 
set for eaich stage ; and the classes which are studying 
that part of the subject must learn these, and keep up 
the old work. The reading book will give plenty of 
opportunity to ask for these quotations, and it should 
constantly be done. The oftener the pupil repeats 
his example of the instrumental ablative, or whatever 
it may be, the better he will know it ; and he cannot 
know it too well. The pupil should be tested and 
kept up to the mark by regular grammar papers, at 
least twice a term. 

Unseen translation should be commenced as early 
Unseen ^^ possible, and form part of the regular 
translation, work. Beginners can try some unpre- 
pared piece out of their reading book, which they 
must do on paper, and without help, except that 
they will use the vocabulary. As soon as the 
pupils are far enough on to use a dictionary, some 
special book of unseens should be taken, such as 



Classical Studies. 77 

Jerram's Anglice Reddenda. The use of helps can 
be gradually discontinued, until the pupil is weaned 
from them altogether. This can be done by forbidding 
T dictionaries, and giving the meanings of the more 
unfamiliar words, fewer and fewer by degrees. 

As soon as the pupil has begun to read a verse author, 
repetition should be begun, and never after- 
wards discontinued. Verse is easier to learn, ^^ ' '°"' 
so with verse we begin ; but pieces of prose for learning 
should be set later. It is useful to make the repeti- 
tion a part of the terminal examination, and to have 
every word of it written out. A Greek play and 
a book of Virgil should be chosen (say the Medea, 
or the CEdipus Tyr annus, and the IVth or Vlth 
Alneid), together with the Heroides of Ovid, and if 
time allows, one of the speeches against Catiline and 
a Philippic of Demosthenes. These can be divided 
into portions, a portion for each form or class, and 
it should be understood that this has to be learnt 
during the term and kept up afterwards. The ex- 
amination will simply consist in writing out all the 
portion learnt during the term, and all the old work, 
if any. As the work will always be the same, the older 
pupils will soon get to know it perfectly. The system 
here recommended has been used in one great school 
for perhaps a quarter of a century, and the results 
have been excellent. 

iWe will now suppose that the accidence and syntax 
are fairly well known, and that the pupil is ^ . , 
ready to read a book of Virgil or a speech work more 



^)f Cicero, Euripides or Demosthenes, with- ^ ^^"^^ ' 
out serious difficulty. The methods followed will not 
:hange ; they will merely be applied more widely. 



7 8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

The grammar will need to be kept fresh by the same 
means as before, and the study will be made more 
intelligent by use of the comparative and historical 
methods ; ^ construing will be done in the same order, 
but some style will be expected ; composition will be 
worked by means of correction and fair copies, but the 
pieces chosen will be harder, and here, too, style will 
be more attended to ; conversation will by this time 
have become easy and interesting, and will cover a 
What is to wider range of ideas. The aims of the 
be aimed at. teacher at this stage must be to teach 
self-reliance, and to direct the student more and more 
to illustrative reading. It is advisable at this stage 
to do part of the work without the aid of notes. The 
class is reading, we will suppose, a book of Horace's 
Odes, and one of Cicero's speeches. He should have 
a complete text of Horace, and the proper volume of 
Cicero's works (or the whole), with no notes at all ; 
from this he should prepare the work for the first 
time of doing. Difficulties he must make out as best 
he can, with the aid of grammar and dictionary, some 
dictionary of antiquities {Rich for beginners. Smith's 
large one for older students), Gow's Companion and the 
pictorial Atlas of Antiquities. For revision, he should 
^, ^ be given notes dictated by the teacher, or 

Use of notes ^ , . . . , . , , . ' t 

and other somc edition With printed notes in it. The 
class work should be done with the utmost 
care and exactness, and parts of the author committed 
to memory : side by side with this should go more dis- 
cursive reading, especially for the older students. They 

^ Lindsay's Sliort Historical Latin Grammar. For Greek there is 
none such as yet, but notes may be given from Giles' Manual, or 
King and Cookson (see lists below). 



J 



Classical Studies. 79 

should be encouraged (and at last expected) to read 
more of the author by themselves, and to bring diffi- 
culties to the teacher, who ought now and again to test 
their progress. Thus the curriculum of the latter part 
of the school work will consist of a portion of all the 
chief authors to be read in school, and as much more 
as possible of the same authors read out of school. 

The pupil should also be directed to illustrative 
works which will serve to quicken his mustrative 
interest in any author. The excellent works, 
series of Ancient Classics for English Readers con- 
tains an account of each author, with extracts trans- 
lated ; and well do I remember my interest in the 
Xenophon of this series, when quite a boy. Passages 
might be read to the class from some book of travels ; 
On the Track of the Ten Thousand^ if Xenophon be the 
author ; Travels or Explorations in Egypt, if Herodotus ; 
and so forth. The reader of Cicero could not fail to 
be interested in Boissier's Cicero and his Friends ; the 
Latin poets are well illustrated by Sellar's Roman Poets 
of the Republic -AX^di of the Augustan Age. Symonds' 
Greek Poets, Mahaffy's literary and historical books, 
Champagny's Les Cesar s^ Girard's Education Ath^nienne 
are only a few out of many books which make the old 
days live again, and add to the literary appreciation of 
a learner. 

The elder pupils in their private reading must be 
taught the proper use of translations. It is 

I not to be expected that they will do with- 
but them entirely ; but they should have access to the 
best, in a school library or elsewhere, under some 
direction at first and afterwards at discretion. If 



8o Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

them only where their own honest efforts have failed, 
or as models in the case of books they have already 
done, most of them will be sensible enough not to 
abuse their liberty. The pupil will gain much, too, 
by reading some of the old translations of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. From North's 
Plutarch, Hobbes' Thucydides, Holland's Livy, and 
other such, the learner will gain a new idea of what 
the English language can do, much to the advantage 
of his style. Nor is there the same danger in giving 
pupils these books as in allowing them the free use 
of modern translations. They reproduce the spirit 
rather than the letter, and are of little use as 
" cribs ". 

When the pupil has learnt how to write correct 
Latin or Greek, it will be time to pay some 
attention to style. The pieces chosen should 
at first be definitely historical, oratorical, philosophical, 
or dialogue, according to the author being at the time 
studied ; in the last stage, these should be given one 
after the other, unless any weak point needs strength- 
ening. It is useful now and again to give 

Lectures ^ .... 

and demon- lecturcs and demonstrations in composition 
to a class. Each will be provided with a 
copy of the English, and the teacher then will get to 
the heart of it, state its thoughts in the sequence and 
subordination as simply as possible, and finally translate 
it bit by bit, using the blackboard to record each step. 
Questions may be asked or anticipated, and the various 
renderings suggested should be weighed and discussed. 
In this manner the beginner sees how a trained mind 
works, and is helped to guide his own. Good ex- 
amples of the method may be seen in Sidgwick's 



iCK sai 



Classical Studies. 8i 

Lectures on Greek Prose Composition, Postgate's Sermo 
Latinus, and Sargent's Primers. 

So far nothing has been said of verse composition. 
Much obloquy has been poured on this of verse- 
late years ; and it may be admitted that writing, 
formerly too much time was given to it. But in 
despite of all that objectors can say, there is no 
manner of doubt that verse-writing is a practice of 
very great value. No one really pretends that it 
can make poets (the common sneer) ; all that is 
claimed for it is, that it is valuable as a mental gym- 
nastic and in training the literary sense. Prose- 
writing can teach the power of words, but only 
verse their subtler associations ; prose teaches the 
effect of position upon emphasis, but verse makes 
clear that there is such a thing as literary form. 
Most people never realise the rhythm of a piece of 
prose ; its more striking faults may offend or its merits 
unconsciously please, but why these please or offend it 
would be beyond their power to say. But the dullest 
boy or girl w^ho has learnt how to piece to- 
gether an elegiac couplet, understands that 
this particular kind of composition is regulated by de- 
finite bounds, and cast in a form, the variations of 
which are limited. His ear becomes attuned more or 
less to rhythm, and this first step may be used to lead 
him on to the comprehension of literary form in other 
kinds. I do not say that he will never learn the lesson 
without writing verses, but that this is the easiest way 
to teach it ; and I would apply the same principle to 
English or any other language. Some incidental ad- 
vantages follow at the same time; not the least that 
the pupil understands the metre of the poets, he reads. 

6 



82 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

He will not learn this equally well by scanning. To 
have full effect the act of scanning must be uncon- 
scious ; that is, the reader must take in words, mean- 
ing and rhythm at the same time without effort So 
far as my experience goes, those who have not learnt 
how to write verses never read poetry in this way, but 
the scanning (if done) is done by a conscious effort, 
which draws off the mind from the poetry. Let the 
class, then, as soon as they begin to read a verse author, 
do a term's work or two on elementary exercises in 
metre (I will not say verse-writing) from Penrose's 
Latin Elegiac Verse Composition. The time will not 
be wasted, as has been shown, even if no more is done. 
Those who wish to go further in Latin verse cannot do 
without a skilled teacher, for no books exist which can 
help him much. Demonstrations on the blackboard 
can teach a great deal at this stage; but nothing can 
be done by the pupil without learning a great deal 
of Latin verse by heart. Greek verse is easier to 
compose than Latin, and may be begun quite late. 
Nearly all the elementary books on Greek verse are 
useless without a teacher, and need constant super- 
vision and help ; perhaps I may be pardoned for 
mentioning a little book called Damon, since this is 
the only one wherein the learner is led on by steps 
graduated close one after the other. Pupils may go 
straight from this book to the rendering of pieces 
of English verse, but both Sidgwick's and Sargent's 
books on Greek verse will always be found useful. 
It is necessary now to say something about the 
pronunciation of Latin and Greek. The 

Pronuncia- ^ 

tion of Latin reformed pronunciation is strongly to be re- 

and Greek. , i .-t"! • • • i j_ r ^i • 

commended. 1 his is simply set forth in a 



Classical Studies. 83 

pamphlet published by the Cambridge University Press,^ 
and for Latin is practically that given in the first pages 
of the Latin Primer. The sole advantage of pronounc- 
ing Latin and Greek words as if they were English, is 
that the learner need learn nothing new. But this is 
far outweighed by the disadvantages ; and after all, 
the pupil has begun to learn French or German, and 
so is not struck dumb at being called upon to pro- 
nounce i as ee. The main disadvantages are these : 
(i) Confusion of s, c, and /, as Ceres with Seres, cedit 
with sedit ; (2) Confusion of quantity, mensls (abl. pi.) 
with mensis (gen. sing.), malum ("evil") with mdlum 
(" apple ") ; (3) Difficulty of pronunciation in many 
words, especially in Greek, as Trauto when the first 
syllable is made to rhyme with law ; (4) Loss of 
much beauty in the sound of the languages. 

In one point, however, I differ from the authors of 
this pamphlet — that is, on the question of The accent 
Greek accentuation. It is generally agreed i^ Greek. 
that the Greek accents must be learnt, and rightly so, 
for many interesting linguistic points turn on them ; 
but it is also the invariable practice not to try to pro- 
nounce them. But there is really no reason ^ , 

1 r 1 lilt To be taught 

why most 01 them should not be pro- as far as 
nounced. The Greek accent, as is well known, P^^'^^'*^^ ^• 
was a musical intonation ; the acute ^ denoting a 
rise in the tone, the circumflex a rise followed by 
a fall, i.e., a kind of drawl. The circumflex can 
always be pronounced with ease ; so can the acute, 
when final ; so can the great majority of internal 

^ The Reformed Pronunciation of Greek and Latin : Arnold and 
Conway. 1895. is. 

'■* The grave on finals, when written for acute, is practically the same. 



84 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

accents. It is just as easy to say eXEIirovro as 
iXeillONTo. The only cases of real difficulty are 
words like (f)epr)Tat, dvOpcoiro^, where a long vowel 
follows an accented syllable. These might be waived 
for beginners, but these are few compared to the 
rest ; and even to pronounce the accent and quan- 
tity in these is not very difficult, especially with the 
reformed pronunciation. This plan has been tried, 
and found to work fairly, with young boys from twelve 
to sixteen. 

There is a means by which the classical teacher may 

be greatly helped, and that is if the general 

old English coursc of studics in the school be so ar- 

transiations. ^^^^^^^ ^|^^^ ^^^^ English translations of the 

classics form a fair proportion of the English authors 
read. Many of these translations are themselves 
English classics, such as Chapman's and Pope's Homer, 
North's Phitaixh, Dryden's Virgil and Juvenal. 
Others there are in plenty, no less excellent than 
these, if less known — Phaer's Virgil, Holland's ver- 
sions of Livy, Suetonius, PlutarcJis Morals, and many 
other works ; Hobbes' Thucydides, Barnard's Tei^ence, 
Echard's Plautus — indeed there is hardly a classical 
author of repute who did not find a worthy translator 
in the Elizabethan age. A few of these are accessible 
in cheap reprints/ and if there were a demand for any 
of them a reprint would appear at once. By reading 
these the children will become familiar with the sub- 
ject-matter of classical authors before they have to 
translate them ; and they will also have made ac- 
quaintance with some fine works of literature, many 

1 Messrs. Dent & Co., in the Temple Classics, have brought out 
Chapman, and intend to include North and others. 



Classical Studies. 85 

of which (such as North) are interesting from asso- 
ciation with Shakspere. When Roman or Greek 
history comes in the regular historical cycle, some of 
these books might well be read along with them. 

The last thing to be mentioned is the use of models 
and illustrations. There is almost no limit Models and 
to the number of such things that can be illustrations. 
had ; the real limit is the depth of the teacher's 
purse. But the schools ought to provide these 
things for use ; it is too much to expect that 
teachers should spend their sparings and savings in 
educational plant. Any money spent in this way 
is amply repaid by the interest added to the work. 
Classical teachers ought to have at their disposal lan- 
tern slides illustrating classical life and history, wall 
pictures and maps, photographs and models. Slides 
may be hired from the Hellenic Society, or bought 
through the Teachers' Guild ;^ for wall pictures there 
are two excellent series, those of Cybulski and Launitz. 
Of photographs there are thousands. The wise teacher 
will travel and collect them ; but for those who will 
not, one or two addresses of photographers are given 
below,^ with the names of some useful works. The 
pictures can be kept in the school library, and hung up 
for the term when they will be useful.- For the photo- 
graphs, frames with movable backs are most to be 
recommended, as the pictures can then be changed 
at will. The teacher should talk about them, and 
question his class, and (as already suggested) they 
may form a topic of Latin or Greek conversation. 

^ There is a large collection in the Guild Museum, Gower Street, 
London. Here also models may be seen. 
2 See p. 93. 



86 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

It is astonishing how much children will learn from 
these things. In addition, it is highly desirable that 
each pupil should have his pictorial atlases as he has 
an atlas of geography. 

The writer has now pointed out what, in his opinion, 
Recapituia- is the place which Latin and Greek should 
^'°"- take in a girl's education, and the methods 

best calculated to teach them. If in these there is 
not much that is new, they are at all events such 
as experience has proved to be sound. One or 
two points may be indicated which are apt to be 
weak in girl students, and must therefore be specially 
guarded against. They are apt to be shaky 
to be in grammar, and they seem to have less 

strengt ene . j^^j^^g^j self- reliance thati boys. As regards 
those who learn late, they must go over the same 
ground ; for no teacher and no book, no not if angels 
wrote it, can point out a royal road to learning. These 
late-learners bring to the task a mind already more or 
less trained, and so they will get on faster ; but let 
them beware of trying to get on too fast. They must 
make up their minds that grammar has to be learnt, 
and work at it with a will. If they have already done 
half of the drudgery by learning Latin, as here recom- 
mended, their task will be not easy indeed, but not 
beyond their powers ; and even if both Latin and 
Greek are begun late, they need not even then despair. 
I have known several, both men and women, who have 
begun late and ended with success, even with distinc- 
tion ; although it must be admitted that these were 
persons of exceptional powers. But it is of the utmost 
importance that the most capable teachers should have 
charge of the late-learners. The greater the difficulty, 



Classical Studies. 



'7 



b 



the greater need for a teacher who has his subjects 
at the ends of his fingers, who can see a short-cut, 
and is able to judge how much of the preliminary 
work can safely be shortened, or even omitted for 
the time. When skill in the teacher meets with will 
in the taught, between them they may remove moun- 
tains. 



SUGGESTED SCHEME OF WORK IN SIX PARTS. 



LATIN. 



Grammar. 

1. Parts of speech and ele- 
ments : regular nouns and ad- 
jectives : est, sunt, and how 
to form 3rd sing, and pi. pres. 
indie, first conjugation, given 
the infinitive present. 

2. Commonest pronouns: 
present indie, of sum, and how 
to form 3rd sing, and pi. of all 
four conjugations, given the infini- 
tive present. 

3. Pronouns and cardinal 
numerals : active of the four 
conjugations : sum : meanings 
and case of a few common prepo- 
sitions. 



4. Ordinal numerals : passive 
of the four conjugations : a few 
common irregular verbs. 



Composition. 



I. Simplest sentences: state- 
ment, question and answer. 



2. Cases of agent and instru- 
ment, time and place : quani with 
nom, and ace, abl. of compari- 
son : a few common prolate 
verbs : simplest relative sentences 
and cum temporal. 

3. Ablative absolute, and a few 
more case usages : accusative with 
infinitive : use of se, suus, ipse : 
double questions : factitives in 
active, prolate verbs : relative 
sentences, with a hint of finals : 
commands and prohibitions : 
causal, concessive and temporal 
sentences. 

4. Quisquam, quisque, quivis, 
etc. (meaning) : chief case usages : 
factitives : common verbs with 
dative : dependent questions : 
accusative with infinitive, tenses 
distinguished : simple finals, pos. 
and negative: simple consecutives: 
verbs of hindering and fearing. 



88 



Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 



5 and 6. Deponents, imper- 5, Utor and other verbs with 

sonals, irregular verbs : fill up various cases : all case usages : 
gaps (add e.g., the rest of the gerund and gerundive : some im- 
numerals). personal verbs : final and con- 

secutive sentences : conditions 
begun. 

6. Quisqtiam, etc., use and 
idioms : participles : mmquam, 
etc., causal, concessive, temporal 
and other conjunctions : con- 
ditions : obliqua. 



GREEK. 



Grammar. 
I. Regular nouns and adjectives: 
article : iariv and ilaiv : how to 
form 3rd sing, and pi. pres. indie, 
of verbs in -«, given the infinitive 
present. 



2. Some irregular nouns : car- 
dinal numerals : comparison of 
adjectives : commoner pronouns : 
e/'/ii, with active of Kvu. General 
rules for accent in its dependence 
on quantity. 

3. Numerals : e/^iit, \vw : a few 
irregular nouns. Accent of nouns 
and verbs (general rules). 



4. Contracted verbs : parts of 
a few irregular verbs : accent of 
nouns and verbs (special rules) 
and contracted syllables. 

5. Verbs in -fii : olSa <prifxi: 
parts of commoner irregular verbs. 



Composition. 

1. Concords (including that of 
neuter plural) : article in direct 
predication : simplest sentences, 
statement, question and answer : 
simplest meanings of cases : 
meanings of atrd, els, eV, e|, /xera 
(gen.), (Tvv. 

2. Article with demonstrative 
and with adjectives of position : 
avT6s : simplest meaning of the 
tenses : accusative with infinitive : 
some further particles of question 
and emphasis. 

3. Genitive absolute ; agent 
and instrument and other case 
usage : infinitive with verbs of 
command or request : commands, 
prohibitions, wishes (opt.) : iVa 
and its sequence : double questions 
and further formulae. 

4. oTTws with fut. indie, ^o-re : 
all final constructions : verbs of 
fearing : 5m, vard, fierd, irapd, 

irpOS, VTTO. 

5. Accusative and nominative 
with infinitives : use of participles 
with certain verbs : consecutive 
and temporal constructions : 
simple indirect statement and 
question : the conditions begun. 



Classical Studies. 89 

6. Irregular nouns and verbs : 6. The cases, tenses, parti- 

fill gaps. Revise with Goodwin's ciples and prepositions : idioms, 
Grammar. such as Ka'nrep are ws : conditions: 

all rules of obliqua. 

BOOKS.i 

The writer wishes it to be understood that this is not an exhaustive 
list. These books he has either tested by use, or has good grounds 
in the experience of others for the judgment given of them ; but there 
are many others of the same kind, and there is often little to choose 
between them. The publishers whose books are given below are : 
Camb. Univ. Press, Clarendon Press, Blackie, Dent, Grevel, Isbister, 
Longmans, Macmillan, Murray, Rivingtons, Seeley, Triibner. 

LATIN : GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION. 

Public School Lat. Primer (or Postgate's New Lat. Primer, in some 
respects a more useful book) should be kept at hand, if only for 
reference and revision. Abbott, Via Latina (v), 3/6 ; excellent. 
Morris, Elementa Latina, with Tripertita as an exercise book, 
followed by Mansfield's Lat. Exercise Book ; a good series for 
very beginners, but the exercises need supplementing. Allen, 
Rudimenta Latina (v) 2/6 ; belongs to a complete series, the other 
books being an Elementary Latin Grammar, 2/6, a First (v), 2/6, 
and a Second Latin Exercise Book (v), 3/6. The last named is an 
excellent book for teachers, who may learn much from it, but I 
have found it dull and difficult for the learner. Ritchie, First 
Steps in Lat. (v), 1/6 ; also one of a series, with Ex. in Lat. Prose 
Comp. (v), 2/6, and Easy Continuous Lat. Prose, 2/6,^ Latin 
Clause Construction, 1/6, a First Lat. Verse Book (v), 2/-, and a 
Reader Fabnlce Faciles (v), 2/6, with Imitative Lat. Ex. (v), 1/6, 
based upon it. These are good books, and I prefer them to 
Allen's after using both series : the explanations are clearer, and 
there are more sentences. Macmillan's Latin Course (v), two 
parts, 3/6 and 4/6 ; good. It has an advantage in the large num- 
ber of exercises. England, Exx. in Latin, Syntax and Idiom 
(v k), 2/6 ; a companion to Roby's School Latin Grammar. 
Rooper and Herring, Primary Lat. Exx. (v), 3/6 ; specially 
adapted to the Revised Lat. Primer. North and Hillard, Lat. 

^ V is added to those which have vocabularies ; K means key. 
- See below, Champneys. 



90 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Prose Comp. (v), for the middle forms, 3/6 ; carefully arranged 
and progressive from phrases and sentences to continuous prose. 
Champneys and Randall, Easy English Pieces for Translation 
into Latin Prose, ist and 2nd series, each 1/6 ; excellent, and can 
be used with a sentence book as soon as the elements are mastered. 
More advanced Grammars : W. M. Lindsay, Short Historical 
Lat. Gr., 4/6 ; excellent. This is mainly philological. H. J. 
Roby, School Lat. Gr., 5/- ; good. Not philological. 

For Idiom and Construction in the higher stages : — 
Bradley, Arnold's Lat. Prose Comp. (v), 5/-, and Aids to Writing 
Latin Prose, 5/-, with full explanations ; the former has sentences, 
the latter continuous prose. Abbott, Lat. Prose throngh Eng. 
Idiom, 2/6 ; is a most useful little book for committing to memory. 
This should be used with one or two forms or sets in addition to 
the stock books. Jerram, Latine Rcddenda, 1/6 ; useful collection 
of miscellaneous sentences. Books of chosen English: Holden, 
Foliorutn Centuria, 8/-, for Gr. and Lat. prose ; the standard col- 
lection. Wilkins' Manual of Lat. Prose Comp., 4/6. Sargent and 
Dallin, Materials and Models for Lat. Pr. Comp. (k), 6/6; with 
references for each piece to portions of Latin authors on similar 
subjects ; a useful book. Potts, Passages for Transl. into Lat. 
Prose (k), 2/6. Nettleship, Passages for Transl. into Lat. Prose, 
with a valuable introduction. Postgate : see below. 

Most useful for teachers, advanced students, or private students : — 

J. Y. Sargent, Lat. Prose Primer (v), 2/6 ; most of the pieces are care- 
fully analysed, and the steps by which the sense is mastered and 
then translated are shown in detail. It is a companion to Sar- 
gent's Easy Passages for Transl. into Lat. (k), 2/6. Potts, Hints 
towards Lat. Pr., 3/-; perhaps the most useful of all manuals on 
Latin prose style. Postgate, Sermo Latinus (k), 2/6; interesting 
and instructive. Ramsay, Lat. Pr. Versions, with the English, 
5/- ; excellent models. Meissner's Lat. Phrase Book, 3/6 ; phrases 
and quotations classified and indexed ; a most useful book. Roby's 
Lat. Gr., two vols., 9/- and 10/6 ; indispensable, W. M. Lindsay, 
Lat. Language, 21/- ; indispensable to those who study Latin from 
the comparative standpoint. His Short Historical Lat. Gr. will, 
however, be sufficient for less advanced students. 

VERSE. 
Manuals by Penrose (elegiacs); Morice (same, more advanced), and 
Lupton (lyrics) : Holden, Foliorum Silvula (the best anthology). 



Classical Studies. 91 

READERS. 

There are numbers of elementary readers, and there is really little to 
choose between them. The most useful set seems to the writer 
to be Rivington's Single Term Latin Readers, 8d. to 1/4 each. 
With notes, exercises and vocabularies. These are sets of 
three books for each of six terms, each book containing enough for 
a term's work, and each set having the same standard. Others in 
common use are : Morice, Loculi, 2/- ; Abbott, Dux Latinus, 2J-, 
adapted to Via Latina ; Ritchie, Fabulce Faciles ; Bennett's Easy 
Lat. Stories, Hardy's Lat. Reader, etc. Teachers and private 
students may learn much from Abbott's Latin Gate. 

GREEK: GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION. 

Abbott and Mansfield, Primer of Gr. Gr., 2/6, or with Syntax, 3/6; is 
perhaps the most convenient as a collection of facts. A Primer of 
Gr. Ex., 3/6, has been compiled to go with it. Ritchie's element- 
ary exercise books can be recommended. Ritchie and Moore, 
Practical Gr. Method for Beginners (v k), 3/6. Ritchie, First Steps 
in Gr. (v), 2/- ; exercises need to be supplemented. Jackson, First 
Steps to Greek Prose Comp. (v k), and Second Steps (v k), 1/6 and 
3/6 ; are useful exercise books. Macmillan's Greek course : Easy 
Ex. in Gr. Accidence (v), 2/- ; Easy Ex. in Gr. Syntax (v), 2/6 ; 
Second Gr. Exercise Book (v), 2/6; companions to Rutherford's 
Greek Grammar. They are almost exclusively exercises, and very 
full. Jerram, Graece Reddenda (v), 2/6; a collection of miscel- 
laneous sentences. Sidgwick's First Gr. Writer (v k), 3/6 ; easy 
continuous prose, may be used along with any book of sentences. 
Following this comes his excellent Gr. Prose Comp. (v k), 5/-, and 
then the pupil will be able to dispense with crutches. Both have 
clear and useful introductions. Arnold's Gr. Pr. Comp. (v k), 3/6, 
ed. by Abbott, has useful exercises in idiom. . 

More advanced, and to be used as soon as the accidence is mastered, 
is Goodwin's Gr. Gr., 6/-, new ed., excellent ; or his School Gr. Gr., 
3/6. To the advanced student Goodwin's Gr. Moods and Tenses, 
second ed., 14/-, is indispensable. Much may be learnt from the 
Gr. Gram, of Goodwin, 6/- ; Rutherford, 3/6 ; and Sonnenschein. 
Collections of chosen English : Holden, Foliorum Centurice ; 
Wilkins, Manual of Gr. Prose Comp., 5/- ; Sargent and Dallin, 
Materials and Models for Gr. Prose Comp. How to tackle a 
piece of English, see Sidgwick's Lectures on Gr. Prose Comp., 
and Lectures on the Teaching of Composition, 4/6. Sargent's 
Gr. Prose Primer (v k), 3/6, is stimulating. 



92 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

VERSE. 
Damon : A Manual of Gr. Iambic Verse (v k), by Williams and Rouse, 
2/6. Holden's Foliorum Silvula (the best anthology). Help may 
be obtained from the Greek verse books of Sidgwick and Morice 
(v k), (v), Sargent (v), and Kynaston (v), 4/6. 

READERS. 
Rivington's Single Term Readers (v), like his Latin readers, gd. each ; 
recommended. Heatley, Grcectda (v k), 1/6, for beginners. Sidg- 
wick, First Gr. Reading Book (v), 2/6 : 100 easy stories, with some 
grammar. Rushbrooke, First Gr. Reader (v), 2/6 ; Bell's Second 
Gr. Reader, 3/- ; Murray's Fourth (specimens of dialects), 4/6, and 
Abbott's Fifth (Homer and the dramatists), 4/6. Macmillan's Gr. 
Reader, stories and legends, 3/-. Mayor, First Gr. Reader, 4/6. 
The student had better pass on as soon as possible to some such 
book as the following : Xenophon, Easy Selections, Philpotts and 
Jerram. Herodotus, Battle of Marathon in Attic Prose. He- 
rodotus. Tales from, Atticised, Farnell. 1/6. Arrian ; Selections, 
Walpole. 1/6. Lucian : Extracts, Bond and Walpole. 1/6. The 
next step will be to selections from the Attic Orators : Rivington's 
Middle Form Greek Readers, 1/6 each ; Plato's Crito or Apology ; 
Sidgwick' s Scenes from Greek Plays. 

GREEK AND LATIN: UNSEEN TRANSLATION. 
Jerram, Anglice Reddenda, three series, 2/6, 3/-, 3/-. Reid, Transl. at 

Sight, 2/6 each part. Spratt and Pretor, Transl. at Sight (k) ; an 

extremely good selection of difficult passages. 
Models : Jebb, Jackson and Currie's Translations, and Fox and 

Bromley, Models and Exx. in Unseen Translation. 

ANTIQUITIES. 
Gow, Companion to School Classics ; indispensable. Schreiber, Atlas of 
Class. Antiq., 21I-. Anderson, Atlas to Hotner,2il-. Rouse, Atlas 
of Gr. and Rom. Portraits, 1/6 each part. Macmillan's Manuals of 
Antiq., 5/- each. Murray, Handb. of Gr. Archceology, 18/-. J. 
Harrison, Mythol. and Monuments of Early Athens. Middleton, 
Remains of Ancient Rome. Lanciani, Ruins of Ancient Rome and 
other works. Schneider, Das Alte Rom. (Pictorial atlas with 
maps; excellent.) 

COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AND TEXTUAL CRITICISM. 

P. Giles, Manual of Phil. ; the best handy manual. Henry, Comp. 
Gram, of Gr. and Lat. King and Cookson, Introd. to the Comp. 
Gram, of Gr. and Lat., 5/6. Lindsay, Short Hist. Lat. Gram, 5/6. 



Classical Studies. 93 

More advanced: Brugmann, Conipar. Gram, of the Indo-Germ. 
Languages (translated). The standard work. King and Cookson, 
Principles of Sound and Inflexion, i8/-. Lindsay, Lat. Language, 
21/-. Prellwitz, Etymolog. Worterb. der griech. sprache ; good. 
Wharton, Etyma Grceca and Etyma Latina. Thompson, Gr. 
and Lat. PalcEography, 3/6. 

ILLUSTRATIVE PICTURES AND MODELS. 

Cybulski, Tabulce quibtis antiqtiitates Grcecce et LatincB illustranttir 
(Kohler, Leipzig). Wall pictures, coloured, 4/- or 5/- each. An 
excellent series. Launitz, Wandtafcln znr Verauschaulichung 
antiker Lebens und antiker Kunst. Through Deighton Bell, Cam- 
bridge. Casts : Brucciani, Covent Garden (catalogue). 

Models: Inquire at Museum of Teachers' Guild, Gower St., Londorr. 

Slides : the same. Field, Cat. of Lantern Slides for Fyffe^s History of 
Greece, 66., i^owaw catalogue preparing. Catalogue of the slides 
in the Loan Collection of the Hellenic Society. 

Photographs, etc. : Catalogue of English Photographic Company, 

5. C. Atchley, Place de la Constitution, Athens. A very full and 
cheap collection. Mr. Atchley is well known to the writer, 
and strangers need have no hesitation in writing and sending 
money direct. Photographs are sold by German School at Athens. 

The following Greek photographers have good collections : Rhoma'ides 
Frlres, Rue de Nike, 24; Constantin Athanasiou, Rue d'Hermes, 

6. Catalogues. The Levant : Bonfils & Co., Beyrout, Syria ; 
and local photographers at Constantinople, Smyrna, Jerusalem 
and Cairo. Purchases should be made through some one on the 
spot. Italy : Sommer e Figlio, Largo Vittoria, Napoli : photo- 
graphs and models. CoUezione Brogi, and the Stabilimento 
Fotografico Moscioni have large choice. Museums. London : 
Stereoscopic Company, Clarke & Sons, Mansell & Co. Berlin : 
the Museum publishes a few (catalogue). Paris : Girardon, 15 
Rue Bonaparte. Munich : Bruckmann, Verlagsanstalt fUr Kunst 
(see below). 

Publications. Denkmdler der Griech. und Rom. Skulptur : Brunn & 
Bruckmann, Munich. Magnificent plates. Griechische und 

IRomische Portrdts : Arndt & Bruckmann, Munich. Einzelver- 
kauf : photographs of sculpture (Bruckmann), separately about 
6d. each. Classical Sculpture Gallery : Grevel & Co. 12/- a 
year. Cheap reproductions of all the chief works of sculpture, 
ancient and modern. Bilder zur Mythologie und Geschichte der 



94 



MODERN LANGUAGES. 
By Dorothea Beale. 

First a few words on the order in which languages 
should be taught. I do not think that we should 
make a change for the better as regards girls' educa- 
tion, were we to substitute Latin for French, placing 
that subject first in order of time. It seems to me 
best to begin with French, a language etymologically 
related to our own, and having a simple grammatical 
structure. 

Secondly I prefer to take German, the grammar of 
_ , , which approaches more nearly to the clas- 

Orderof . \^ , ., i • n • 

language sica) models, whilst the mnections are easier 
^t teaching. ^^ learn than the French ; its etymology too 

not only throws much light on our own, but is more 
transparent, which makes it a medium, perhaps as 
valuable as Greek, far more valuable than Latin, for 
showing the refinements of language, the poetry and 
philosophy fossilised in speech. Thus those only take 
up the classical languages who have some linguistic 
power. Girls who are unable to master the difficulties 
of the grammar will never encounter them, and as the 
languages gradually increase in difficulty, we can better 
fit the means of education to the power of the pupil. 
The classics form, it is true, a key to modern tongues, 
but on the other hand modern tongues lead up to 
Latin and Greek, and I believe this order is equally 



Modern Languages. 95 

logical and answers better with girls ; it is something 
to open to them the literature of France and Germany, 
something to teach them languages, so that they 
shall find the study (as they generally do) one of 
interest. At any rate there are four stages at which 
we can leave behind those unable to continue their 
march, and who, if we tried to bring them further, 
would form only a crowd of stragglers. Those who 
have a good knowledge of one or two modern languages 
will have no great difficulty in taking up Latin or 
Greek say at fourteen or fifteen. They will have .a 
large etymological store, which will make it easy to 
acquire the vocabulary, and they will have to study 
only the differentia of the grammars of the different 
languages — may we not rather say dialects? — of the 
Indo-European stock. 

Nearly all syntax rules will be already known, and 
a Latin Grammar in which the principles are brought 
out, may take the place of one written for young boys 
in whom the grammatical faculty is rudimentary — in 
which dogmatic rules only abound ; dogma should 
as far as possible yield to principles, which are 
intelligible and interesting to elder girls, and this will 
help them over the necessarily considerable labour 
of learning the inflections. Perhaps few. will attain the 
minute exhaustive scholarship of which some minds 
are capable, but many will read with keen enjoyment ; 
some girls who have begun late have taken high places 
in university examinations. 

Much has been recently written on the subject of 
modern languages ; in the books edited by Mr. Barnett 
and Dr. Spenser, just published, to which I have 
frequently referred, are excellent papers. I shall 



96... Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

therefore make my remarks on the subject very brief. 
In the first is an excellent paper by Mr. Storr, and 
Dr. Spenser has written a paper of about fifty pages, 
giving a full account of the modern system of teaching. 

It is time that some reform took place. The Oxford 
Local Examiners of 1896 reported the French as phe- 
nomenally bad. In 1897 nearly half the seniors failed. 
I have tabulated the answers to the few questions set 
by me to pupils entering over twelve, and I find, tak- 
ing some two hundred, that not one in ten knows 
the regular verbs, and scarcely any write very simple 
sentences without egregious faults. 

The first teaching in modern languages should cer- 
tainly be oral. In the kindercrarten, French 

Only oral , -^^ , • , 

teaching and German songs and simple sentences 
at first. ^^^ 1^^ taught in the lowest forms. Sup- 

posing that children begin about seven or eight, it 
seems better they should not see written French at 
first. If they have learned the alphabet, as I have 
suggested in a former paper, they will take some 
interest in the new sounds of French and might read 
from a phonetic transcription. 

There are good papers in the (August and Sep- 
Phonetic tember, 1897) J oi^rnal of Education on this 
alphabet. subject by Mr. Ware, Mr. Kirkman and 
Mons. Passy, which I commend to my readers. I 
give a few extracts. Mr. Ware writes : " In Germany, 
every teacher has to render himself capable of teaching 
pronunciation, and results prove that he succeeds. In 
various German training colleges, there are courses 
of lectures on phonetics applied to the study of foreign 
languages. It was owing to the success attending the 
introduction of phonetics in the French teaching in 



Modern Languages. 97 

certain German schools that I was finally induced to 
try them in the earliest stages of French teaching at 
Bradford. The results have exceeded my expecta- 
tions." 

This is confirmed by Mr. Bearder of Nottingham. He 
writes : " Though I have not used the method in such 
a thorough and systematic manner as he has done at 
Bradford, still the results are such as to convince me 
that I am entitled to support Mr. Ware in his refuta- 
tion of one argument, letting alone others, which the 
opponents of phonetic teaching continually bring for- 
ward, that time is wasted in learning the two modes 
of spelling". 

If it is not possible to get the reading taught 
phonetically, using the international alphabet, the use 
of the tables of Larousse will be a great help. In 
any case pieces which are learned by heart, dialogues, 
etc., should be repeated in the class after the French 
teacher, before the children see the book. Few English 
people have ever learned to distinguish the common 
sounds of the final syllable in the imperfect errors, 
and passe defini or the future and the conditional or 
the gradual opening of the sounds as we pass through 
e, e, I, e. Very few pronounce u properly when it pre- 
cedes another vowel — lui is pronounced /ooee. Very 
few observe that a labial nasal before another labial 
is changed into a dental nasal, thus not impossible 
but inpossible, and nearly all say leer for lee -f r. 
Children are taught to read so unsystematically,' that 
if they are told these things they forget them, and 
waste time in repeating easy sounds, instead of work- 
ing at the hard ones. Children should not be set to 
learn verbs, etc., without having first repeated them 

7 



98 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

and practised the sounds with their teachers. When 
they do begin to read, the sound-table should be hang- 
ing up, and should be referred to, that they may cor- 
rect their errors themselves. These pronouncing lessons 
should go on in a room alone, so that children may 
speak together in imitating the teacher ; then *she 
should single out individuals for different sounds ; but 
the whole class should never sit round, as is the cus- 
tom in some schools, and hear each of their companions 
read in succession a piece of French with true British 
accent. If they listen, their time is worse than wasted ; 
if they do not, they get habits of inattention. The 
attention must not be wearied, and if two or three 
sounds are acquired each week, the whole will very soon 
be mastered, and time saved for the repetition of 
poetry, for viva voce composition, etc. 

When children begin to read, we should spare them 
as much stupefyinij dictionary work as pos- 

Translation, ., , , , , ,, , , , , 

sible, but it IS not well to let them learn the 
vocabularies of the book without comment, and they 
should be led from their past knowledge to discover 
the meaning, and as far as may be, get at the root 
meaning of unknown words, and see the underlying 
figure. Thorough work is much quicker in the end. 
Pascal's father left his son with a Latin book, and no 
dictionary, to find out the translation. This may be a 
counsel of perfection suited only to a Pascal, but there 
are not many words of which children could not 
discover the meaning. Much more translation from 
French into English should be got through than is 
usual ; children ought soon to be able to read at 
sight. Time need not be wasted by hearing all that 
has been prepared, but each could be , called on to 



Modern Languages. 99 

translate one sentence, and then translation go on at 
sight. 

The pupil should have a small note-book in which 
each new word is entered. This book should 
be divided into three columns : the first will ^' 

contain the word in its general form ; the second the 
root of the word with its etymological meaning, if 
known, or any cognate by which it may be re- 
membered ; the third column, the primary and prin- 
cipal secondary meanings. Every noun should have 
the article before it ; these should be learned and 
repeated before the next translation lesson. The 
teacher may also give groups of words, derivatives 
of the root, and by this means a copious vocabulary 
will be in a short time acquired — the words once 
grasped will not be forgotten. The enthusiastic 
teacher will probably have to put a check on his zeal, 
for if he is led off too far into etymologies, he will 
get through no translation. After a little the pupil 
should begin to prepare alone, and to make his own 
word-book ; every translation should begin with the 
inspection of this book by the te.icher and by the 
hearing of the words. 

Since the acquisition of correct habits is the main 
thing in learning languages, we should before 

I all things prevent the acquisition of wrong 
ones, by letting pupils speak, and write exercises before 
their ear and eye have been trained. They should not 
be allowed to speak a language carelessly, to " pick it 
up," as the phrase is, incorrectly. A most pernicious 
practice is it to set girls to speak a foreign tongue 
together. The evil habits acquired cannot possibly 
be undone in subsequent study. I knew a master of 



loo Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

languages who refused to give lessons to those obliged 
to speak thus. He could not, he said, in a k\v hours 
a week, correct the bad French learned during the 
remainder. Learning bad French, however, is one 
of the least evils connected with this practice. Any- 
thing deserving the name of conversation is banished 
where it is strictly enforced, and so the mind is dwarfed 
and stunted, and when girls leave school, they are often 
found unable to talk except upon trivial subjects, and 
unable to express themselves like rational beings in 
any language. 

I quote from the rules of the nuutre phonetique : — 

" Le maitre fera etudier les phrases les plus uselles, 
Re-transia- des textes suivis, dialogues, descriptions et 
tion. recits, aussi faciles, aussi naturels et aussi 

int^ressants que possible. II enseignera d'abord la 
grammaire inductivement, comme generalisation des 
faits observes : une etude plus systematique sera 
reservee pour la fin." 

The translation book must be made the basis of 
teaching, and the ear familiarised with the correct form 
by the learning of good French, the rules as far as pos- 
sible being found inductively. Thus the children will 
observe the changes in i)i07i fi-ere, ma mere, mes freres 
et mes sceiirs, and be able to make a table. Life is 
too short to find out all grammar, and so we shall 
eventually have recourse to collections of grammatical 
forms, but this need not be done until a good deal has 
been discovered by means of sentences formed for the 
purpose. 

Easy passages should be translated into English and 
back into French according to Ascham's method. This 
should precede the writing of exercises, which may, how- 



Modern Languages. loi 

ever, be read at sight in class. Children should repeat 
verbs interrogatively and negatively with pronouns in 
their places, so that the ear may be trained before the 
rule is discovered. Fassnacht's books are good. Mrs. 
Bell's books too are useful for children to learn instead 
of ordinary dialogues. It is impossible for them to 
speak in a natural way, when they are merely giving 
abstract sentences, but they can hold short conversa- 
tions with one another in an animated way, and these 
can be taught viva voce in daily lessons. 

Monotony should be avoided, and occasionally in- 
stead of setting an exercise, it is well for composi- 
the teacher to relate a short story, and let ^*°"' 
the children repeat what they can, or write what they 
can remember ; but in all these things we must avoid 
as much as possible wasting their time by making 
them listen to one another's mistakes. 

Exercises may be written and a grammar used later, 
but if the teacher economises time, there will remain 
enough in each lesson to prepare pupils for the writing 
of the next exercise and to warn them of mistakes 
they would otherwise be likely to make. 1 need not 
repeat here what I have said under the head of correc-. 
tions and time saving (see p. 28, introduction). 

Finally as regards grammatical rules. There are 
doubtless many forms which must be learned, 

, . , , . Philology. 

and rules v.'hich we must treat as arbitrary, 
because we can see no reason for thetn, but the more 
reasons we can show, the more interesting will language 
become, and the easier to learn. Thus children are glad 
to discover that the terminations are not mysterious 
letters for which there is no reason, but the remnants 
of pronouns put on at the end — that in the French 



I02 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 

future we get the same as the English, " I have to write," 
only "have*' comes after, and in the conditional, "I had". 
They need not then learn these tenses, only notice the 
abbreviations. The survival of the / in a-t-il and many 
other things will enliven the grammar lesson. Peile's 
delightful Manual of Philology dind D'Arcy Thomson's 
Day-dreams of a Schoolmaster are suggestive, but of 
course the more a teacher knows of philology, the more 
interesting she can make her lessons, and one versed in 
the subject should be found in every school. 

The never-ending rules for the past participle may 
Rationale be at once disposed of by just showing 
of rules. children that the participle being an adjec- 
tive must agree with the word it belongs to. If I say, 
" I have written a letter," of course " written " belongs 
to letter and therefore it must agree. We need not 
make them think about whether it is subject or com- 
plement. The only curious thing they have to notice, 
is that it does not agree when the word it belongs to 
comes after " have ". Is it because the thought of the 
act of writing is more present to the mind when we 
.say, " I have written a letter," and we do not think 
of the letter as written, whereas when the letter is 
objectified to our gaze, being represented by a pro- 
noun, we think of it rather as a letter written ? 

The learning of a third language will present less 
difficulties. If the language is German we can, by a 
few simple etymological laws, get command of a 
copious vocabulary in a short time. The declensions 
offer some difficulty at the outset, chiefly on account 
of the adjectives. But the phonetic change is made 
in order to avoid the repetition of the harsh sound 
s, 7n, r, and therefore when this occurs in a preceding 



Modern Languages. 103 

pronominal adjective, it is dropped or softened in the 
second adjective ; thus the ear guides, and we have 
not to think about the forms ; one has only to notice 
that in the oblique cases it is weakened to n, and in 
the plural it is always n. 

The order of words offers difficulties too, and we have 
a complicated construction. We have to fix our atten- 
tion on the functions of words, as we did not in a simpler 
language, for a whole row of words goes to make up an 
adjective, and dependent sentences are constantly tak- 
ing the place of simple words. Insight there must be 
to see what are dependent sentences, and then the 
whole paraphernalia of rules about certain conjunctions 
which require the verb to be sent to the end vanish 
too and we move freely. 

Another difficulty is the different uses of prepositions. 
In English we go " through " the street, in German " on". 
We go " through " a town, the Germans " over ". Let 
the difference of the conception be realised, and the 
prepositions will come right. 

It is a great pleasure to those approaching ma- 
turity to study a language made for meta- 

, . „, , ^ . , Literature. 

physics. We cannot read German without 
finding everywhere fossil poetry and philosophy, and 
the rolling periods and the grand verse stir our soul 
like a trumpet, and we know that we hear the voice 
of an heroic people, who speak a language and think 
thoughts akin to our own. 

Latin does not attract perhaps in the same way ; the 
military precision of the Latin classics has its charm. 
I feel strongly that Latin should, however, properly 
come after German, specially for girls. There is a 
pestilential atmosphere in the Campania, and one 



I04 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

needs to have one's moral fibre braced by the poetry 
of the Hebrews and of England and Germany, if 
one would remain unaffected by writings saturated 
with heathen thought. 

Those who are able to spare time and strength for 
Greek, and love poetry in all its forms, will delight 
indeed in the "Wine of Hellas," and with the en- 
thusiasm which they will bring to a new study they 
will surmount in a short time obstacles which would 
have delayed them for months, when they had less 
knowledge of co-ordinate forms, less taste, less insight, 
less joy in wrestling with problems and searching into 
mysteries. If there is not time nor talent nor inclina- 
tion for all, then I would say prefer Greek to Latin. 

The chief thing for the teacher to do is so to teach 
that the pupil shall enjoy the work. I do not mean that 
the pupil should be spared hard work and drudgery, or 
be always expecting to find honey on Hymettus ; but do 
we not all know that the labour of making our way 
over rotten glaciers and up stony moraines is forgotten 
when we stand on the crest, and that all the way we go, 
we think of the joy set before us, when we shall attain 
to some lofty peak, whence we can see the outstretched 
heavens and the sunlit earth ? For this we must throw 
ourselves in each language upon literature — the forms 
of grammar will be the ladder whereby we mount. 

And then we shall return to our own native poets 
and thinkers, with minds enriched by foreign travel, 
and Milton will be the interpreter of the poetry of the 
world — of ancient and modern times, Spenser of the 
mediaeval romances, Chaucer of the world of nature, 
Wordsworth and Coleridge of spiritual philosophy, 
and we shall feel that we must be worthy of so great 



t 



Modern Languages. 105 

an inheritance, and not trample under our feet the 
pearls, the precious jewels of speech. 

Do I seem unpractical? It is just these ideas that 
are practical, which we must get our children to see and 
to feel, and then the burden of earnest, thoughtful labour 
will seem light, and our English tongue will not be 
degraded by slovenly pronunciation or the use of 
vulgar and inappropriate words. 



io6 



SPELLING REFORM. 

By Dorothea Beale. 

Let me earnestly beg of teachers not to put aside 
the question of spelUng reform as of Uttle moment, 
but to do their utmost to bring it about. 

Can it be to educators of little moment that lear- 
ning to read, instead of introducing children to an 
orderly system, reveals chaos, and interferes with 
the tendency upon which all science is founded 
to expect law and order. As Professor Max Miiller 
writes « Every thing that children have to learn 
in reading and spelUng is irrational; one rule 
contradicts the other, and each statement has to 
be accepted simply on authority, and with a 
complete disregard of those rational instincts, 
which lie dormant in the child, and ought to be 
awakened by every kind of healthy exercise ». 

I find it difficult to express my strong sense of 
the immense importance of this reform on grounds 
educational, economic, patriotic. Not only does our 
cacography oppose an enormous obstacle to Intel- 



spelling Reform. 107 

lectiial progress during the most important years 
of mental development, and thus squander brain 
power on useless work, it is also a waste of 
money which is expended by the upper classes in 
forcing on the children of the poorer a waste of 
time and — a sort of useless prison-labour. 

D"" Gladstone calculates that the average board- 
school child spends more than 2000 hours in ac- 
quiring the arts of reading and spelling, and that 
the waste of money is over £ 1000000. This was 
20 years ago; with increased grants, the loss of 
money must be far more now. He also calculates 
the waste of capital in printing unnecessary letters 
at nearly 20 per cent. This is only one of the 
many arguments for reform, which he puts most 
dearly and forcible. 

Most of the richer children have an indefinite 
amount of leisure in childhood, and they forget 
how long it took to learn to read, but children 
in elementary schools groan under a pedantic ty- 
ranny, which imposes wearisome and useless labours 
upon those who might otherwise in their short 
school time gain such facility in reading, that it 
would be a pleasure ever after, and the time which 
is now wasted on spelling, would be available for 
much beside : Germans have time to acquire foreign 
tongues, but Englishmen and Frenchmen have not 
time to acquire them in addition to their own spel- 
ling; either language from its simple structure might 
become a world-wide tongue, and there would be 
no need of Volapuk. 

I quote from Professor Max Miiller's article. 

c( According to a Liverpool Schoolmaster of great 
experience it takes from 6 to 7 years to learn the 



io8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

arts of reading and spelling with a fair amount of 
intelligence. 1. e. about 2.000 hours. A Glasgow 
schoolmaster writes, a I have taught poor children 
to read the Sermon on the Mount after a course 
of exercises extending over no more than 6 hours », 
and a father writes, « My boy who is a few months 
more than 4 will read any phonetic book.... and 
how long do you think it took me to impart to 
him this power ? Why something less than 8 hours, 
and that was in snatches of five minutes at a 
time ; his next brother a boy of 6 has had a 
phonetic education, what is the consequence ? 
Reading in the first stage was so delightful that 
he taught himself to read. My eldest boy 11 
years old, at a first-rate school has carried off 
the prize for orthography ». Mr Ellis, who did 
so much for education writes, « With the phonetic 
system the Primer is mastered within 3 months at 
most; careful experiments have established 1) that 
pupils may be taught to read books in phonetic 
print in from 10 to 40 hours, and that when they 
have attained fluency in reading ordinary print, 
the pronunciation is much improved, the interest 
in study kept alive, and a logical training of en- 
during value given.... and they acquire the art of 
ordinary spelling more readily than those instructed 
on the old method. » 

Let those who think I exaggerate, look intoMiss 
Soames's introduction to Phonetics, and they will 
marvel how a foreigner can ever learn to read 
and write English — she gives the 3i ways in which 
we write the indefinite ' a ' sound in aloud — 
the 26 for representing * or ' ; the 18 for giving ^ sh * 
the 20 representing ^ n ', 18 for * k ', and 



spelling Reform. 109 

so on — Pagliardini enumerates the 44 ways in 
which ' 00 ' is written and 36 for the sound ' ee 
those who have tried to teach foreigners know 
how hopeless it all seems. 

PagUardini tells of a work published 1861 on 
French spelling, which gives 163 ingenious rules 
and occupies 285 pages It is asserted that 2 les- 
sons a week for 3 years will suffice. How much 
better writes Pagliardini would these precious 
hours be spent in studying noble thoughts in boolj:s, 
the history of nations, the mathematical sciences, 
or the laws by which God governs the universe, or 
if confined to words, then how much more interest- 
ing and intellectual would be their decomposition 
into their elements, showing their affinity with 
words in other languages. What a fund of poetry 
might be found in the metaphors of which words, 
are the abbreviated forms. All this, now un- 
opened to his view for lack of time, would be 
revealed. 

This may be paralleled by the spelling book of 
the Meiklejohn series. 'Spelling with sidelights from 
history.' It contains luO pages gives many rules, and 
concludes with one thousand of the most difficult 
words selected from examination papers. 

M. Pitman has done good service in printing 
and circulating for a very small sum various tracts, 
and I hope my readers will get some, specially 
the paper by Prof. Max Miiller. Alas reforms are 
slow when the opinion of many unthinking persons 
has to be formed, before they can be carried. It 
needed a pope to reform the calendar. 

The Weslminster lieview for Sept. 1897 has an 
article on spelling reform, urging its great impor- 



no Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

tance, if English is to he a world-wide language. 
The impossibility of gelling a new alphabet adopted 
at least for a long time is urged as a reason for 
pressing minor reforms, the chief being the omis- 
sion of all useless letters Thus we should leve out 
awl thos perplexing vowels in lev recev decev 
•belev; and thes changes mit posibly be carid with 
sum slit efort at wuns, if sum popular orthor 
wood requir his book too be printed foneticaly 

Some defend our spelling for philological reasons, 
but it is unanimously condemned by philologists; 
I name those best known in England — Professor Max 
Miiller pronounces it a national misfortune, and 
has written an article against it — Professor Sayce 
and Skeat, Ellis and Sweet, D' iMurray, editor of the 
Etymological Dictionary, condemn it, and amongst 
linguists, Pagliardini and scientists D' Gladslone. 

But the chief reason, that we should press 
forward this movement is, that only thus does it 
seem possible to avert the catastrophe foreshadowed 
in an article on the Queen's English in the Review 
of Heviews for June 1897. Dialectic varieties are 
arising in the English — speaking Colonies, which, if 
unchecked by phonetic symbols corresponding with 
speech, will develop into different languages. The 
longer we delay, the greater will be the difficulty 
of agreeing on a common notation — at present 
the differences of opinion betw^een us and our 
colonies, and even between us and our American 
cousins are slight, but those who have heard the 
English of the States spoken by the children of 
German immigrants, will recognise the danger. 

Miss Soames before her death published reading 
books in phonetic type, and spent much time and 



spelling Reform. 1 1 1 

money in promoting the teaching of English rea- 
ding on this system, and in introducing to the 
notice of Enghsh people the alphabet of the Asso- 
ciation Phonetique Internationale, 11, Rue de Fonte- 
nay, Bourg la Reine (Seine). 

Such an alphabet would be better than one suit- 
able for English only, but if Pitman's is the only 
one generally available, it is better to use that for 
elementary schools, and remember the maxim ^ le 
mieux est I'ennemi du bien ' — For teaching 
the right pronunciation of foreign languages, le 
Mailrc Phonetique is very valuable. 

Melville Bell's Visible Speech is a physiological 
alphabet of marvellous ingenuity — but perhaps 
too elaborate for general use, and the conclusions 
at which he arrives are not always endorsed by 
the chief authorities. All students of phonetics 
will learn much from reading it. — English visible 
speech, in 12 lessons 50 cents, Volta bureau Washing- 
ton, gives the essentials of the system — the large 
work costs 4 dollars. 

Great efforts are being made in France to intro- 
duce an international phonetic alphabet. 

If all could agree on one alphabet, it would be 
possible for a foreigner to read at sight any foreign 
^^ language. It is true there would be certain niceties 
^Kof pronunciation to be taught Viva Voce, but the 
^■pronunciation would be very nearly correct at once 
^B I subjoin a few specimens of writing and the 
^■alphabet from ' la meitr fonetik ' (Le Maitrc 
^H Phon^liqi(e). 
^m The French alphabet is very simple. The conso- 



112 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

I ji for the palatal n as in signe. 
} 5 for ch as in champ — Ex. shut. 
/ 5 for 5*' as in je — Ex. pleasure. 

The vowels are 

iQ pate (£ tete (i ni (o c6te m tout 

^a patte (e de rj yeux (o tort ^y tu 
loe seul AY oui i^ nasalises 



10 peu ;li huile (: lengthens 
h de ( 

The complete international alphabet which is sub- 
joined requires more signs but this suffices in French. 

French. — kat yn fwa 5 li kurama 

quand une fois on lit couramment 
1 ekrityir fonetik i syfi d kelkaz ceir 
I'ecriture phonetique il suffit de quelques heures 
pur apraidr a liir I ekrity:r ordineir. 
pour apprendre a lire I'ecriture ordinaire. 

In English we want 9 b for th in thick & then. 
Q for ch in hue, ij for the guttural nasal, a for 
but, a vowel not quite the same as seul. ae for at — 

English. — nau ba point ai wont tu get get iz 
hwebaj be seim deskripjan kgen bi givn. 

(now the point I want to get at is whether the 
same description can be given.) 

German. — ven viir uns in unserm Idnde raif 
dafyir haltn di algamaina h^iara bildui) ausSlisilig 
auf di moderna kultuir tsu gryndn. 

(Wenn wir uns in unserm Lande reif dafiir 
halten die algemeine hohere Bildung auschliesslich 
auf die moderne Gultur zu griinden.) 



Spelling Reform. 



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114 



HISTORY AS AN EDUCATIONAL SUBJECT. 
By Dorothea Beale. 

The second subdivision of Part I. is of great 
. . educational value. " History," writes Dr. 

Harris, " reveals the higher self of man as 
organised in institutions. For the first time man 
comes to know his substantial self, when he comes to 
study history. His little self beholds his colossal self/' 
The Man "writ large" of Plato. 

** History," writes Dr. Martineau, ''enlarges the 
Enlarges Sympathies, opening fresh continents of 
sympathies, character to mental survey, throwing 
human tones upon the ear in language unheard 
before ; it acts upon the judgments of conscience like 
foreign travel upon those of perception ; it imparts a 
breadth of view unattainable within a narrow circle. 
The smaller the scale of the personal lot, the more 
precious and needful are the friendships of history. 

" The ground plot of a man's own destiny may be 
closely shut in, but if he can find his way through 
vanished cities, hear the pleading of justice, visit the 
battlefields where the infant life of nations has been 
baptised in blood ; if he can steal into the prisons, 
where lonely martyrs have waited their deaths ; if he 
can walk in the garden or the porch, where the lovers 
of wisdom discourse ; if the experiences of his own 
country consecratethe very soil — he consciously belongs 
to a grander life. Hence the advantage which human 



History as an Educational Subject. 1 1 5 

studies possess over every form of science, the sympathy 
with man over the knowledge of nature. They are an 
enlargement of moral experience, and call into continual 
exercise the sense of right and wrong. 

" In watching the drama of history, the soul may be 
purified by ' pity and fear'. ' Here we find examples 
for judgment, examples of patient suffering, that touch 
the springs of pity ; of selfishness and cruelty that gnaw 
the heart with honest indignation, of heroic faithfulness 
that flings across the soul a breeze of resolution, of saintly 
love that diffuses the very atmosphere of heaven.'"^ 

In history as in science we learn facts that we may 
trace laws, and history corrects by a larger suppie- 
outlook the erroneous judgments deduced "^^ntsthe 

J J^ teachings of 

from a limited experience. History too science, 
seems specially useful as a complement to the teach- 
ing of science. In physics we find inexorable law. 
Admiration and fear may be excited, but we look on 
the inevitable ; we pass no moral judgment. History 
and biography show us the Divine government adapting 
itself, so to speak, to the necessities of man, an education 
of men and of man, we study a mystery which attracts 
and baffles us ; we are able to predict our world's path 
in space and time, unable in reference to those larger 
regions beyond our " little systems " — regions, however, 
in which we must believe the same laws, physical and 
moral, to be working. 

History corrects the judgment of the world ; in its 
pages we look only at dead men, and we Gives an 
call him happy, not who has been success- 5"^^°^ 
ful, but him who has left the world better time. 

1 Hours of ThontrJit. Martineau. 



1 1 6 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

because he has lived, and so history reverses the 
pernicious teaching which puts before the young 
success as the main object of Hfe, and shows us the 
difference between noble and pitiful ambitions. The 
heroes of history are those who endured hardness and 
lived and died for others, a Heracles, a Theseus, a 
St. Louis, a Gustavus, a Washington. The villains 
are those who lived for self, in ease and splendour, and 
self-indulgence. We find in these, and still more in 
those in whom the lights and shades are less strongly 
marked, encouragements and warnings for our own life, 
and help in interpreting the lives of those around us. 
How tawdry looks the field of the cloth of gold in the 
light of a later century ! How silly seem those courtiers 
who carried their " manors on their backs"! *' He is 
worth so much" has a different meaning for the dead 
and for the living ; the dead have not, they are. Each 
noble life has left the world richer in spiritual energy, 
in the power of self-sacrifice, in great ideals, in true 
riches ; there is a treasury of saints, not of a transfer- 
able righteousness, but of a transforming, a transfiguring. 
We can see that no noble life has been lived in vain. 
" In the sight of the unwise they seem to perish, yet is 
their hope full of immortality ; " the corn which falls 
into the ground and dies bears much fruit. 

Lastly if we include in this study not only the history 
Reveals of YC\^x\ and of socicties, but of the intel- 

progress lectual and moral life of man as a whole, 

through _ ' 

the ages. not his desccut but his ascent, history 
forms a subject of surpassing interest and energising 
hope. We find there enacted upon the largest theatre 
the daily recurring drama of the contest of light with 
darkness. We learn how man's eyes have been gradu- 



History as an Educational Subject. 117 

ally opened to the wonders of the visible universe, and 
his soul lifted into the regions of the invisible, his 
intellectual conceptions enlarged, his higher being de- 
veloped, and his desires purified ; history which dis- 
courages, as we look at a narrow tract, strengthens our 
faith in a Divine order of progress, as we take in the 
larger regions of time ; the waves seem often to recede, 
while the tide advances, the stars seem to retrograde, 
but it is because our little world oscillates in space ; and 
so our faith is strengthened, and our hope increased, 
and we learn not patriotism merely, but we catch some- 
thing of that enthusiasm of humanity, which shone with 
unclouded brightness in the Son of Man. 

Another use of history, rightly taught, is to train in 
habits of justice and truthfulness, thoue^h it ^ , . 

■' . 1 Cultivates 

is too often written to serve party ends. It the 
is not easy to be just. The hearts of the J^^g"^^"^- 
young are naturally drawn out to those who suffer. 
If the Eikon Basilike was not true, we are inclined to 
say it must have been true, as we look upon Vandyke's 
picture, see the calm face of the martyr, or read the 
verses : — 

He nothing common did nor mean 
Upon that memorable scene, 
But bowed his kingly head 
Down as upon a bed. 

We must, however, not let our sympathy with suffer- 
ing blind us to the fact that Charles failed in his duty 
as a king — that had he been successful in what he at- 
tempted, England must have suffered from the evils 
under which France subsequently groaned. We must 
point out that it was his incurable deceit which brought 
him at last to the scaffold, But neither, on the other 



1 1 8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

hand, must we ignore the fact that Cromwell trampled 
Stirs right on the rights of men, that his was a lawless 
f"r herofc"^ Government too. We would not, however, 
men. havc that sham impartiality which paints 

all men of one colour and height, which is incapable 
of conceiving a hero, and contemplates crime with 
calmness, remarking there are always two sides to a 
quarrel. Need I say that throughout, the teacher 
must stir noble enthusiasms, a worthy emulation, 
admiration for true manliness, for virtue, rouse 
sympathy for the oppressed, zeal for right — show that 
the history of each nation is that nation's Bible — the 
Book which tells of the Heavenly Father's care for it, 
as manifested in the incidents of its life ? If addressing 
higher classes, the teacher will point out, as opportunity 
offers, that each had a work to do in the world, Hebrew, 
Greek, Roman, as Miss Wedgwood has shown so well 
in the Moral Ideal} 

The young must learn, too, that the great principle 
Shows the ^^^ fouud everywhere, that what we sow we 
disintegrat- must reap in the moral as well as the phy- 
ITrfrighreous- sical world — that the selfish neglect of the 
"^^^' poor brought about the Black Death and 

gaol fevers, that the selfishness, rapacity and immoral 
greed fostered by England's unjust claims on France, 
brought its own punishment ; this was seen when the 
Hundred Years' War ended in the internecine strife 
of the fifteenth century, and led to the extermination 
of a selfish aristocracy. So too the degradation of 
the higher classes, say in the eighteenth century 
in France, which led them to regard the lower classes 



Moral Ideal, by Julia Wedgwood. Triibner. 



History as an Educational Subject. 119 

as scarcely human, brought about the fearful retaliation 
of the Revolution. Or again the wealth of Spain, filling 
the nation with pride and haughtiness, was actually 
her ruin ; by persistently destroying or expelling, by 
war or persecution, all the nobler spirits, the nation was 
degraded in a few centuries. Of course these latter 
lessons will be more suited to a higher class, but some- 
thing of it may be taught early. 

Questions of right and wrong will ever be arising. 
What ought to have been done under such circum- 
stances ? Is rebellion ever justifiable ? and when ? 
What forms of government are best ? is there an ab- 
solute best ? We shall see how short-sighted is crime 
when we come to the murder of Caesar, of Henry III., 
Henry IV., William the Silent. The teacher will 
not omit to look at the historical clock, when asking 
whether acts were right or wrong. We must do justice 
to devotion, while pointing out errors and crimes ; 
we must be warned by seeing that wrong deeds are 
often done by those who mean well ; we must learn that 
though error and ignorance is evil, and we must fight 
against both, yet that good often comes of the honest 
working out even- of mistaken opinions ; that through 
illusions we gain the vision of truth. 

The many experiments of the past show us too that 
evils which exist in a community cannot Teaches by 
be cured by merely changing a form of experience, 
government, or getting rid of this man or that man 
by violence ; to do this is only to sow dragon's teeth. 
A nation is made up of individuals, and only by 
individual virtue can salvation come ; so people now 
seek to bring about the well-being of nations by 
education rather than by revolution, because freedom 



I20 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

without sense to use it is an evil, and a nation that is 
truly free will deserve and obtain free institutions. 
As Mazzini says : — 

" We must convince men that they are all sons 

of one sole God, and bound to fulfil and 

solidarity execute onc sole law here on earth ; that 

"^^" each of them is bound to live not for him- 

self, but for others ; rights can only exist as a con- 
sequence of duties fulfilled, and we must begin with 
fulfilling duties in order to achieve rights. We can 
obtain our rights only by deserving them through our 
own spirit of love and sacrifice. If we seek our rights 
in the name of duties, we shall obtain them. If we 
seek them in the name of egotism, or any theory of 
happiness and well-being propounded by the teachers 
of materialism, we shall never achieve other than a 
momentary triumph, to be followed by utter confusion." 

One may point out the gradual progress which, 
with occasional recessions, has, we trust, been made. 
One may stir in the young patriotism, and an en- 
thusiasm of humanity, and make them feel a desire to 
do what they can to amend the evils of their own time. 

Lessons of political economy seem to me more 
and the important for girls than the legislative 

f^%°^^'^^^ contests of constitutional history. They 
community, cannot enter into these with the keen 
interest of boys, who may themselves one day be 
lawgivers. All should be taught that a selfish, waste- 
ful citizen is a disgrace, a sort of moral caterpillar 
— learn that selfishness, sensuality, falsehood, under 
whatever disguises, are detestable, whilst a self-devoted 
life is a heritage for ever. We should especially 
recognise the faults of our own nation in past times, 



History as an- Educational Subject. 12 ] 

and in the present too ; we should desire the elevation 
of the degraded classes, and each should feel that his 
life and example has at least some power, that each of 
us is responsible to men as well as to God, that it is by 
noble enthusiasms, by self-devotion, by giving up one 
to another that human society is possible. 

History, like geography, can be approached two 
ways : — 

1. We may take the map of the world, 

1 • 1 1 • r 1 • 1 • • 1 ^lethods of 

indicate its leading features and its political approaching 

1 • • • the subject 

divisions. ■' 

2. We may take a small tract, realise by description 
the form and beauty, the flora and fauna, the tempera- 
ture, the snowy peaks, the rushing rivers, the silent 
stars, think it all out, until we feel at home in the land, 
work up through details of topography to clear con- 
ceptions.. 

In teaching history, I think we ought to take some 
kind of time-map, mark out in it a few of the most 
prominent recorded facts, tell something of the heroes, 
after whose names tracts of time have been called, trace 
out a few of the leading empires, give landmarks. 

Then we may, after showing the position of a 
certain period in the world-chart, work it ^jj^ 
up in detail. The way in which each juniors. 
period should be treated will depend much on the 
age of the class. With young ones, the teaching 
will be more narrative and biography ; the memory 
and imagination will be chiefly called into play. 
Some outline or short history should be read by 
the child, the most prominent events, etc., should be 
entered in a special historical map. The chronological, 
as well as the geographical atlas, should always be at 



122 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

hand. The teacher should go quickly round the class, 
asking each child a few questions, just to ascertain 
whether the work has been properly prepared, then she 
should fill up herself such parts as will come home to 
the class. For young classes, though some passages 
from good histories may be read, the teacher must be 
prepared to give a great deal viva voce. Little children 
do not take in so well what is written for older people, 
the words are not adapted to them, nor the mode of 
expression. Besides, the teacher's eye is occupied, she 
does not see whether she is holding the attention of her 
class. True, her words may not be quite well chosen, 
but she will be able to make the narrative more life-like 
to those whose minds she knows. But she must on no 
account try to learn it up. If she would relate well, 
she must conjure up the scene before her own mind, 
carefully paint in the details, and then describe her own 
vision, watching the children to see if they, too, take it in. 

But all must not be told ; as far as may be, children 
should be led to anticipate. Thus in a narrative of a 
campaign, generally so dry and unprofitable, the chil- 
dren should be led to consider what were the aims, 
what would be the best way of carrying out operations, 
what posts would be occupied, which leader chosen, 
how the money would be raised, etc. They will take 
great delight in finding out these things, and not easily 
forget what they have discovered ; it will accustom 
them to read in an intelligent way, so they will be able 
to predict to some extent what people are likely to do. 

The elder classes should read some large histor)% if 
With senior possible some original authority, and thus 
classes. learn to read for themselves, to examine 

the statements set before them, and to sift evidence. 



History as an Educational Subject. 123 

The characters of Richard II. and Richard III., of 
Mary Queen of Scots and EHzabeth, of the Stuarts 
and Cromwell, of Laud and Bacon, will form good 
exercises in the discussion of probabilities, and teach 
caution and moderation in the judgments of daily life. 
For elder classes, too, we may make great use, not 
only of Shakspere, but of the best historical novels. 
For the teaching of higher classes I may point to the 
following papers and add also a chapter on time-maps. 



124 



TEACHING MODERN HISTORY TO SENIOR 
CLASSES. 

By Alice Andrews. 

Girls, 
Knowledge is now no more a fountain seal'd ; 
Drink deep, until the habits of the slave, 
The sins of emptiness, gossip and spite 
And slander, die. 

The Princess. 

In teaching" history our aim should be not to miss 
introdac- ^he " Spirit " of the period we are taking, 
tory- We have to inquire what forces are at 

work moulding the character of the nation, and to 
estimate the results they produce. We have to find 
the place our period holds in building up the national 
history. Each period has a heritage from the past, 
each hands on its legacy for the future — of warning 
from failure or from a success which is more disastrous 
than failure — of encouragement from victories, not 
necessarily of the battlefield, and which perhaps were 
won at the cost of noble lives willingly, even joyfully, 
offered. 

There have been periods of ignoble wars, such as 
the Hundred Years' War, when Englishmen were 
brutalised by murder and rapine, ruining a people 
too deeply sunk in misery to defend therhselves. 
And retribution overtook the nation as it overtakes 
the individual. Our own Wars of the Roses were the 
fruit of the unjust wars in France, There have been 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 125 

j^eriods of ignoble peace, when " peace with dis- 
honour" might have been England's motto, when 
foreign troops were subsidised to protect the shores 
that Englishmen were too craven-hearted to defend 
themselves, when enthusiasm was ridiculed as '' mock 
patriotism," and political reformers were nicknamed 
" boy patriots ". Corruption was reduced to a system, 
and Walpole believed that every man had his price. 
The Church was paralysed by spiritual deadness. 

Individual men stand out as warnings or examples. 
Richard II. appears first as full of noble impulses, a 
born leader of men, but his crime determines his life. 
To rid himself of the man who knows his crime, he 
banishes Norfolk for life ; the other, who suspects it, 
he banishes for a term of years, and this is reduced 
at the intercession of old Gaunt. Either the punish- 
ment was, or was not, just. If just, it ought not to 
have been reduced on petition ; if unjust, it ought 
never to have been inflicted. Henceforward Richard 
rapidly deteriorates : he seizes Gaunt's lands in spite 
of his promise to the absent Bolingbroke, in spite of 
the warning of his uncle York : — 

Take Hereford's rights away and take from Time 
His charters and his customary rights . .- . 
You pluck a thousand dangers on your head, 
You lose a thousand well-disposed hearts, 
And prick my tender conscience to those thoughts 
Which honour and allegiance cannot think. 

Richard has himself set the example of disregard of 
others' rights, and makes it possible for Bolingbroke 
to return in the name of justice and raise the country 
against the king. 



126 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

The teacher of history in the older classes ought to 
Previous be able to assume a correct knowledge of the 
knowledge, j^q^^- impo,-tant facts and dates at least in 
English history. These are very easily learnt in child- 
hood and most difficult to acquire by older girls. 
Those who have been trained on the historical chart 
are acquainted with the main characteristic of each 
century, and the principal events in it, and have no 
difficulty in grouping fresh knowledge round central 
well-known facts, just as the geographical student 
can fill in with increasing completeness a map from 
memory. Comparatively few are trained in any 
knowledge of foreign history, and I have known not 
a few grown-up girls find the greatest difficulty in 
mastering the leading names and events in French and 
other European history. In this respect other nations 
are beyond us. Foreign girls, both French and German, 
are trained to connect the history of their own country 
with the general course of events, and know the facts 
of European history as a whole. The absence of this 
knowledge in English girls makes the study of foreign 
policy unnecessarily difficult to them. 

In outline history, paint with a thick brush. " One 
Continuity can't See the wood for the trees in it " might 
of history. ^qq often be the criticism of the pupil on a 
lesson.' The conscientious teacher tries to omit no- 
thing, the consequence in the pupil's mind is blind 
confusion. The principle of selection rules here if 
anywhere. We must aim at avoiding the defect which 
Lord Acton denounces as " the want of an energetic 
understanding of the sequence and real significance of 
events, which ... is ruin to a student of history. It 
is playing at study (he continues) to see nothing but 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 127 

the unmeaning and unsuggestive surface as we gene- 
rally do." We want instead to trace in broad outline 
the continuity of history — for instance, look at the 
Wars of the Roses in this light. How do they stand in 
relation to constitutional development? While the 
nobles were at war, the commons were gaining victories, 
bloodless it is true, but more lasting than any gained 
on battlefields. It was a time of immense constitu- 
tional development. And yet these victories were 
practically worthless for the moment. What ad- 
vantage was it to the victim of the " overmighty sub- 
ject " that the Statute Book provided for his rights and 
liberties ? The " Paston Letters " give a vivid picture 
of the impotence of the ordinary subject to get the 
law enforced. What the country needed was strong 
government, not political privileges. " Constitutional 
development had outrun administrative order," had 
outrun, that is to say, the general point of development 
reached by the nation at large, and the Tudors came 
in, so to speak, on the programme of strong govern- 
ment. The Tudor rule represented the two great 
principles of orderly administration and even-handed 
government. It needed a dictatorship to accomplish the 
task. The task was completed at the Armada, and the 
country took back the trust at the accession of the Stuarts. 
That the Stuarts failed to recognise this, was the cause 
of the long constitutional struggle that culminated in 
the Civil War. Once more constitutional development 
proceeds, but now the nation is keeping pace with it. 

The subject of sectional as opposed to chronological 
teaching^ seems to belons^ here, for upon it ^ . , 
depends the very essence oi clearness in sectional ar- 
teaching. If pupils have before them the '"''^"semem. 



128 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

time-map, or chronological chart, already referred to, 
the teacher can with greater freedom treat the 
subjects sectionally, for before the eye of the pupil 
are grouped all the parallel events in each square 
representing some definite space of time. To teach 
chronologically may seem more accurate perhaps, but 
really too often produces hopeless confusion in the mind 
of the pupil — the thread is lost in taking up many differ- 
ent subjects, e.g., in Elizabeth's reign, I would take as 
separate sections her relations with Scotland, necessi- 
tating a review of Scotch affairs generally, and the series 
of plots for releasing Queen Mary ; Elizabeth's policy 
with regard to (a) the Anglican Church; {b) Roman 
Catholics ; {c) Protestant Nonconformists ; her Irish 
policy ; her foreign policy illustrated by her " court- 
ships " ; the domestic history of the reign and so on. 
The different sections touch sometimes, but it only 
adds to the interest to illustrate the new section from 
one already known. So" in the Seven Years' War, I 
would not follow the course of events for each separate 
year on the Continent and in America and in India, 
but I would take the whole course of the war in Europe, 
explaining why it was not only justifiable but a stroke 
of genius in Pitt, to do what he had himself denounced 
in the " Hanover-troop minister," and by utilising 
foreign troops for England's war on the Continent, set 
her free to follow her true interests in the colonies, 
and I would trace as separate sections the laying of the 
foundations of her world-empire in India and in Canada. 
This method of teaching presupposes that a scheme 
Syllabus of has been drawn out for the course. If pos- 
lessons. siblc the scheme should be given to the 

class in the form of a syllabus of the lessons. If 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes, 129 

printing is too expensive, it is worth while to cyclostyle 
copies oneself. The value the class attaches to them 
is sufficient reward for the trouble, and they become 
a model to the girls on which to arrange their own 
study of history in post-school days. Examples of 
such a syllabus for English history and French his- 
tory lessons will be found at the end of the paper. 

The historical map ought to be the inseparable ac- 
companiment of the history lesson, and in niustra- 
this respect there is nearly everything to H^gforiiai 
be wished for. Good wall maps with bold atlas. 
colouring in which the outlines of different territories 
can be seen from a distance, and in which the names 
are clearly printed in English, have yet to be found. 
To use a modern map in doing French outlines or 
other continental history is most misleading, and yet 
too often this is all the teacher has at hand. There is 
Sprliner of course, but even if the school can afford 
these expensive maps, they are not very satisfactory 
for the ordinary class ; the colouring is not distinct, and 
the map is so overcrowded with names that it is difficult 
to find at a glance the places one wants. They are 
rather for private and minute study than for class 
work. The publisher's explanation is that there is not 
a sufficient demand to make it worth while to bring 
out historical maps, an incidental illustration of how 
little attention is given in English schools to continen- 
tal history, while a class map of the Roman Empire can 
be found everywhere. At present the teacher is forced 
to make her own maps. If she is happy enough to 
have old pupils with a talent for map-drawing, she can 
gradually make a collection of maps enlarged from 
those in good histories ; the maps in Kitchin's History 

9 



130 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

of France are invaluable for this purpose, but Kitchin 
provides nothing for the periods of the Italian expedi- 
tions, and these have to be adapted from Spriiner. 

Gardiner's Student's Atlas provides what is necessary 
for the pupil in the English history class ; there is a 
small cheap German atlas for general history (Putzger, 
2 marks), but it is not very satisfactory for the ordi- 
nary English schoolgirl, the difference in the names is 
puzzling. What is wanted is a student's atlas for 
continental, especially French history, at a reasonable 
price. 

But even given the atlas, it remains for the teacher 
to find an unfailing receipt by which to ensure its use. 

Not the least part of the value of a syllabus in the 
{b) Black- hands of a pupil, is the saving of time it 
board. makes in the lesson, otherwise the black- 

board must be used for unfamiliar names and words. 
The merest glance through a pupil's rough notes of 
French history will be a sufficient proof of this. 

Besides the text-book, which every pupil should 
{c) F^irst- possess, no teacher of older girls will be 
handac- satisfied unless they read at least pas- 

quaintance , . . , , 

withauthori- sages from the authorities on the period, 
ties. T\iQ difficulty is to provide a sufficient num- 

ber of copies for a large class, or any copies at all, 
beyond those possessed by the teacher or the school : 
this difficulty, however, may be met. There are always 
girls who are glad to have good books suggested for 
Christmas or birthday presents, and who begin a really 
nice library of their own in this way. But a class- 
library can be formed without much trouble. The 
nucleus of a class-library being made by the necessary 
books for one year's work, the girls can be asked to 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 131 

leave a similar legacy for their successors. A list of 
books wanted, with their prices, can be prepared, and 
it will be found that several will combine to give really 
expensive books, and in this way the class can com- 
mand the use of sets of Stubbs, Froude, Gardiner, 
Ranke, Lecky, etc., besides smaller books like the 
Great Statesmen Series. 

Since it is impossible for girls with their limited 
time to read the whole of the big histories, the teacher 
will find it a valuable practice to dictate the numbers 
of the pages (in one or more volumes) bearing upon 
her lesson, which the girls should read. They are 
thus trained to use authorities, and this is being re- 
cognised more and more as of the first importance. 
There was a time when girls depended entirely upon 
their notes, and the misspelling of names of his- 
torians showed that their knowledge of great writers 
was second-hand. But when they get a first-hand 
acquaintance with historians like Froude, Gardiner, 
Seeley, Ranke, Lecky, they are insensibly being 
trained to be satisfied with nothing but the best. 

The period should be studied by the teacher, and to 
a certain extent by the pupil, in contempo- (d) Contem- 
rary writers. Chronicles are delightful read- ^rSngs • 
ing. Who that has once learnt to -know chronicles. 
Saint Louis of France in the pages of his faithful 
seneschal, can fail to breathe the very atmosphere 
of the time ? De Joinville shows him what a later 
preacher called him, " the most loyal spirit of his age ". 
Again no weighty dissertations on the small account 
in which human life was held in the Middle Ages 
would be so convincing as the incidental contemptuous 
remarks of the courtier- chronicler Froissart. The ex- 



132 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

quisite courtesy to a De Ribeaumont was quite com- 
patible with the halters for the six citizens of Calais. 
And to take one more illustration quite late on in the 
centuries — what a pjulf separates ante-Reform times 
from our own ! How expressive of the haughty 
landed aristocrat are these words of the Duchess of 
Buckingham after condescending to listen to the 
Wesleyan preaching : " I thank your ladyship for the 
information concerning the Methodist preachers. 
Their doctrines are most repulsive and strongly 
tinctured with impertinence and disrespect towards 
their superiors, in perpetually endeavouring to level 
all ranks and to do away with all distinctions. It is 
monstrous to be told that you have a heart as sinful 
as the common wretches that crawl the earth. This 
is highly offensive, and I cannot but wonder that your 
ladyship should relish any sentiments so much at 
variance with high birth and good breeding." 

Full lists of contemporary writers will be found in 
Traill's volumes on Social England, which as " a 
record of the progress of the people in Religion, Laws, 
Learning, Arts, Industry, Commerce, Science, Litera- 
ture and Manners, from the earliest times to the 
present day," meets perhaps the greatest want of the 
ordinary teacher, to whom no one general history of 
social progress was before accessible. 

As illustrations there are also historical portraits, 
(g) Historical Contemporary pictures of historic scenes, 
pictures. ^^^ pictures of costumes. Most schools 
now subscribe to the " Art for Schools Association," 
and can make a very good portrait gallery of their 
own. The splendid collection of historical costumes 
designed by Mr. Lewis Wingfield for the Healtheries 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 133 

can still be seen, I believe, and a few of them have 
been reproduced by him in a book with descriptive 
letterpress. Exhibitions, like the Tudor and Stuart, 
are most valuable to the realisation of history, and 
visits to historical buildings are within the possibilities 
of most, and add great zest to many a holiday both 
for teachers and girls. It is impossible to forget the 
circumstances of the Dauphin's coronation at Rheims, 
after staying where Joan of Arc stayed and standing 
in the cathedral, where she witnessed the fulfilment 
of her mission. 

Passages from historical poems or from a Shakspere 
play often add to the interest of a lesson ; 
as the challenge-scene from Richard II., cai poems, 
the trial-scene from Henry VIII., Milton's pf4,s'P^'^'' 
sonnet on the massacre in Piedmont, Spen- historical 
ser's Gloriana and the false Duessa for 
Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots, And in quite 
modern history Mrs. Hamilton King's Disciples, Swin- 
burne's Songs before Sunrise, Mrs. Browning's Peace 
of Villafranca, all give expression to the passionate 
longing for freedom of Italy. 

Perhaps nothing makes history more real than a 
good historical novel. Bulwer-Lytton's Last of the 
Barons makes the figure of Warwick as lifelike as 
that of any minister of our own day. Edward IV., 
Clarence, Richard III. have each their individuality, 
and so has that shadowy prince who was killed at 
Tewkesbury, while Isabella Neville stands out for ever 
distinct from her gentle, timid sister Anne. 

fohn Inglesant gives the very spirit of the Charles I. 
period — cavaliers and ladies coquetting with the classics 
in the learned Oxford halls, the devotion, even to the 



134 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

death, of the Jesuit-trained John Inglesant, and the 
midnight apparition of the murdered Strafford to the 
king, for whom he had laid down his life. 

It is quite worth while to put up a hst of historical 
novels bearing on their period, for older as well as for 
younger classes. 

How are we to test the work done by the pupils ? 
Home- Lord Actou quotes from Sir W. Hamilton : 

l^a)Viva- " ^ must regard the main duty of a pro- 
voces. fessor to consist, not simply in communi- 

cating information, but in doing this in such a manner 
and with such an accompaniment of subsidiary means, 
that the information he conveys may be the occasion 
of awakening his pupils to a vigorous and varied exer- 
tion of their faculties". 

By means of viva-voce questions and paper work, 
the class should be tested between each lecture. The 
object of the teacher is to find out with as little ex- 
penditure of time as possible, that the work set has 
been thoroughly done. I know no better means of 
doing this than by what are called written viva-voces. 
The teacher prepares two sets of questions called re- 
spectively A and B. The alternate girls write the 
answers to the A and B questions in small exercise 
books which they keep for the purpose. They rule 
two margins, the left-hand for the number of the ques- 
tion, the right-hand margin is used by the corrector. 
Ten minutes can test an hour's lesson. The books 
are changed so that the Bs correct the work of the 
As, and have to attend to the answers of the questions 
they did not do. The teacher repeats aloud the answer 
to each question. Each corrector signs her name and 
puts the mark obtained. The teacher, when she looks 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 135 

through the books afterwards, can thus bring home 
any careless correction to the right person, and anything 
Hke favouritism in correcting is prevented. This viva- 
voce work ensures accurate knowledge of facts, and I 
have known girls find it sufficiently useful, to continue 
the same system among themselves after they have 
gone up to the university. 

The most valuable exercise for the pupil is the 
writing of essays. These may begin on a (^) Essay- 
subject already dealt with in class (care ^^^^^^z- 
being taken that the essay is not a reproduction, of 
notes of the lesson), but the pupil will soon be trained 
to read and think out for herself subjects which she 
has not previously heard discussed. She will learn 
experimentally what Lord Acton calls, " those shining 
precepts which are the registered property of every 
school, that is to say, learn as much by writing as by 
reading ; be not content with the best books, seek side- 
lights from the others ; have no favourites ; keep men 
and things apart ; guard against the prestige of great 
names ; see that your judgments are your own and do 
not shrink from disagreement ; no trusting without test- 
ing ; be more severe to ideas than to actions ; do not 
overlook the strength of the bad cause or the weakness 
of the good ". 

The giving back of the essays ought to be a very 
valuable lesson. Happy passages should be read 
aloud, weak passages criticised, each paper estimated 
as a whole, and the pupil ought to leave the class, feel- 
ing that if the work were to be done again, she at least 
understands the general drift of the subject and could 
treat it more adequately than before. 

I venture to illustrate my meaning, the subject set 



136 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

being a discussion of the policy of Francis I. in his 
relations with Charles V. The essay should show that 
Francis I., like his predecessors in the Italian expedi- 
tions, Charles VIII. and Louis XII., failed to realise 
in what direction lay the true interests of France, 
with regard to the new problem of balance of power. 
By entering into personal rivalry with Charles and 
striving for territorial conquest in Italy, Francis lost 
the opportunity which should have belonged to France, 
of controlling the European situation. If he had only 
been content with securing gateways into Italy and 
making alliances with the northern Italians and Ger- 
man Protestant princes against Imperial encroach- 
ments, he would have gained the casting vote in 
European affairs and have held the key to the problem, 
which it was not permitted to France, till the time of 
Richelieu, to solve. 

A word or two as to the way in which the teacher 
Post-school can help her old pupils to read history, 
work. There are a fortunate few who pass on to 

the universities. An increasing number can attend 
University Extension lectures and become members of 
a local Students' Association. But it is those who are 
not within reach of any local organisation, who are glad 
of a little help. To these, when they first leave school, 
an old girls' Reading Society is generally welcome. 
The regular reading it requires is a training in metho- 
dical arrangement of time, and schemes of reading, 
with plenty of choice, are a help to those who have 
hitherto had all their intellectual work arranged for 
them. Teachers have sometimes found it possible to 
take up parties to the Summer Extension meetings. 
Parents are willing to let their daughters go with re- 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 137 

sponsible guardians, and the preparatory reading is a 
great interest, besides the stimulus that the lectures 
themselves give to subsequent work at home. 

The educational value of historical study does not 
belong to this paper, but I end by quotingr 

^ , . , r ,, r Conclusion. 

three passages, which are full of encourage- 
ment to the teacher of history. They are referred to 
by Lord Acton in his famous lecture at Cambridge. 

" The study of modern history is, next to theology 
itself and only next in so far as theology rests on a 
divine revelation, the most thoroughly religious train- 
ing that the mind can receive." (Bishop Stubbs.) 

" History is full of indirect but very effective moral 
teaching. It is not only, as Bolingbroke called it, 
philosophy teaching by examples, but it is morality 
teaching by examples. It is essentially the study 
which best helps the student to conceive large thoughts. 
It is impossible to overvalue the moral teaching of 
history." (Sir J. Fitch.) 

" The object (in history teaching) is to lead the 
student to . . . take interest in history not as a mere 
narrative, but as a chain of causes and effects, still 
unwinding itself before our eyes and full of momentous 
consequences to himself and his descendants, an un- 
remitting conflict between good and evil powers, of 
which every act done by any one of us, insignificant 
as we are, forms one of the incidents, a conflict in which 
even the smallest of us cannot escape from taking part, 
in which whoever does not help the right side is help- 
ing the wrong." (Mill. Inaugural Address.) 



138 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

SPECIMEN SYLLABUS OF ENGLISH HISTORY. 

Foreign Policy of Elizabeth. 

Introductory. — Keynote of the period ; dynastic alliances. Power 
of House of Hapsburg built up on political marriages, even England 
threatened with absorption by the Hapsburgs, as a consequence of 
Mary Tudor's marriage to Philip, and though Mary's death made " a 
great rent in the Hapsburg net, in which England was enmeshed " 
(Seeley), yet Philip long struggled to re-establish the Hapsburg 
dominion in England, and this, according to the fashion of the time, 
by marriage. " Courtships of Queen Elizabeth " begin January, 1559 ; 
Philip offers his hand to Elizabeth : " The more I reflect on this 
business, the more clearly I see that all will turn on the husband, 
which this woman will choose" (De Feria). Other suitors in Haps- 
burg interest, Philibert of Savoy, Archdukes Ferdinand and Charles — 
Elizabeth encourages Hapsburg suitors — could thus keep English 
Catholics in hand in spite of innovations, and get better terms from 
France in Treaty of Cateau Cambresis, April, 1559, France believing 
her supported by Spain. But England's safety from Hapsburgs 
largely due to her danger from Valois. The Valois had secured 
Scotland, and claimed England through marriage of Mary and 
Francis. For Philip to overthrow Elizabeth would mean to clear 
the way for Mary of Scots : it was not till he could come as Mary's 
heir, that he openly made war on England. 

Period I. The Scotch Period, 1558-1567. 

(i.) 1558-1564, IN WHICH A Basis is laid for the Union of England 
AND Scotland. 

England and Scotland both under queens ; both had to choose 
between a power based upon the wishes of the nation, and a power 
supported by foreign help. Elizabeth chose a national position: 
" took a course visibly full of danger, a course in which success was 
only possible by courage and heroic endurance, but in which success, 
if it came, might be splendid, and might raise the nation itself to 
greatness ". Mary, on the contrary, brought her subjects under a 
foreign yoke. Since Mary of Guise's regency was a High Catholic 
rule, the Reformation in Scotland took the form of a national move- 
ment, and the national party turned towards England for help. " The 
first achievement of Elizabethan policy lay in this, that she called out 
a great Reformation party in England and Scotland at once, and 
thus laid the foundation of the union of England and Scotland." 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 139 

Elizabeth's self-justification in helping subjects against their sovereign : 
that she was maintaining national independence against a foreign 
power. Arran becomes Elizabeth's suitor in Protestant interest. 
January, 1560 — Treaty of Berwick — importance. Elizabeth " put 
herself at the head of the national religious movement in Scotland " ; 
" in consideration of the attempt to annex Scotland to the French 
crown, she promised to aid the Scotch to drive out the foreign in- 
vaders ". Success of Elizabeth's policy; French troops recalled. 
July — Treaty of Edinburgh ends the government of Scotland by the 
French; December — ^death of Francis II. severs the union of French 
and Scotch crowns. 1561 — Return of Mary to Scotland ; she refuses 
to ratify the Treaty of Edinburgh, and sets to work to build up an 
Anglo-Scotch party in the interest of the Counter-Reformation. 

(ii.) 1565-1567, IN WHICH THE DANGER IS OF THE UnION OF ENGLAND 

AND Scotland under Mary against Elizabeth. 

1565 — Marriage of Mary and Darnley — importance: Mary puts 
herself definitely at the head of the Catholic party in England. 1567 
— Murder of Darnley ; marriage with Bothwell ; Lochleven ; battle of 
Langside ; collapse of Counter-Reformation in Great Britain ; prospect 
in James of a solution for England of both problems of succession and 
religion. 

Period II. The French Period, 1567-1585. 

Danger lest France or Spain, or both, make war on England to 
release Mary and secure the Catholic succession, but hands of both 
tied at home, and Elizabeth's efforts directed to keeping them so. To 
that end, sends help to Huguenots in Wars of Religion, and to the 
revolted Netherlands. 

France alarmed by victory of Lepanto (1571), makes advances to" 
England. Courtship of Anjou, 1570-72, and of Alen9on, 1572-84. 
"Matters were indeed in a critical position for England; the Ridolfi 
plot was brewing, the English Catholic nobles in a ferment, and the 
Pope, Philip, the League and the Guises ready to turn their whole 
power to the destruction of Elizabeth." 1572 — Treaty of Blois, 
pledging Charles IX. and Elizabeth to give informal aid to the revolted 
Netherlands. The St. Bartholomew ; marriage negotiations interrupted. 
1574 — Don John, Governor of the Netherlands, grasps the necessity 
of the overthrow of Elizabeth as a preliminary to reducing the Nether- 
lands, and aims at himself marrying the Queen of Scots and securing 
England. " The true remedy for the evil condition of the Netherlands 
... is that England should be in the power of a person devoted and 



t40 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

well affectioned to your Majesty's service." 1575 — The Netherlands 
offer sovereignty of Holland and Zealand to Elizabeth ; she declines. 
1578 — Flemish appeal to Alen^on to lead them ; he accepts in reliance 
on England ; Elizabeth's policy is that Alen^on shall be under English, 
not French, patronage, and she poses before Europe as his affianced 
bride. 1579 and 1581 — He visits England for supplies. 1582 — 
Alen^on invested with sovereignty of the Netherlands ; Elizabeth's 
connection emphasised by presence of Leicester and Sir P. Sidney. 
1584 — Alen9on expelled from Netherlands; his death. "Elizabeth 
had begun her long marriage juggle in 1559 in hourly danger of being 
overwhelmed and crushed by her own Catholic subjects in union with 
one or other of her great continental neighbours. She ended it in 
1583, triumphant all along the line, with both her rivals crippled and 
distracted, whilst she really held the balance of peace and war of 
Europe in her hands." 

Period III. The Spanish Period, 1585-1603. 
(i.) To 1596, WHEN England, France and the Netherlands 
FIGHT Spain either Separately or in a Concert which is 

SECRET. 

Counter- Reformation in France represented by the League, the 
anti-dynastic party ; Pact de Joinville between Philip and the League, 
after murder of William of Orange, for extirpation of heresy in France 
and the Netherlands; importance of 1585 in English policy; Alen9on 
gone, Elizabeth must act openly if Netherlands are to be saved. 
Only military movement as yet helping Scotch in 1561. With 1585 
begins what is meant by the " Elizabethan Age ". Pause to estimate 
Elizabeth's policy. Froude finds no clue but inconsistency — really a 
consistent inconsistency. Seeley's estimate : " There are emergencies 
in which a persistent abstinence from action, a kind of resolute irre- 
solution, is the only sound policy. . . . Everything at her accession 
was in a sort of suspense. Whether the nation was Catholic or Pro- 
testant, by what title she herself reigned, who would be her own suc- 
cessor, and whom she should marry — all was undefined." Elizabeth 
really understood popular government ; she gave her people twenty- 
six years of peace, in which they learnt to know themselves and what 
they wanted. 1585 — Siege of Antwerp ; Netherlands in extremity ; 
offer sovereignty to Elizabeth ; she refuses ; Philip tries intimidation 
by wholesale arrest of British sailors ; war inevitable. Leicester's 
expedition ; his blunders ; fall of Antwerp ; Zutphen ; Elizabeth also 
lets loose her " Knight of the Ocean " ; Drake's expeditions, 1577, 
1585, 1587 ; execution of Mary Queen of Scots. " The execution of 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 14I 

Mary Stuart in the greatest degree, and the campaign of Leicester in 
a secondary degree, together with the adventurous voyages of Drake, 
brought on the open war between Elizabeth and Philip." 1588 — 
Armada ; causes of failure : (a) superiority of English ships and 
English sailors ; {b) English guns heavier and better served ; (c) un- 
favourable winds causing delay and then destruction ; (d) unfitness of 
Parma for command. "But all said and done, the victory was one 
of men and tactics more than materials." '* The Armada was not 
defeated by a storm, but at Gravelines, on Monday, 29th July ; and 
the enterprise was defeated when Parma failed to bring up his flotilla." 
Results of Armada : (a) gave England a new position in Europe ; (b) 
secured her from danger of future invasion, and consequently {c) en- 
abled Elizabeth to turn her attention to the divisions that weakened 
the English Church ; (d) gave the nation leisure for the struggle 
between Crown and Parliament, which only ended with William III. 
1589 — Elizabeth's Counter- Armada ; Drake's advice, " better cheap " 
than awaiting renewed attack. Spain's power broken, the religious 
question is fought out on a new battle-ground ; succession struggle 
in France ; League helped by Spain against Henry of Navarre ; 
Arques ; Ivry. 1591 — English forces under Essex to help Henry of 
Navarre. 1595 — Henry publishes declaration of war against Spain. 



(ii.) 1596-1598. France, England and Netherlands united in a 
Formal Coalition of one Catholic and two Protestant 
Powers against the Counter-Reformation. 

1596 — Elizabeth makes a formal alliance offensive and defensive 
with Henry IV. and the States against Spain, and sends expedition 
under Howard and Essex against Cadiz ; the ** Trafalgar of the 
Elizabethan War" (Laughton). 1597 — Essex and Raleigh make the 
" Island voyage " against Spain. 

(iii.) 1598-1603. Coalition Dissolved. Philip III. against 
Elizabeth and Netherlands. 

1598 — Henry IV. deserts his allies and makes peace with Spain in 
Treaty of Vervins. Philip III. continues war against Elizabeth in 
order to use Ireland — in revolt — as basis of operations for the Counter- 
Reformation against England. Danger from Ireland increased by 
treason of Essex. 1602 — Spanish expedition lands in Ireland ; joins 
Tyrone against Kinsale ; defeated by Mountjoy. 1603 — Elizabeth 
increasingly hostile towards Spain till her death. 



142 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Results of Elizabeth's Policy. 

1. She gave England twenty-six years of peace, in spite of the 
distracted state of things abroad, and by this means (a) the religious 
question, (b) the succession question, were settled without civil war. 

2. By creating a new mental atmosphere, she gave England a new 
national temper, which found expression in a national poetry. Shak- 
spere's "jubilant patriotism " : — 

" This England never did, nor never shall 
Lie at the proud foot of a conqueror. . . . 
Come the three corners of the world in arms. 
And we shall shock them ; nought shall make us rue, 
If England to herself do rest but true." 

—K. John. 

•' This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle . . . 
This precious stone set in the silver sea . . . 
This land of such dear souls, this dear, dear land." 

—K. Richard II, 

And the passionate devotion to Elizabeth as the embodiment of the 
national greatness : — 

" She shall be loved and feared ; her own shall bless her : 
In her days every man shall eat in safety 
Under his own vine, what he plants, and sing 
The merry songs of peace to all his neighbours." 

—K. Henry VIII. 
Elizabeth the Gloriana of Spenser. 

3. She saved England from absorption by Spain or France, and 
from fear of future invasion. 

4. She created the monarchy of Great Britain by laying the basis 
of union between England and Scotland. 

5. She made England insular, but counterbalanced the disadvan- 
tages of insularity by encouraging maritime expansion. 



SYLLABUS OF LESSON ON RICHELIEU. 

1610. Louis XIII. 

Difficulties of Regent Mary de Medici. 
"The day of Kings is past, that of 
Grandees and Princes has arrived." 
Her Spanish policy. Concini. 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 143 



1614. 



1622. 

1624. 
RICHELIEU. 



t 



Foreign 



Periods 
I. 



States-General, last of old Regime. 
Louis assumes government. Fall of 
Concini. Rise of De Luynes. Queen 
Mother becomes centre of disaffec- 
tion. Guise. Bouillon. Mayenne. 
Epernon. Huguenots. 

Peace of Montpellier. Huguenots have 
only Rochelle and Montauban. 

Entrance into power of Richelieu. 

Born a leader of men. Genius of con- 
ception, force of will. Ideal, absolut- 
ism. Obstacle, feudal nobility; 
destroys their political vitality by 
increasing power of monarchy, i. 
Substitutes Intendants for great 
Governors of Provinces. 2. Destroys 
feudal strongholds. 3. Brings nobles 
under the law; duelling, Montmor- 
ency ; peculation, Marshal de Mar- 
illac ; conspiracy, Cinq Mars. 4. 
States-General never meet. 5. Par- 
lements restricted to judicial duties. 
6. Heavy taxation. Cultivates three 
powerful alliances : i. Men of letters; 
2. Favour of commons ; 3. Love of 
national glory. 

Policy. To substitute influence of 
France in Europe for Austro-Spanish 
power. Founder of an " occidental " 
policy. Two things- necessary: i. 
Balance of power ; 2. Mutual religious 
toleration. Difficulties at home : i. 
Spanish sympathies of Anne of 
Austria; 2. Huguenot struggles for 
independence. 

of Richelieu's Rule. 

The Valtelline Period, 1624-26. 
Richelieu enters European politics. 
Importance of Valtelline as connect- 
ing link between Austro-Spanish 



t44 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 



II. 



III. 



IV. 



1642. 



dominions. Seized in defiance of 
Treaty. Interference of Richelieu, 
Huguenot revolt. T. Montpellier 
pacifying them while he concludes 
Valtelline question in T. Monzon. 

Period of La Rochelle, 1626-28. 
Richelieu crushes all opposition at 
home to clear his way for decisive 
interference abroad. " La conspira- 
tion des Dames." Vendome in 
Brittany. 1627. Buckingham's ex- 
pedition to Rhe. 1629. Fall of La 
Rochelle and Montauban. 

Period of absolute supremacy at 
home, 1629-35. Re-enters Euro- 
pean politics, but only as a secondary 
power, in Thirty Years' War. France 
acts again in Italy. Succession in 
Mantua and Montferrat. Valtelline 
question reopened, and again settled 
in favour of France. Day of Dupes, 
nth Nov., 1630. T. of Cherasco, 1631. 
Intrigues of Gaston of Orleans with 
enemy. Richelieu acts with Gustavus 
Adolphus, the " Protestant Crusader ". 
Interests of France move to Lorraine 
border. Death of Gustavus indirect 
advantage to France. Richelieu's 
terms with Bernard of Weimar. 1635. 
France declares war against Spain. 

Period of France's supremacy in 
Europe, 1635-43. 1636. Recovery 
of Corbie from Spanish. 1638, B. 
Rheinfeld. Fall of Brisach. 1639. 
Death of Bernard of Weimar. 
"Turning point of the contest," from 
a useful ally was becoming a dan- 
gerous rival. Richelieu secures 
Alsace. Conspiracy of Cinq Mars. 

Death of Richelieu. Rise of Mazarin. 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 145 



LIST OF BOOKS. 

The following lists have been drawn up with the help of several 
teachers of history, and are intended for the practical work of the 
school. They aim at giving the chief authorities for each period, be- 
sides other books dealing with special subjects. Where possible, the 
publisher and price have been given. Those who want more exhaus- 
tive lists and desire original authorities can find them in the syllabuses 
of the University Extension Lectures. 

The historical stories have been chosen from lists furnished by 
pupils. 

Text-books. 

Gardiner. StudenVs History. Longmans. 4/- a volume. 

Vol. i., to 1509; vol. ii., 1509-1689; vol. iii., 1689-1885. 
J. F. Bright. History of England. Longmans. 

Vol. i., " Mediseval Monarchy," 449-1485 (4/6) ; vol. ii., " Personal Monarchy," 
1485-1688 (5/-) ; vol. iii., " Constitutional Monarchy," 1689-1837 (7/6). 

Ransome. An Advanced History of England. Rivingtons. 7/6. 

Acland and Ransome. Analysis of English History. Longmans. 6/-. 

D. Beale. Text-hook of English and General History. Bell & 

Daldy. 2/6. 
Taswell-Langmead. Constitutional History. Stevens & Hayes. 15/-. 
D. Beale. Student's Chronological Maps (Charts). Bell & Daldy. 

3/6. 
Gardiner. Students Historical Atlas. Longmans. 5/-. 
F. W. Putzger. Historischer Schul Atlas. Bielefeld and Leipzig. 

Verlag von Velhagen und Klasing. 2 marks. 

Period 1066-1272- 

Stubbs. Constitutional History.. Frowde. Clarendon Press. 12/- 

each volume. 
Vol. i., to 1215 ; vol. ii., 1215-1399. 
J.R.Green. History of the English People ^voX.'x. Macmillan. 16/-. 

— The Making of England. Macmillan. 16/-. 

— The Conquest of England. Macmillan. 18/-. 
Freeman. History of the Norman Conquest. Macmillan. 36/-. 
Lingard. History of England, vols. i. and ii. Duffy. Set of 10 vols. 

£1 10/". 

Kate Norgate. England under the Angevin Kings. 2 vols. Mac- 
millan. £1 12/-. 

Mrs. J. R. Green. Henry II. (Twelve English Statesmen). Mac- 
millan. 2/6. 

10 



146 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

O, H.Richardson. National Movement under Henry III. Macmillan. 

6/6. 
Stubbs. Early Plantagenets (Epochs). Longmans. 2/6. 
Cox. Crusades (Epochs). Longmans. 2/6. 
Traill. Social England, vol. i. Cassell. 15/-. 
Thorold Rogers. History of Agricnlttcre and Prices, vols. i. and ii. 

Clarendon Press. £2 2/-. 
Hunt. English Church in the Middle Ages. Longmans. 2/6. 
Stubbs. Introductions to {a) Gesta Henrici II. : Benet of Peterhro ; 

(6) Roger of Hovedcn (for foreign policy) (Rolls Series). 

I St. Thomas of Canterbury. David Nutt. i/-. 
W. H. Hutton. I Misrule of Henry III. David Nutt. i/-. 

( Simon de Montfort. David Nutt. i/-. 
In English History from Contemporary Writers Series. 
De Joinville. Saint Louis. Chronicle (translated by James Hutton). 
Sampson Low. 2/6. 

Period 1272-1399- 

Stubbs. Constitutional History, vol. ii. Clarendon Press. 12/-. 

Green. History of the English People, vol. i. Macmillan. 16/-. 

Lingard. History of England, vols. ii. and iii. Duffy. 10 vols, 
^iio/-. 

Author of " The Greatest of the Plantagenets." Life and Reign of 
Edward I. Seeley Jackson. 6/-. 

Tout. Edward I. (Twelve English Statesmen). Macmillan, 2/6. 

Longman. Life and Times of Edward III. Longmans. 2 vols. 
28/-. 

Traill. Social England, vol. ii. Cassell. 15/-. 

Burton. History of Scotland. Blackwood. 8 vols. £^ 3/-. 

Oman. Art of War (Hundred Years' War). Fisher Unwin. 17/6. 

Wakeman. History of the Church of England. Rivingtons. 6/-. 

Stubbs. Early Plantagenets (Epochs). Longmans. 2/6. 

Poole. Wycliffe and Early Movements for Reform. Longmans, 2/6. 

Freeman. Historical Essays, ist series, Essay on Edward I. Mac- 
millan. 10/6. 

Jusserand. English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Fisher 
Unwin. 7/6. 

Ashley. Economic History. Longmans. Parti., 5/-; part ii., 10/6. 

Shakspere. Play of Richard II. 

Froissart. Chronicles. 

Chaucer. Canterbury Tales. 

Langland. Piers Plowman. 



) 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 147 
Period 1399-1485— 

Stubbs. Constitutional History, vol. iii. Clarendon Press. 12/-. 
Green. History of the English People, vols. i. and ii. Macmillan. 

16/- each vol. 
Lingard. History of England, vols. iii. and iv. Duffy & Sons. 10 

vols. £i 10/-. 
Ramsay. Lancaster and York. Clarendon Press. £i i6/-. 
Wylie. England under Henry IV. Longmans. 4 vols. 10/6, 15/-, 

15/-. £^ i/-. 

Church. Henry V. (Men of Action Series). Macmillan. 2/6. 
Gairdner. Richard III. Longmans (out of print). 10/-. 
Oman. Warwick {Men of Action Series). Macmillan, 2/6. 
Stubbs. Lectures on the Study of Medieval and Modern History. 

Clarendon Press. 8/6. 
Seebohm. Oxford Reformers. Longmans. 14/-. 
Traill. Social England, vol. ii. Cassell. 15/-. 
Gairdner. Lancaster and York (Epochs). Longmans. 2/6. 
James Gairdner. Paston Letters. Constable. 16/-. 
Fortescue. Governance of England (edited Plummer). Clarendon 

Press. 12/6. 
Shakspere. Plays : Henry IV., Henry V., Henry VI. 

Tudor Period, 1485-1603— 

York Powell and Tout. Text-book, History of England (Henry VIIL 

to William IIL). Longmans. 2/6. 
Lingard. History of England, vols. iv.,\.,vi. Duffy & Sons. 10 vols. 

£ll0l: 

Green. History of the English People, vol. ii. Macmillan. 16/-. 
Froude. History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Armada. 

Longmans. 12 vols. 3/6 each. 
Hallam. History of England (Constitutional). Murray. 7/6. 
Busch. England under the Tudors. Innes & Co. 16/-. 
Gairdner. Henry VII. (English Statesmen Series). Macmillan. 2/6. 
Bacon. Henry VII. (edited Lumby). Cambridge University Press. 

2/-. 
Brewer. Reign of Henry VII I. Murray. 2 vols. 15/- each. 
Beesley. Queen Elizabeth. Macmillan. 2/6. 
Creighton. Elizabeth. Boussod. £2 8/-. 

— Age of Elizabeth {^.■'^ochs). Longmans. 2/6. 

— Wolsey (Twelve English Statesrre.n). Macmillan. 2/6. 
Ranke. History of England, vol. vendon Press. 6 vols. 

;^3 3/-. 



148 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Traill. Social England, vols. ii. and iii. Cassell. 15/- each volume. 
Stubbs. Lectures on Medieval and Modern History. Clarendon Press. 

8/6. 
Macaulay. Essays (Burleigh). Longmans. 2/6. 
Seeley. Growth of British Policy. Cambridge University Press. 

2 vols. 12/-. 
Seebohm. Oxford Reformers. Longmans. 14/-. 
Wakeman. History of the Church of England. Rivingtons. 6/-. 
Burnet. History of the Reformation. Clarendon Press. 7 vols. 

;^IIO/-. 

Aubrey Moore. History of the Reformation. Kegan Paul. 16/-. 
Froude. English Seamen in the Sixteenth Century. Longmans. 6/-. 
Hume. Courtships of Queen Elizabeth. Fisher Unwin. 12/-. 

— The Year after the Armada. Fisher Unwin. 12/-. 

— Walter Raleigh. Fisher Unwin. 5/-. 

— Philip II. (Foreign Statesmen). Macmillan. 2/6. 
Cunningham. English Industry and Commerce. Pitt Press, Vol. i., 

13/4 ; vol. ii., 15/-. 
H. Hall. Society in the Elizabethan Age. Sonnenschein. 10/6. 
Berville. The Story of the Chevalier Bayard (Chronicle). Friswell. 

2/6. 

Stuarts and Commonwealth, 1603-1660— 

Cordery and Philpotts. King and Commonwealth (text-book). Seeley. 

5/-. 
Gardiner. History of England, 1603- 1642. Longmans. 10 vols. 
6/- each. 

— History of the Great Civil War, 1642-1649. Longmans. 4 
vols. 6/- each. 

Lingard. History of England, \o\s. vii. and ■vin. Duffy & Sons. 10 

vols. £1 10/-. 
Green. History of the English People, vol. iii. Macmillan. 16/-. 
Ranke. History of England, vols, i., ii., iii. Clarendon Press. 

6 vols. £3 3/-. 
Hallam. Constitutional History. Murray. 7/6. 
Guizot. History of the English Revolution. Bohn. 3/6. 

— Life of Oliver Cromwell. Bentley. 6/-. 

Frederic Harrison. Cromwell (Twelve English Statesmen). Mac- 
millan. 2/6. 

Traill. Social England, vol. iv. Cassell. 17/-. 

Sanford. Studies and Illustrations of the Great Rebellion. John 
Parker. 16/-. 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 149 

Forster. Sir John Eliot. Longmans (out of print). 

— Grand Remonstrance. Murray. 12/-. 
Church. Bacon (English Men of Letters). Macmillan. 1/-. 
Carlyle. CromwelVs Letters and Speeches. Chapman & Hall. 2/6. 
W. H. Hutton. William Land (Leaders of Religion Series). 

Methuen. 3/6. 
Ottley. La«ci?/oMw(/r^w^5 (Leaders of Religion Series). Methuen. 3/6. 
Lady Verney. Memoirs of the Verney Family. Longmans. 2 vols., 
42/- ; vol. iii., 21/-. 

The Later Stuarts, 1660-1714— 
Hale. Fall of the Stuarts (Epochs). Longmans. 2/6. 
Morris. Age of Anne. Longmans. 2/6. 
Lingard. History of England, vols, ix., x, (ends 1689). Duffy. 10 

vols. £1 10/-. 
Ranke. History of England, vols, iii., iv., v. (use for foreign 

policy). Clarendon Press. £;i 3/-. 
Macaulay. History of England. Longmans. 5/-. 
Hallam. Constitutional History. Murray. 7/6. 
Lecky. History of England in the iSth Century. Longmans. 7 

vols. 6/- each. 
Green. History of the English People, vols. iii. and iv. Macmillan. 

16/- a vol. 
Traill. William III. (Twelve English Statesmen). Macmillan. 2/6. 
Stanhope. Reign of Queen Anne. Murray. 16/-. 
Wyon. History of Great Britain during the Reign of Queen Anne. 

Chapman & Hall (out of print). 2 vols. £1 12/-. 
Leslie Stephen. Swift (Men of Letters Series). Macmillan. i/. 
Swift. Conduct of the Allies. Various. 

Hassall. Bolingbroke (Statesmen Series). W. H. Allen. 2/6. 
Macaulay. Essays (Temple). Longmans. 2/6. 
Evelyn. Diary (Chandos Classics). Warne. 1/6. 
Traill. Social England, vol. iv. Cassell. 17/-. 
Burnet. History of His Own Times. Clarendon Press. 9/6. 
Anson. Law and Custom of the Constitution. Clarendon Press. 

Vol. i., 12/6; vol. ii., 14/-. 
Hodder. Shaftesbury. Cassell. 3/6. 

Hanoverian Period, 1714-1815— 

Skottowe. Our Hanoverian Kings. Sampson Low. 3/6. 
Lecky. History of England in the iSth Century. Longmans. 7 
vols. 6/- each. 



150 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

Stanhope. History of England (to 1783). Murray. 9 vols. 5/- 
each. 

Green. History of the English People, vol. iv. Macmillan. 16/-. 

Erskine May. Constitutional History (from George III.). Long- 
mans. 3 vols. 18/-. 

Hallam. Constitutional History. Murray. 7/6. 

Ranke. History of England, vol. v. Clarendon Press. £^ 3/-. 

Seeley. Expansion of England. Macmillan. 4/6. 

Traill. Social England, vol. v. Cassell. 17/-. 

Morley. Walpole (Twelve English Statesmen). Macmillan. 2/6. 

Macaulay. Essays (Clive. Hastings). Longmans. 2/6. 

Morley. Chatham (Twelve English Statesmen). Macmillan. 2/6. 

Not yet published. 
Rosebery. Pitt (Twelve English Statesmen). Mactnillan. 2/6. 
Montagu Burrows. British Foreign Policy. Blackwood. 6/-. 
Mahan. Influence of Sea Power on History. Sampson Low. 15/-. 
Burke. Thoughts on the Present Discontents. Clarendon Press. 
4/6. 

— Reflections on the French Revolution. Clarendon Press. 5/-. 

Also cheaper editions. 

Carlyle. French Revolution. Chapman & Hall. 2 vols. 2/6 a vol. 

Also cheaper issues. 
Thos. Wright. Caricature History of the Georges. Hotten. 6/6. 



LIST OF HISTORICAL NOVELS AND TALES AND POEMS 
Illustrating the Period 1066 to 1815. 
Period 1066-1272- 

Kingsley. Hereward the Wake (Last Struggle of the English). Mac- 
millan. 3/6. 
Lytton. Harold. Routledge. 2/-. 
M. M. Blake. Siege of Norwich Castle (Struggle of the English). 

Seeley. 5/-. 
Henty. Wulff the Saxon (written for boys). Blackie. 6/-. 

— Winning his Spurs (written for boys) (Crusades). S. Low. 
2/6. 

Macfarlane. Camp of Refuge (Hereward). Constable. 3/6. 

Sir W. Scott. Count Robert of Paris (First Crusade). Black. 1/6. 

— The Betrothed (Henry II.). Black. 1/6. 

— The Talisman (Richard and Saladin). Black. 1/6. 

— Ivanhoe (Richard Cceur de Lion), Black. 1/6. 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 151 

C. M. Yonge. The Constablc^s Tower (King John). National 
Society. 3/-. 

— The Prince and the Page (Edward I.). Macmillan. 3/6. 

— The Little Dtike (Richard the Fearless of Normandy). Mac- 
millan. 2/6. 

These are children's books. 
G. P. R. James. P/ii/// -(4z/^«s^m5 (Struggle with King John). Warne. 

-/6. 
Tennyson. Harold : a drama. 

— Becket : a drama. 



Period 1272-1399— 

Jane Porter. The Scottish Chiefs (1296- 13 14). Routledge. 2/-. - 

Grace Aguilar. The Days of Bruce. Nisbet. 2/-. 

Mary Peard. Prentice Hugh (Edward I.). National Society. 3/6. 

M. Everett Green. The Lord of Dynevor (Edward I. Wales). Nel- 
son. 2/6. 

Sir W. Scott. Castle Dangerous (1306). Black. 1/6. 

Henty. In FreedonVs Cause (William Wallace). Blackie. 6/-. 

C. M. Yonge. The Lances of Lynwood (Black Prince in Spain). 
Macmillan. 2/6. 

Henty. St. George for England (Crecy, Poitiers). Blackie. 5/-. 

Conan Doyle. The White Company (Black Prince in France). Smith 
& Elder. 6/-. 

E. Mitchell. The Golden Horseshoes (Chivalry. Edward III.). 
Masters. 5/. 

Everett Green. In the Days of Chivalry (Black Prince). Nelson 
& Sons. 5/-. 

Henty. A March on London (Wat Tyler). Blackity. 5/-. 
— The Lion of St. Mark (Venice). Blackie. 6/-. 

Lytton. Rienzi (Last Tribune, 1354). Routledge. 3/6. 

Sir W. Scott. Lord of the Isles (Bruce). 

Period 1399-1485— 

James. Agincourt (1415). Warne. -/6. 

Henty. At Agincourt. Blackie. 6/-. 

Mark Twain. Joa;; 0/^ re (serious). Chatto & Windus. 6/-. 

Author of " Schonberg Cotta Family ". Joan the Maid. Nelson. 4/-. 

Andrew Lang. The Monk of Fife (Joan of Arc). Longmans. 3/6. 

Mrs. Oliphant. Joan of Arc. Putnam. 5/-. 



152 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Sir W. Scott. The Fair Maid of Perth (Murder of Rothsay). Black. 

1/6. 
C. M. Yonge. The Caged Lion (James I. of Scotland). Macmillan. 

3/6. 
Miss Wilbraham. For and Against (Wars of the Roses) (out of 

print). 
C. M. Yonge. Gm/j Gmr// (Wars of the Roses). Macmillan. 3/6. 
Lady G. FuUerton. A Stormy Life (Margaret of Anjou). Burns & 

Gates. 6/-. 
C. M. Yonge. Two Penniless Princesses. Macmillan. 3/6. 
Sir W. Scott. Anne of Gcier stein (M.diVgzi&\. oi A.n)ou). Black. 1/6. 
Lytton. Last of the Barons (Warwick the King Maker). Routledge. 

3/6. 
H. Ainsworth. The Star Chamber (Henry VII.). Various. 
Author of " The Spanish Brothers ". Crushed yet Conquering (John 

Huss). Religious Tract Society. 6/-. 
Sir W. Scott. Qtientin Durward (Louis XI. and the Scottish Guard). 

Black. 1/6. 
G. P. R. James. Mary of Burgundy (1477). Warne. -/6. 



Period 1485-1603— 

Harrison Ainsworth. The Star Chamber. Routledge. 2/-. 
Everett Green. Evil May Day (1517). Nelson. 2/6. 

— The Church and the King (Dissolution of the Monasteries). 
Nelson. 5/-. 

A. Manning. The Household of Sir Thomas More (Diary of Margaret 

Roper). Hall. 2/6. 
Harrison Ainsworth. Windsor Castle {YiGnxyVWl.). Routledge. 2/-. 
C. M. Yonge. The Armourer''s Prentices (Divorce). Macmillan. 3/6. 
Mark Twain. The Prince and the Pauper (Edward VI.). Chatto. 

3/6. 
Stanley Weyman. Francis Cludde (Mary Tudor). Cassell. 6/-. 
Harrison Ainsworth. Tower of London (Lady J. Grey). Routledge. 

Kingsley. Westward Ho ! (Elizabeth's Seadogs). Macmillan. 2/6. 
Sir W. Scott. The Monastery (Murray's Regency). Black. 1/6. 

— The Abbot {"Loch 'Ltveix). Black. 1/6. 

— Kenilworth (Amy Robsart). Black. 1/6. 

Whyte Melville. The Queen^s Maries (Mary of Scots). Longmans. 

1/6. 
Eliza Pollard. A G cntleman of England {^\xV.^\dn&y). Addison. 5/-. 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 153 

C. M. Yonge. Unknown to History (Mary of Scots in Captivity). 

Macmillan. 3/6. 
Everett Green. Loyal Hearts and True (Queen Elizabeth). Nelson. 

5/-. 
Henty. Under Drake's Flag. Blackie. 6/-. 

— St. Bartholomew'' s Eve. Blackie. 6/-. 

Robert Leighton. Under the Foeman's Flag {ATma.da.). Melrose. 3/6. 
Mrs. Marshall. Penshurst Castle (Sir P. Sidney). Seeley. 5/-. 
Hon. E. Lawless. With Essex in Ireland. Smith, Elder. 6/-. 

— Maclcho (Irish Rising of 1579). Smith, Elder. 6/-. 
Kingsley. Plays and Puritans (Essays), Macmillan. 3/6. 

Reed. Sir Lndar (Ireland. Queen Elizabeth). Sampson Low. 
2/6. 

Charles Reade. The Cloister and the Hearth (for Picture of Middle 
Ages. Erasmus). Chatto. 3/6. 

Mrs. Charles. The Schonbcrg Cotta Family (Luther). Nelson. 3/6. 

Author of " Mdlle. Mori". In the Olden Time (Peasant War in Ger- 
many, 1525). Longmans. 2/6, 

C. M. Yonge. The Dove in the Eagle's Nest (Maximilian). Mac- 
millan. 3/6. 

G. Eliot. Romola (Savonarola). Blackwood. 3/6. 

Yeats. The Honour of Savelli (Cassar Borgia). Sampson Low. 2/6. 

Grace Aguilar. Vale of Cedars (Ferdinand and Isabella). Groom- 
bridge. 5/-. 

Gordon Stables. Westward ijvith Columbus. Blackie. 5/-. 

Author of " Dark Year of Dundee ". The Spanish Brothers (Persecu- 
tions). Nelson. 4/-. 

Henty. By Pike and Dyke (Netherlands). Blackie. 6/-. 

— By England's Aid (Netherlands). Blackie. 6/-. 
Liefde. The Beggars (Netherlands). Hodder. 3/6. 

Everett Green. S/m^ /w (Siege of Antwerp, 1585). Nelson. 5/-. 

Stanley Weyman. The House of the Wolf [St. Bartholomew). Long- 
mans. 3/6. 

C. M. Yonge. The Chaplet of Pearls (St. Bartholomew). Macmillan. 
3/6. 

Stanley Weyman. A Gentleman of France (Henry III. and the 
League). Longmans. 6/-. 

James, //t^w^'j o/Gm/s^ (the States of Blois. League Times). Rout- 
ledge. 2/-. 

Sir W. Scott. Marmion (a tale of Flodden Field). 

— The Lady of the Lake (James V. and Douglas). 

— The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1557). 



154 Work and Play in Girls' Schools 

Tennyson. Columbus : a poem. 

— Queen Mary : a drama, 

— The Revenge : a Ballad of the Fleet. 

Period 1603-1660— 

Sir Walter Scott. The Fortunes of Nigel (Court of James I.). Black. 
1/6. 

— A Legend of Montrose (Montrose and Argyle, 1645). Black. 
1/6. 

— H^oorfi^oc* (Cavaliers and Roundheads). Black. 1/6. 
Harrison Ainsworth. Guy Fawkes. Routledge. 2/-. 
Shorthouse. John Inglesant (perfect Picture of Court of Charles I.). 

Macmillan. 3/6. 
Whyte Melville. Holniby House (Cavaliers and Roundheads). 

Longmans. 1/6. 
Edna Lyall. To Right the Wrong (Cavaliers and Roundheads). 

Hurst & Blackett. 6/-. 
A. J. Church. With the King at Oxford (Charles I.). Seeley. 5/-. 
J. S. Fletcher. When Charles the First was King. Bentley. 3 vols. 

31/6. 
Author of "The Schonberg Cotta Family". The Draytons and the 

Davenants (Civil Wars). Nelson & Sons. 3/6. 
Wilkie Collins. Hide and Seek (Civil Wars). Chatto. 3/6. 
George Macdonald. St. George and St. Michael (Civil Wars. Siege 

of Raglan Castle). Kegan Paul. 3/6. 
Rev. A. D. Crake. Fairleigh Hall (Civil Wars). Mowbray. 2/6. 
M. and E. Lee. Rosamond Fane (Escape of Duke of York). Griffith 

& Farran. 3/6. 
Anna Glyn. A Pearl of the Realm (Civil Wars. Nonsuch Palace). 

Hutchinson. 6/-. 
Emma Marshall. A Haunt of Ancient Peace (Little Gidding), Seeley. 

5/- 
Edited by Canon Carter. Nicholas Ferrar (not a story ; account of 
Little Gidding). Longmans. 6/-. 

— Brave Dame Mary (Siege of Corfe Castle). S.P.C.K. 2/-. 

C. M. Yonge. Under the Storm (Cavaliers and Roundheads). 

National Society. 3/6. 
Miss Holt. Ashcliffe Hall (Cavaliers and Roundheads). Silver & 

Co. 3/6. 
Harrison Ainsworth. Boscohel. Routledge. 2/-. 
Emma Marshall. The White King's Daughter (Charles L). Seeley. 

3/6. 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 155 

Emma Marshall. Under Salisbury's Spire (George Herbert). Seeley. 

5/-. 

Marryat. The Children of the New Forest (Cavalier story for chil- 
dren). Routledge. 2/-. 

Author of "The Schonberg Cotta Family". On Both Sides of the 
Sea (Commonwealth and Restoration). Nelson. 5/-. 

D. G. McChesney. Miriam CroniwelVs Royalist, Blackwood & 
Son. 6/-. 

Miss Manning. Mary Powell (Diary of Milton's Wife). Hall. 2/6. 

Field. Ethne (Cromwell in Ireland). Wells, Gardner. 6/-. 

Alfred de Vigny. Cinq Mars (in French. Richelieu). Calmann Levy. 
2 vols. 8 francs. 

G. P. R. James. Richelieu, Warne. -/6. 

Stanley Weyman. Under the Red Robe (Richelieu). Methuen. 6/"-. 

— My Lady Rotha (Thirty Years' War). Innes. 6/-. 

Henty. The Lion of the North [Gusidiwn^ Pi.do\^hMs). Blackie. 6/-. 
Sir W. Scott. Rokeby (Marston Moor). 
Browning. Strafford. 

Period 1660-1714— 

Sir Walter Scott. Old Mortality (Lauderdale and Claverhouse). 
Black. 1/6. 

— Peveril of the Peak (Popish Plot). Black. 1/6. 

— The Bride of Lammermoor (lyoo). Black. 1/6. 

— The Black Dwarf (Jacobites). Black. 1/6. 

Austin Clare. The Carved Cartoon (Plague and Great Fire). S.P.C.K. 

3/- 
Henty. When London Burned. (Plague and Great Fire). Blackie. 

5/- 
Harrison Ainsworth. Old St, Paul's. (Plague and Great Fire). 

Routledge. 2/-. 
Miss Manning. Cherry and Violet (Plague and Great Fire). Nimmo. 

6/-. 
Anthony Hope. Simon Dale (Treaties of Dover). Methuen & Co. 

6/.. 
Edna Lyall. In the Golden Days (Algernon Sidney). Hurst & 

Blackett. 6/-. 
Emma Marshall. Winchester Meads (Bishop Ken). Seeley. 5/-. 
Conan Doyle. Micah Clarke (Monmouth's Rebellion). Longmans. 

3/6. 
M. and C. Lee. The Oak Staircase (Monmouth's Rebellion). Griffith 

& Farran. 3/6. 



156 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Blackmore. Lorna Doone (Monmouth's Rebellion). S. Low. 2/6. 
Walter Besant. For Faith and Freedom (Monmouth's Rebellion). 

Chatto. 3/6. 
Everett Green. In Taunton Town (Monmouth's Rebellion). Nelson. 

5/-. 
A.E.Mason. The Courtship of Maurice Buckler (16S5). Macmillan. 

6/-. 
Mary Peard. To Horse and Away (Charles II.). National Society. 

3/6. 
Mary Rowsell. Traitor or Patriot (Rye House Plot). Blackie. 3/6. 
Stanley Weyman. Shrewsbury (a Romance of the Reign of William 

III.). Longmans. 6/-. 
Henty. Orange and Green (B. Boyne). Blackie. 5/-. 
Emma Marshall. Kensington Palace. Seeley. 5/-. 
Anon. The Last 0/ the Cavaliers {16S8). Bentley. 6/-. 
Henty. The Bravest 0/ the Brave {Peterhro in Spain). Blackie, 5/-. 
M. Rowsell. Thorndyke Manor (Jacobite). Blackie. 3/6. 
Conan Doyle. The Refugees (Revocation of the Edict of Nantes). 

Longmans. 3/6. 
Thackeray. Esmond (Jacobites. Anne's Reign). Smith, Elder. 1/6. 

Period 1714-1815— 

Sir W. Scott. Rob Roy (Rising of 1715). Black. i/6. 

— The Heart of Midlothian (Porteous Riots). Black. 1/6. 

— Waverley (Rising of 1745). Black. 1/6. 

— Guy Mannering (1750). Black. 1/6. 

— Red Gauntlet (Jacobites, 1770). Black. 1/6. 

— The Antiquary (1798). Black. 1/6. 
Henty. Bonny Prince Charlie. Blackie. 6/-. 

— A Jacobite Exile (in service of Charles XII. of Sweden). 
Blackie. 5/. 

— With Frederick the Great (Seven Years' War). Blackie. 6/-. 

— Hold Fast for England (Siege of Gibraltar). Blackie. 5/-. 

— With Clive in India. Blackie. 6/-. 

— With Wolfe in Canada. Blackie. 6/-. 

— In the Reign of Terror. Blackie. 5/-. 

— True to the Old Flag (War of American Independence). 
Blackie. 6/-. 

— One of the Twenty-eighth (Waterloo). Blackie. 5/-. 

— With Moore at Corunna. Blackie. 6/-. 

— Through Russian Sfiows. Blackie. 5/-. 

Walter Besant. Dorothy Forster (Rising of 1715). Chatto. 3/6. 



Teaching Modern History to Senior Classes. 157 

Thackeray. The Four Georges. Smith, Elder. i/6. 

Andrew Lang. Pickle the Spy (Young Glengarry. Ellibank Plot). 

Longmans. i8/.. 
Author of "Atelier du Lys". Mistress Beatrice Cope (Rising, 1745). 

Hurst & Blackett. 3/6. 
Harrison Ainsworth. Preston Fight. Routledge. 2/-. 
Thackeray. The Virginians. Smith, Elder. 5/-. 
Author of "The Schonberg Cotta Family". Diary of Mrs. Kitty 

Trevylyan (Wesley). Nelson & Sons. 3/6. 

— Against the Stream (End of i8th Century). S.P.C.K. 4/-. 
Dickens. Barnaby Rudge (Gordon Riots). Chapman & Hall. 2/6. 
Walter Besant. The Chaplain of the Fleet (Fleet Marriages). Chatto. 

3/6. 

Sarah Tytler. The Huguenot Family (Refugees in England). Chatto. 
,2/. 

Fenimore Cooper. The Last of the Mohicans (English and Ameri- 
cans). Routledge. 2/-. 

G. Parker. The Trail of the Sword (French in America). Methuen. 
6/-. 

Emma Marshall. The Four Reigns (George HL to Victoria). 
Seeley. 5/-. 

— In Colston's Days (Old Bristol). Seeley. 5/-. 

— Under the Mendips (Hannah More). Seeley. 5/-. 

)ickens. A Tale of Two Cities (French Revolution). Chapman & 
Hall. 2/6. 

Stanley Weyman. The Red Cockade (French Revolution). Long- 
mans. 6/-. 

Luthor of " Mdlle. Mori ". The Atelier du Lys (French Revolution). 
Longmans. 2/6. 

[arriet Martineau. The Peasant and the Prince (French Revolution). 
Routledge. 1/6. 

E. Coleridge. The King with Two Faces (Gustavus HL of 
Sweden. French Revolution). Edward Arnold. 6/-. 

luthor of "Mdlle. Mori". On the Edge of the Storm (French Re- 
volution). Warne. 3/6. 

''elix Gras. The Reds of the Midi (French Revolution). Heinemann. 
3/6. 
rah Tytler. Citoyenne Jacqueline (French Revolution). Chatto. 

Whyte Melville. Sts^^r Low w (French Revolution). Ward, Lock. 2/-. 
C. J. A., author of " Good Fight of Faith ". In Palace and Faubourg 
(French Revolution). Nelson. 5/-. 



158 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Author of " Atelier du Lys ". A Child of the Revolution. Longmans, 

2/6. 
F. M. Peard. Mother Molly (Threatened Invasion of Napoleon). 

Bell. 5/-. 
Conan Doyle. Uncle Bernac (Napoleon). Smith, Elder. 6/-. 

— Brigadier Gerard (Napoleon). Newnes. 6/-. 
Tolstoi. War and Peace (Napoleon's Russian Campaign, for teachers). 

W. Scott. 4 vols. 2/6 a vol. 



159 



THE TEACHING OF ANCIENT HISTORY. 

By Mary Hanbidge, M.A. (Lond.). 

The importance of history as a school subject has 
been fully discussed in an earlier section. General 
But " history," as taught in schools, too scope, 
often connotes merely English, or, at best, modern 
history. Hence the necessity of asserting separately 
the claim of ancient history, though in the very fact 
that it is not a separate subject, lies its importance. 

The progressive development of the human race is 
a scientific axiom. If we ignore the continuity of 
history, we tend to base our teaching only on facts, 
rather than on the laws which form the bond of 
sequence between them. Thus the sense of historical 
proportion is never awakened ; and the girl so trained 
may know in detail the history of England, and the 
history of the Israelites, but has little idea of their 
relation to the rest of the modern or ancient world. 
The child of to-day cannot attain to a true under- 
standing of the history and culture of her own nation 
unless she has some ideas of the civilisation we inherit. 
The Renaissance is a fact which every text-book 
emphasises, and every schoolgirl knows ; but what 
does she know of its spirit ? How little can she 
realise the enthusiasm that stirred those "spacious 
times " if she is an utter stranger to the " glory that 
was Greece, and the greatness that was Rome " ! 



i6o Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Again, in neglecting ancient history, we lose sight of 
the homogeneity of the human race, that oneness which 
Thucydides felt would make his history not merely 
a passing record, but a prophecy e? to ad. And in 
truth the ancient city states grappled with many of 
the social and political problems of to-day. They are 
set before us in miniature, we see them in their en- 
tirety, and their solution guides or warns us. The 
influence of capital in politics, the depopulation of 
country districts, the dangers of a foreign corn supply, 
the drifting of democracy to socialism, and the treat- 
ment of subject races, were questions of as vital impor- 
tance for Greece and Rome as they are to-day. So 
true is Dr. Arnold's paradox that the ancient world is 
the most modern of all. Thus regarded, ancient history 
forms a valuable mental training for upper forms, a 
training which, in the case of girls, is especially useful, 
since women too often do not realise the modern 
problems in which they are unconscious factors. A 
further advantage is the accessibility of the original 
authorities, even to a school class. Here at least they 
are not dependent on retrospective theories, but can 
see how the history of the day impressed the men who 
made it — a result not so easily obtainable in other 
branches of history. 

To turn to the practical teaching of the subject. 
General From the beginning, the child must be 

suggestions, trained to realise that the history of the 
world is a whole. Throughout the school, ancient and 
mediaeval history should be taught side by side with 
that of England and Palestine. English history may 
with advantage be taught in less detail, and time thus 
secured for the sister subject. In French and German 



The Teaching of Ancient History. i6i 

schools this system is definitely adopted ; we append 
a German scheme. If possible, the subject should be 
in the hands of the same teacher, that the correlation 
of interest may be duly emphasised. In classes 
where reading lessons are given, poems, plays, etc., 
which bear upon the history, should be chosen, and 
may suggest subjects for composition. A geography 
lesson should precede the history course, and the 
importance of geography throughout cannot be over- 
estimated. 

With young children history proper is an im- 
possibility, but an interest in the life of the Graduated 
past may be awakened very early. The qq^^q\ 
mental development of the child epitomises Ages 9-10. 
that of the race, and in the record of a nation mythology 
precedes history. In the lowest classes of the Chelten- 
ham Ladies' College a course of stories from Greek 
mythology has met with marked success. Quite little 
children know Jason, with his one sandal, as well as 
they do Cinderella, and Athene is a familiar friend, 
whose picture they recognise. Cavillers may say that 
we are only teaching fairy tales, but the same children 
grown a little older see their Athene the central point 
of all the glories of Periclean Athens, and find them- 
selves in a world they know. 

Such a course will begin with a talk about the 
Greeks and their Gods, pass on to the heroes, and end 
with the " Tale of Troy Divine," the wanderings of 
Odysseus, and the story of Thebes ; of course these will 
be stories pure and simple, not vehicles for any aetio- 
logical theory, and the success will depend entirely on 
the descriptive power of the teacher. 

We are now on the threshold of history, and since 
II 



1 62 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 

a child is naturally anthropomorphic, the personal 
Course B. element must be made the most prominent. 
Ages IO-I2. Xhis course will therefore consist of a series 
of biographies, but biographies introductory to history. 
The men therefore whom we choose must be men 
who make or mark a period, and their lives must 
be closely connected. For this Greek history offers 
greater facilities than Roman, where the personal 
element is weaker. 

The following series is suggested : — 

I. Lyciirgus (the dawn of history) ; revive know- 
ledge of Atridai ; new Peloponnesus, cf. Heptarchy; 
Lycurgus and his laws ; rise of Sparta. 2. Solon, law- 
giver of Athens. 3. Pisistratus^ the tyranny ; rise of 
free Athens. 4. Cra'.stis, Cyrus, Cambyses ; Asiatic 
Greece, connection with Bible history. 5. Darius and 
his wrath against Athens. 6. Miltiades and Marathon. 
7. Themistocles and Salamis. 8. Pausanias, victor of 
Plataea ; his insolence and fall. 9. CzV;/^^, expulsion 
of Persians from yEgean. 10. Pericles and his 
Athens ; Sparta's jealousy ; the war. 1 1 . Brasidas 
and Demosthenes. 12. Nicias and the Sicilian expe- 
dition. 13. Lysander and fall of Athens. 14. 
Socrates and degradation of Athens. 15. Agesilaus 
and the fall of Sparta. 16. Conon and the rebuilding 
of the walls. 17. Epaminondas, the humbling of 
Sparta. 18. Philip of Macedon and his plans. 19. 
Demosthenes and how he failed to stop them. 20. 
Alexander. 

In these two courses no text-books need be used 
or notes taken, but the children should be required to 
tell the tale of the last lesson, either viva voce or in 
writing. The appended chart should be used through- 



The Teaching of Ancient History. 163 

out this course, and will show the connection with 
Jewish history. 

History of Rome to B.C. 31. We now come to 
history proper, necessarily in outline. This ,, 

"^ ^ /^ -' Course C. 

must not be mere chronology, but a series 
of connected pictures of events. Such dates as are 
given must be the dates of a century. We suggest 
that Rome should form the subject of this course, 
since in the story of the nations Rome follows Greece. 
Rome touches the world the children already know, 
as mistress of Britain, and heir of Alexander, while 
Pyrrhus and Philip V. of Macedon are connecting 
links with the Hellenistic age, as a rule a terra in- 
cognita. Antiochus and the Maccabees will connect 
it with Jewish history. For chart of connection with 
Course A see end. 

Augustus to Charlemagne. The Germans recog- 
nise the importance of this period. In course d. 
England, forming as it does the link between ^^^^ ^3-m- 
ancient and modern history, it is taught with neither, 
and yet it is the key to the race question of modern 
Europe. We suggest a scheme whose two connecting 
links are : the rise of Christianity and the barbarian 
migrations. i. Augustus ; Tiberius ; Claudius. 2. 
Nero; the Christians. 3. Vespasian.; Titus; fall of 
Jerusalem. 4. Roman life ; Pompeii. 5. Britain 
and the expansion of the empire under Trajan. 6. 
Marcus Aurelius ; Christianity and Paganism ; death 
of Oracles. 7. Diocletian ; last persecutions of 
Christians ; barbarians ; inroads. 8. Constantine, 
first Christian emperor ; Constantinople. 9. Julian ; 
reaction against Christianity ; Franks ; Strasburg 
(357)- 10. Alaric and Visigoths (410). 11. Attila and 



164 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 

Huns (450). 12. Fall of empire. 13. Alexandria. 
14. Theodoric and Ostrogothic kingdoms. 15. Clovis 
and Frankish kingdoms. 16. Descendants of Clovis ; 
Brunhilda and Fredegond ; extension of Frankish 
kingdom. 17. Monastic age, Celtic and Roman ; 
Gregory the Great ; rise of Papacy ; Gregory and 
Brunhilda; Augustine. 18. Mahomet. 19. Caliphs: 
spread of Mahometanism in Asia, Africa, Spain. 
20. Saracens repulsed (732) ; Charles Martel. 21. 
Faineant kings ; mayors of palace. 22. Charlemagne. 
23. Holy Roman empire. 

In the higher classes of a school we may assume a 
History for ^^i^ knowledge of outline history. Periods 
higher classes, ^g^j-jj^g on the classical reading should be 
selected and read in detail. Typical periods as 
" The Empire of Athens and the Age of Pericles," 
and " The Age of Augustus ". 

A standard history should be worked through, and 
other books, notably the original historians, will be 
suggested. A lending library is therefore essential. 
An essay subject will be set in connection with each 
lecture to form a centre for reading. 

Throughout, the importance of concrete illustrations 
cannot be too strongly insisted upon. In 

Illustrations. , .11. 1 1 

many places the lectures can be supple- 
mented by visits to local museums, Roman relics, etc. 
{e.g., Ched worth Villa near Cheltenham, Gloucester 
Museum, Bath). For elder classes a visit to the British 
Museum would obviously be helpful, but it is wonder- 
fully easy to interest even quite young children. A 
board schoolboy of eleven, who was wandering aim- 
lessly about the Elgin room, was delighted when I 
showed him the Nemesis head and told him the story 



The Teaching of Ancient History. 165 

of the Persian Invincible Armada, which never set up 
its trophy. 

Invaluable help can also be obtained from the Educa- 
tional Museum of the Teachers' Guild. A full cata- 
logue is published, in which we specially notice (1) 
illustrations of Greek dress, which might be copied 
by the mythology class (Course A) ; (2) maps and 
plans, especially of Athens and Rome (Holzel) ; (3) 
coins, museum reproductions ; (4) portraits ; (5) lan- 
tern slides. Mention may also be made of views of 
the English Photographic Co., Constitution Square, 
Athens, who send a priced catalogue ; the series of 
card reliefs, 6d. each, by Lecherchier, Barbe et Cie., 
to be obtained from the Art Schools Association, 21 
Queen's Square, Bayswater ; card illustrations from 
Menge's Antike Kunst. These illustrations would be 
of double value were they the permanent possession of 
the class-room ; the class could then become really 
familiar with each one. It would be a great booii if a 
central loan collection could be formed by some such 
body as the Teachers' Guild, from which illustrations 
of special periods could be borrowed term by term, a 
plan which at present is only adopted for lantern 
slides. This would give access to a greater selection 
of pictures and models than a single school can provide, 
and might lead to the development of the historical 
side of the school museum, and the consequent forma- 
tion of a school archaeological society. 

Kiepert's wall-maps may be taken for granted. The 
list in the Teachers' Guild catalogue is 

1 1 r 1 1 Maps, 

helpful, but a teacher must make her own 

period maps. (White blind holland is an excellent 

material.) 



1 66 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

1. Text-books, {a) Roman. Creighton's Pfimer ; 

E. S. Shuckburgh's History of Rome for Be- 

Books. . , _^. /. r-. ,TT ,,, -, 

ginners and History of Rome ; Well s Short 
History of Rome to the death of Augustus; How and 
l^Gigh's History of Rome ; Mom m sen's History of Rome 
(abridged for schools) ; Pelham's Outlines of Roman 
History {^poch. Series) ; Bury's Student's Roman Empire. 

{b) Greek. Fyffe's Primer; Oman's History of 
Greece; Cox's General History of Greece (Epoch Series) ; 
Butcher's Demosthenes. 

{c) Transition. Freeman's Europe (Primer) ; Free- 
man's General Sketch of European History. 

2. Historical atlases. Student's Kiepert. 

3. Suggestions for school library in connection with 
junior courses. Miss Gardner's Friends of the Olden 
Time and Rome the Centre of the World ; Church's 
Stories; Cox's Tales of Ancient Greece; Kings ley's 
Heroes and Poems ; Macaulay's Lays ; Hawthorne's 
Tanglewood Tales ; Epics and Romances of the Middle 
Ages (Wagner and Anson) ; Lang, Leaf and Myers' 
Iliad; Butcher and Lang's Odyssey; Worsley's Odys- 
sey; Morris' Earthly Paradise and Life and Death 
of fason ; Browning's Balaustion and Aristophanes' 
Apology ; Miss A. Swan wick's Aischylus ; Tennyson's 
CEnone, etc. ; Milton ; Atlas of Classical Portraits — (a) 
Roman ; {b) Greek (published by Dent) ; Baumeisler's 
Bilder aus dem Altcrthum. 

German Scheme for History Teaching : — 

1st year. Greek legends and German sagas. 

2nd year. Pictures of ancient German and Prussian 
history, Cyrus to the Emperor Frederick. 

3rd year. German and Prussian history, from in- 
vasion of barbarians to the Emperor Frederick, 



The Teaching of Ancient History. 167 

4th year. Ancient history to invasions of bar- 
barians (every fortnight, one hour's repetition of Ger- 
man and Prussian history). 

5th year. German history, from invasion of bar- 
barians to 1648. 

6th year. From 1648 to the present day, with 
special stress on general history of civilisation. 
PARALLEL CHART FOR THE YOUNGER CLASSES. 



Year. 


Biblical History. 


Greece. 


Rome. 


1400 








' 


1300 


Exodus. 


Troy? 






1200 


Samson. 








1 100 




• 






1000 


David. 








goo 




Homer ? 






800 




Lycurgus ? 




Rome. 


700 










600 


Nebuchadnezzar. 
Belshazzar. Cyr 


Solon, 
us. Pisistratus. 






500 


Temple rebuilt. Dar 


ius. 




Expulsion of Kings. 




Esther. Xer 


xes. Miltiades. Themistocles. 








Pericles. 






400 




Socrates. 
Epaminondas. 




The Gauls. 


300 




Alexander. 










(Ptolemies.) 


(Pyrr 


hus.) 
ist Punic War. 


200 


(Antio 


chus.) 


(Philip of 


M acedon . Hannibal.) 




(Maccabees.) 




Poly 


bius. 


100 


Herod the Great. 


(Cleopatra.) 




Corinth. Carthage, 
j Cicero. Pompey. 
(Julius Ccesar. 


A.D. 


Birth of Christ. 






Augustus. 



At the beginning of Course B, Column I. (except the names in brackets) 
will be marked on the chart. Column H. as far as Alexander to be filled in 
during Course B. Column HL and the brackets of Columns L and U. to be 
filled in during Course C, 



i68 



TIME-MAPS. 
By Dorothea Beale. 

The practice of representing to the eye by means of 
diagrams the facts of science, physical and social, is 
becoming more common : we have jagged lines in- 
dicating fluctuations in the winds or in the stocks. 
In an American record which has been sent to me, 
there are coloured squares representing the thousands 
of children who are regular in their attendance at 
school, black squares standing for the defaulting 
thousands. By such means we can see at a glance 
what the mind finds it difficult otherwise to realise ; 
it furnishes a framework into which we can fit any- 
thing we wish to locate. 

It is hardly necessary to say that for any orderly 
study of history it is necessary to have some scheme 
into which we may fit the subjects of study. As well 
might we expect by learning latitude and longitude 
to understand the position of places on the earth's 
surface, as by learning dates to get a clear idea of the 
relative position of events in time. We want some 
Historical form of map which will represent the events 
Charts. ^^ ^^^ ^y^ Many excellent charts have 

been drawn up giving us parallel histories, but the 
great difficulty is their prodigious size. Time is one- 
dimensional, and if we give a small linear space to a 
century, and try to represent a few thousand years, the 



Time-Maps. 



169 



mind fails to grasp the picture ; if the scale of the dif- 
ferent periods varies, the proportion is wrong. For this 
reason rivers and trees of time, etc., have been more 
or less failures; they are useful and interesting, but 
the objection is, that they are either too large and 
detailed to be carried in the memory, or that the 
landmarks are too slight. The Methode Mnemonique 
Polonaise, which is much used in France, was introduced 
to my notice, and first used by me at Queen's College : it 
has the great advantage of compactness — it is in form 
like a geographical map. It can be adapted to various 
purposes, but I shall dwell now on its applications as 
a record of time, and show the different ways in which 
it can be used by little children, though it is equally 
ell adapted for Tom Brown at Oxford (who seems 
to have used it) and for the mature student of history. 
It may be made for little ones into a system of object- 
lessons, or hieroglyphics, if you will, which appeal to 
the child's imagination and help him to realise some- 
thing of the proportion of things, and whilst looking 
at the world, as each of us must, from our own " pin- 
point," yet see life in relation to the lives of others. 
It is compact ; it shows at a glance the relations of 
events. We can have a world-map and give only the 
great landmarks, or we may by a map of large propor- 
tions work out to any degree of detail a short period. 
The plan is to make a square of ten represent a 
century, and each horizontal line a decade. Thus: — 



lyo Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 



O I 

1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


lO 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 
29 
39 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 
34 


25 


26 


27 


28 


30 


31 


32 


33 


35 


36 


37 


38 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 
82 


73 

83 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


84 


85 


86 


87 


88 


89 


90 


91 


92 


93 


94 


95 


96 


97 


98 


99 



It will at once be seen that all the numbers in the first 
line of a century are units, in the second tens, in the 
third twenties, and so on ; whilst, if we look down the 
vertical line, all the numbers in the first row end with 
nought, in the second with one, and so on. The thick 
line is intended to help the eye ; we have forty and 
fifty on each side of the horizontal thick line, four and 
five on each side of the vertical. A few minutes' 
practice will generally enable the pupil to read off 
numbers rapidly from a blank square. He will then 
have to learn the position of the marks in any century, 
as he would learn the geography of a country, or the 
shape of a constellation. Take, for example, the Eng- 
lish history of the fourteenth century. We mark 
Edward II., in 1307; Edward III., in 1327; Richard 
II., 1377; Henry IV., 1399. The dates need not be 



Time-Maps. 



171 



learned ; we have the picture of the century in our mind 
and can read off the square. 



Some children take much pleasure in making and 
painting illustrated charts. I have one on a large scale 
of the sixteenth century, giving the accession of Queen 
Mary — 1553, and a picture of the Tower, to which 
Northumberland and others were sent'. A block in 
1554 tells of the executions consequent on Wyatt's 
rebellion, and a dove with an olive branch of Philip's 
intercession for Elizabeth — 1555 ; there is a picture of 
a martyr at the stake, and a hand in the flames for 
Cranmer — 1557 ; a scroll stands (or the first Covenant 
in Scotland, and a sword for the war with France — 
1558; there is a heart with Calais written on it. 

Here is a specimen of a chart with a key of the 



172 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 





n 



t-i 










Q 



Time-Maps. 



173 



c 
X 





t 




? 


t 


00 

In 


1 


in 


? 


t 






K 




t 


«5 




^ "o-o « 

< 




? 


Pi 


. .2'S v^ " 




oH 


1 


4 


u^ 


^ 


i 




^H 
"1^ 


(T) 


41 c 


.s 



i 


lo 


1 


1 





1 


^ 




ro 


■+ 


1500. 

Columbus 
prisoner. 
Jubilee. 


6 

m 






if ill 



174 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 





I^ 



@ 



/'J*- 



« 



^ 




Time-Maps. 



175 



to c 


f 


i 


> 

If? c 

4) 


i 


Elizabeth. 
Ferdinand I. 


i 


1 


< 


*2i 


lo 


K. 

^ 






to 


^ E 

in a 

" 2 



t 






i 


. 3 . 


i 


IT) 


f 


1 


i 




If? c 

3: 


ill 




1553- 

Mary 

Spenser 

born. 


^51 


f^ 


f 


■ill 


i 


i 




i 


i 


10 


i 


ft 


f, 


a 




H 


R 


i 


&|il 
i||i 



176 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

sixteenth century.^ It will be seen from this how 
events in contemporary history can be introduced. 
Thus the first year, 1500, reminds us of the discovery 
of America, and of the great jubilee, the precursor of 
the Papal downfall ; the Jleiir de lys standing for the 
French kings and the cross for the German Emperors, 
tell of the accession of Francis I. and Charles V. 
Portraits are given of English sovereigns. We have 
later the massacre of St. Bartholomew with daggers, a 
ship for the Armada, etc., etc. 

In the charts I have published,- I have given only 
English kings ; when these are fixed in the memory, 
events of general history can be gradually introduced, 
and paper ruled on any scale required. 

If the chart is studied as a whole, either in reference 

^ It may be well to add that I am not ignorant of the discussions re- 
specting the proper beginning of a century. Is the year 1800 the last 
year of the eighteenth or the first year of the nineteenth century ? Our 
dates have been translated from the Latin ordinals, and we ought to 
say the eighteen-hundredth year, instead of the year eighteen-hundred. 
I have deliberately preferred to conform the chart to the vulgar tongue. 
If I did not, the numbers in the first line would contain nine units and 
one ten, instead of all units; the second line of tens would contain 
one twenty, and so on. If we are content to use the inaccurate lan- 
guage of daily life, bearing in mind that it requires correction, and 
making such corrections when we are engaged in important histori- 
cal or astronomical calculations, we may well be content to do the 
same with the chart. I shall, therefore, consider the life of a century 
as that of a centenarian. We say of a child that he is in his ist, 2nd, 
3rd, etc., year, when he is o, i, 2, etc., years old ; so, also, a person is 
in his looth year when he is 99 years old ; and he has lived a century 
at the close of this year, for the cardinal marks the number of com- 
pleted years, the ordinal the number of the year in progress. So 1799 
is regarded as the closing year of the last century, 1800, 1801, as the 
first and second of this. For a learned and elaborate discussion on 
the subject, and a list of authorities for the view adopted, see An 
Examination of the Century Question, George Bell, Fleet Street, 1850. 

^ Students^ Chronological Maps (Bell & Sons, 3s. 6d.). 



Time-Maps. 



177 



to English or modern history, it is convenient to divide 
it into four periods, of five hundred years each, corre- 
sponding to four Hnes in the chart, and to characterise 
each century. Then on a larger scale, for which we have 
sheets of paper ruled, we put in gradually certain 
landmarks, whilst giving lessons on modern history, 
such matters being written in as the teacher directs. 
The writer's text-book of English and general history, 
in which are given the sovereigns of the principal 
European countries, notable persons and events, etc., 
can be used for lessons in connection with the chart. \ 
I subjoin a syllabus of a course of lessons on 
modern history : — 



I St 

Christianity 


2nd 
Good 

Emperors 


3rd 

Military 

Despotism 


4th 
Constantine 


5th 
Fall of Rome 


6th 

Barbaric 

Wars 


7th 
Mahomet 


8th 
Charlemagne 


gth 
Alfred 


loth 
Feudalism 


nth 
Hildebrand 


1 2th 
Crusades 


13th 
Schoolmen 


14th 

Rise of 

Middle-class 


15 th 
Renaissance 


1 6th 
Reformation 


17th 

Religious 

Wars 


i8th 

Political 

Wars 


igth 
Revolution 


20th 



I. — In the first century we see Rome at the height of 
prosperity, victorious on all sides. During the second, 

^ For more complete lists of sovereigns and a selection of the more 
important dates, Beale's Student Text-book of English and Modern 
History may be referred to, and Students' Chronological Maps (Bell 
& Sons). 

12 



lyS Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

she maintains her position fairly under the good 
emperors. The third is a period of trouble and con- 
fusion, the empire is struggling for existence. In the 
fourth, the firm government of Constantine maintained, 
for a short time after his accession, comparative peace ; 
but the removal of the seat of government, and the subse- 
quent division of the empire, facilitated the barbaric 
triumphs of Radagaisus, Alaric, Attila and Genseric 
in the fifth ; and before its close, the Western empire 
had fallen, and Theodoric the Ostrogoth was king of 
Italy. This line embraces in Britain the 400 years 
of the Roman occupation, and a small portion of the 
Anglo-Saxon period. 

II. — In the second line we have the period of bar- 
barian settlements — tribes are changing into nations. 
The Anglo-Saxon invasions, the unceasing contests 
amongst the numerous petty kings, have terminated, 
by the middle of the tenth century, in the union of 
the country under Athelstane, the first who can pro- 
perly be called King of all England. In France we 
have the union of the Franks under Clovis, the 
constant civil wars, interminable divisictns, ^nd faineant: 
kings of the Merovingian period, the union of the 
country under Charlemagne, the renewed civil strife, 
subdivisions, and faineant kings of the Carlovingian 
line, and the accession of the third, or Capetian 
Dynasty. 

In Germany, too, order is being developed out of 
confusion, and, in the tenth century, the different 
nations have agreed to choose one king ; barriers are 
opposed to further invasion from without, free cities 
are rising, feudalism is being rapidly developed, the 
spirit of chivalry is felt, and the idea of a united 



Time-Maps. 179 

Christendom, subject to the emperor as temporal, to 
the pope as spiritual head, may be traced most dis- 
tinctly in the schemes of the Othos, and the attempt 
of Sylvester II. to rouse the European nations for a 
crusade. 

In Italy, so long a battlefield, the great republics 
are rising, and the pope from time to time asserting 
his independence. In the East, in Africa, in Spain, 
the Mahometan kingdoms have been established. 
During so turbulent a period, we must expect to find 
many heroes, and from these we may select Mahomet, 
Charlemagne and Alfred, as the central figures of the 
seventh, eighth and ninth centuries. 

III. — In the third line we have the formation of the 
states of modern Europe. The great nations of the 
West are no longer isolated units, for they have joined 
together in crusades against the East, they acknow- 
ledge one head in the popes. The popes, mighty in 
the person of Gregory VII. in the eleventh century, 
in Innocent III. in the thirteenth, have sunk to the 
lowest depths of ignominy in the person of Alexander 
VI. The Albigenses are almost exterminated in the 
thirteenth, but Wickliffe has preached in the lour- 
teenth. H uss and Jerome of Prague have been martyred 
at Constance early in the fifteenth, but Luther has begun 
to study the Scriptures. The middle classes, too, have 
been growing in importance, citizens have triumphed 
over warriors. The power of a turbulent chivalry has 
been destroyed by civil wars, the people have risen to 
power. The invention of gunpowder has changed the 
aspect of war, and the introduction of printing brought 
about a vast change in education ; great writers, as 
Chaucer and Dante, are beginning to produce their 



i8o Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

works in the vulgar tongue. America has, at the close 
of the period, been just discovered. 

IV. — In the last line we have a period marked first 
by struggles for religious, afterwards for political 
liberty, the long religious wars of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. The oppression of the aristocratic 
and papal powers during the preceding period led, in 
some instances, to the exaggeration of the monarchical 
authority, and to this are opposed the revolutions of 
the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 
which have in some instances produced a reaction in 
favour of despotism. The discovery of America has 
given an extraordinary impulse to naval enterprise, 
to colonisation and commerce ; this, together with the 
diffusion of knowledge by printing, has greatly stimu- 
lated intellectual activity, and the mathematical and 
philosophical studies of the sixteenth century have 
prepared the way for the practical triumphs of our 
own day. 

Only a few leading dates have been marked in 
the published charts, which are coloured for different 
periods, but these may be added to indefinitely — 
sometimes by writing in additional signs or words to 
mark contemporary sovereigns, etc., but it is better not 
to multiply these too much ; for many things no signs 
need be used, as persons and things of minor impor- 
tance will become associated in the memory with 
the more important. Or again, suppose a special 
subject is taken up, as English literature or the 
history of painting, the name of a leading author or 
painter can be written across that portion of the 
century in which his chief works appeared, and all 
who belong to his school of thought will be easily 



Time-Maps. 



i8i 



remembered in connection with him. A chart of 
English literature has been published on this plan 
by Baker, Clifton. 

In the Chart of Ancient History, the numbers are 
read upwards and backwards. Thus : — 



99 
89 

79 
69 


98 


97 


96 95 


94 


93 


92 


91 


90 


88 


87 


86 , 85 


84 


83 


82 


81 


80 


78 


77 


76 1 75 


74 


73 


72 


71 


70 


68 


0, 


66 1 65 


64 


63 


62 


61 


60 


59 


58 


5' 


56 55 


54 


53 


52 


51 


50 


49 


48 


47 


46 


45 


44 


43 


42 


41 


40 


39 


38 


37 


36 


35 


34 


33 


32 


31 


30 


29 


28 


27 


26 


25 


24 


23 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 


17 


16 


15 


14 


13 


12 


II 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 








We give, in conclusion, photographs of two charts 
prepared for the Victorian Exhibition (1897) with a 
key. 

The first gives the chief events of the Queen's reign, 
the second the chief scientific discoveries. 



1 82 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 



- '■ 


;H 1 


J. 4 

! 


if 

1 




^ 


^ 








' ' 1 


|l 




< 




50 




- 




f 

'1 


^>^- 


OS 


0^ 


j 


1#4- 


IIS 


^ ^ ^. """"" 


 e»., 
5 ) 






^c4^ ^ 



Time-Maps. 



183 



2 



W 

H 

O 
H 

< 
X 
u 



C 



O 



x: 13 
.b o 



GO 00 



&i -Jo 



w 



^ i o 



^ Q 

00 -t, 



O 3 



. c 

CO '^ 



-- t^ 4-. 4J 



06 -5 



O M 

Oh 

C ^ 

S ^ 

I £ 

!>. o 






O 

42 



C/3 <u 

-? I 



O GO 



C o 



TO lO 

« 00 

Q '-^ 



s ^ 

I- 

O D 

o ^ 



Q m 



a 

^3 



O^ 





•^ 


_3 




1— 1 


"3 




4J 


N 




j: 


d> 


S, 




^ 


'O 


<u 






S 


^ 


C/3 







3 


3 




rt 


Di 



3 D 
OJ 3 
O 'O 



06 C 
00 ^ 

H' O 



"S ti I 



C/3 C 



C ^' 

c c 



Q 






dj I — > be 

. n 

M U 

GO « 
00 3 






^ o 

o <*-. 






O '^ 

C '^ 

U O 

o 

-^ 00 

3 H 






1 84 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 



i . 




^ 








L-*; 



i 



i 



^r=3^, y)' 








•■: 



u 




C^"^- 
#? 



I 



^ Di 



Time-Maps. 185 



^ be 



s ;^ ^ s g ?: 



o 

c 

Oh O 



HH CO 

w 



V 



H 






?^ 






< 53 .5 ^ c 



z 5 t^ ::' 



iU 






o 



o 7? ^ .- ^ -5 .1 ^ i ^ = g- 



(V '-'-I • 1) C ^ 3 C 



JD 


(J 


c« 





W) 


'c 


K 


rs 






^ 
% 
^ 


ii 


<u 


^3 




jj 




(75 


£ 












;£ 00 ~ u — 



u, r* v; oj be 






be 
c 










1 

C/2 


^ 


1) 





5 


X! 












U 



<U 



c Oh ^ ^ -a « 



w, » 



H -^ Oh ^ fc 



CO 



i86 



ECONOMICS FOR GIRLS. 
By Margaret Bridges. 

Nothing strikes a student of economics more forcibly 
Changed ^^^" ^^^ change which has come over public 
attitude of opinion with regard to this subject during 
towards the last few years. Until quite lately, it 
economics, j^^^ been regarded, except by scholars, with 
suspicion and dislike, accused of setting forth material 
wealth as the supreme object of human desire, and 
of ignoring all that is generous and disinterested in 
human nature. To-day things are very different : 
indeed it might be said we are all economists now. 
Some vestige, however, of the old prejudice still lingers 
in the minds of those who ask : " What is the good of 
teaching economics to Girls ? " 

(i) The student of economics is trained to think 
. . exactly, to reason closely, and to express 

given in hersclf clearly. No one surely would main- 

accuracy. ^^.^ \}[\-dX such training is less needed by 
girls than by boys. On the contrary, we are often 
assured that women are less accurate than men, and 
are constitutionally illogical. In any science, vague- 
ness of thought and looseness of expression are fatal 
to success, but the student of economics has a peculiar 
difficulty to overcome, for he finds no special vocabu- 
lary ready for his use. The terms used are for the 
most part those familiar in evcr\'day language, em- 



Economics for Girls. 187 

ployed however in a very definite and sometimes 
peculiar sense. Great care is needed in distinguishing 
between the ordinary and the economic meaning of 
such terms as utility, wealth, capital, value, and many 
others. And the training in scientific precision of 
language thus given is no small gain in these days of 
slip-shod English. 

(2) The study of economics tends to stimulate inde- 
pendent thoup;ht, and to develop " mental ^ 

^ C5 ' i Reasoning 

muscle". We take it for granted that the powers 
questions set for home work require an ^^^°P^ • 
application of the principles given, and not a mere 
reproduction of notes. The girls 7^iust think out 
the problems for themselves, for, as they truly remark 
sometimes : " We can't find the answers in our books ". 
Political economy certainly does not lend itself to 
cribbing or cramming — and we are thankful that our 
text-books supply no ready-made solutions of prob- 
lems. 

(3) We find that the study of the industrial conditions 
of our country gives an additional interest History 

to history. To read it with economic eyes [j^ofg'^^^ 
is to read it afresh, whilst to study it zui't/i- interesting. 
out them is to leave out a very important factor. 

(4) I would urge the great importance of giving our 
girls, especially those engaged in philan- interest 
thropic work, some knowledge of those puTJisi^^ 
economic principles upon which such work subject. 
must be based to do real good. We have learnt 
that this is not easy, and that incalculable mischief 
may be done by thoughtless benevolence, which is 
too often cruelty in disguise. Mr. Loch, in speak- 
ing of charity organisation, has said : " It is likely 



I 88 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

that we shall in the future draw our women secretaries 
from the ranks of those who have taken the trouble to 
study political economy". Of course, there must be 
the training of the heart as well as the head. Our 
theories, however perfect, will avail us little without the 
sympathetic insight that love alone can give, but 
perhaps women specially need to remember that sym- 
pathy itself must be guided by reason. Still it may 
be asked : " Can political economy, dealing as it does, 
for" the most part, with dry abstractions, be made 
interesting to girls ? " My experience is, that in no 
branch of their studies are the pupils more responsive 
or more ready to do their part of the work, and indeed 
to give often more than is actually demanded. 
They particularly enjoy the making of ori- 
suppiied by ginal diagrams (very original sometimes!), 
P"*^' ^' and occasionally so elaborate as to cost 

the teacher some anxious study. Much amusement 
may be got out of such seemingly unpromising 
material as even the Law of Diminishing Returns 
or Ricardo's Theory of Rent, when they are touched 
upon by an imaginative or artistic girl. To past 
generations of pupils I owe many apt illustrations 
and ingenious diagrams, which have been stored up 
for future use, because they were much better than 
any I had thought of myself. I think our lessons 
fail so[netimes, because we work so hard ourselves, 
that we leave our pupils nothing to do ! Now in 
economics we are dealing to a great extent with facts 
that are already familiar to them, so that we can con- 
stantly appeal to their own experience and observation, 
and the teacher will find that " interrogative lessons on 
the Socratic model " are particularly suited to this 



Economics for Girls. i8^ 

subject. The daily newspapers will furnish her with 
plenty of illustrations, and economic laws , 

Illustrations 

can be shown to be working themselves out drawn from 
before our eyes. What better comment ^' ^ ''^^' 
on the Laws of Demand and Supply could we wish 
for than that supplied by the recent " boom " and 
subsequent " slump " in the bicycle trade, or the 
speculation in seats during the late Jubilee ! The 
illustrations furnished by the girls themselves, from 
their own experience, are specially valuable. The 
daughters of Indian officers can testify to the dimin- 
ished purchasing power of the " vanishing rupee," 
whilst Irish girls are eloquent on the system of Land 
Tenure in their own country ; a banker's daughter will 
supply us with skilfully forged bank notes and bills of 
exchange, and on one occasion an Austrian pupil gave 
us some interesting information on the working of the 
Metayer system abroad. 

In teaching younger girls — say from fifteen to seven- 
teen — a sparing use should be made of text- 
books for home reading: paragraphs, ex- useoftext- 
emplifying or enlarging on the lesson given, °° ^" 
may be selected, but indiscriminate reading, for the 
average girl, at that age, is pretty sure to result— as 
she will candidly tell you — in her getting "hopelessly 
muddled ". Jevons' Primer of Political Economy is an 
admirable introduction to the subject, but avowedly 
does not cover the whole ground, and I regret to say 
that Professor Conner's very helpful text-book is now 
out of print. To a great extent indeed the teacher 
will find it necessary to form her own text-book, that 
is, to collect her materials from many sources, and 
adapt them to the use of her pupils. One feels in 



190 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

this, as in other subjects, that one cannot hope to do 
much more, in the limited time at our disposal, than 
awaken interest, and show what a wide field there 
Economics is to be explored. We are glad to know 
J5Jl!I;^ot;^„ that the subject is often continued after 

examination -' 

subject. school days are over. Many of our pupils 

are preparing for the Senior Oxford Examination, but 
economic lessons are given in non-examination classes 
as well. 

Some take up the subject again later for the Cam- 
bridge Higher Local, and have to make themselves ac- 
quainted with Adam Smith, J. S. Mill, and a host of 
more modern writers, hardly any of whom could have 
been placed in their hands with advantage at an earlier 
age, although they will unconsciously have imbibed 
much of their teaching and will find that their year's 
training in elementary economics will have helped 
them a long way on their road. 

In conclusion, we would advocate the study of 
Ethical con- ccouomics for girls, because we believe that 
Enk^gTd^' ^^ helps them to live in a larger world, and 
sympathies. U) take 3. more intelligent interest in the 
lives of those around them. 

The " sordid science " is lifted into a higher plane 
„, , , when we regard it as " a part of the study of 

Weahh an „ ? , , ,1 

element in man — and look on wealth as a means to 
well-being. ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ j^ itself— valuable only 

so far as it facilitates a " growth towards that higher 
and purer condition of society, for which alone we 
care to strive ". 



Economics for Girls. 191 



APPENDIX. 

I give a few extracts from papers received from old pupils, in 
answer to the request that they would say, quite simply and 
unofficially, what benefits they had derived from a course of 
economic study. 

" I think that learning economics has helped me to take a 
more intelligent interest in everyday matters." 

"I consider I have benefited more by that subject than by 
any other. There are so many subjects you can take an interest 
in if you understand economics, that if you do not, would appeal 
to you in no way whatever." 

"It helps us to understand some of the most important sub- 
jects of the day, and gives us a clearer idea of the difficulties of 
the poor — and shows us the best way of helping them." 

" The human sympathies cannot fail to be awakened, and 
narrow-minded and selfish views cannot long be entertained. 
Economics often shows the best methods in the relief of our 
less fortunate brothers and sisters." 

" Living as I do, in Ireland, the study of this subject has 
widened my interests greatly. Now I can more fully understand 
the problem of landlord and tenant." 

" Besides economics being useful, it is also very interesting." 

" It tends to make one speak more exactly and to keep to the 
point." 

Many more answers to the same effect might be given, but 
these are perhaps enough to show that the study of economics 
is neither-uninteresting nor unpractical. 



92 



ENGLISH LITERATURE. 
By Amy Lumby. 

" All spirits upon which poetry falls," says Shelley, 
The general " Open themselves to receive the wisdom 
mShod'^of '^h^^h ^^ mingled with its delight." To 
the teacher, remember these words will help the 
teacher of literature to bear in mind her double 
aim — to inspire delight and at the same time to im- 
part wisdom. It is impossible to lay down rules for 
accomplishing this aim, but we may trace out a few 
principles by which to guide our course. Literature 
appeals to the imagination, the faculty of the mind in 
which emotion and intellect join, and a literature 
lesson should combine the two elements of feeling and 
thought. Poetry needs to be enjoyed if it is to be 
understood, for it is the expression, not of facts which 
can be demonstrated, but of truth which can only be 
recognised by those who care for it. So the first aim 
of the teacher must be to make her class enjoy what 
they read. Dulness is a bad fault in any teacher; in 
the teacher of literature it is high treason. No one 
ought to teach the subject unless she thoroughly enjoys 
it herself and can communicate her enjoyment. But 
in trying to inspire delight in her pupils, she must be 
on her guard against the mental indolence of children 
who ask only to be amused. In this age of trivial 
literature and comic papers young people are apt to 



English Literature. 193 

be impatient of serious reading, to find the Faerie 
Qtteene dull and the Pilgrim' s Progress slow, but the 
teacher must persevere in presenting to them as attrac- 
tively as may be the very best they are capable of 
relishing at all, and after a while a better taste will 
destroy all desire for the worthless rubbish they once 
found pleasure in. 

When once the teacher has roused real enjoyment in 
her class, her part becomes merely that of the inter- 
preter. She must see to it that her pupils understand 
the words they read, realise the images that are called 
up before them, and follow as closely as they can the 
thoughts that are presented to them. The subject 
does the rest. For the power of intercourse with 
great and good thoughts is such that it enlarges and 
lifts the mind insensibly to better things. If the 
spirit is but rendered sensitive to poetry, wisdom 
enters hand in hand with delight. We can give no 
rules for producing this effect. The power to do it is 
the special gift required in the teacher Qf literature. 
^She must possess the faculty of kindling and stirring 
[thought and feeling to respond to the thought and 
feeling presented to them. Without this she will 
never make her pupils feel anything of what poetry 
[can teach. In no subject does the mental attitude 
[and the mental furniture of the teacher matter so 
Imuch. 

Assuming then a thorough enjoyment and apprecia- 
tion of the subject, we will consider a little The earliest 
more in detail the method in which it may reaSi^^^^ 
be treated in one or two typical cases, lesson. 
To begin with the simplest form of literature — the 
reading lesson — we will suppose that we have to read 

13 



194 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

a poem, say " The Wreck of the Hesperus" with a 
class of young children. We shall have in our own 
minds a clear conception of the qualities which make 
this one of the finest of modern ballads — the extreme 
simplicity of the theme, the vigour and breadth of the 
treatment, the pathos of the little human tragedy set 
against the great background of Nature in storm and 
tumult. But we shall not burden the children's minds 
with this information ; with a very few words of preface 
to prepare them for what they are to expect, we 
shall first read the whole poem through to them. The 
reading is a very important point, for on this depends 
to a large extent the enjoyment they will have in the 
poem. A harsh voice or a dull delivery is fatal to 
pleasure ; and monotonous reading fails to convey the 
pbint of the story, and to suggest the atmosphere of 
the poem. Every teacher of literature should be a 
trained reader. 

The poem must next be taken verse by verse ; the 
meaning of difficult or unusual expressions, such as 
" veering flaw," " lashed to the helm," " she stove and 
sank," should be explained, while those that are 
peculiarly apt should be noted with appreciation ; 
for instance, ^^ fairy flax," " a whooping billow," the 
vessel ^^swepf towards the reef, and many others. At 
the same time the class must be made to see the 
pictures suggested, as they rise : the wintry sea, the 
skipper beside the helm, the child lashed to the mast, 
the frozen ship rushing headlong to her doom. And 
lastly, the whole drift and significance of the poem 
must be kept before their minds by making them 
realise the situation ; the happy child so suddenly 
overwhelmed, helpless and at first bewildered, then 



English Literature. 195 

as calamities thicken, turning for help to prayer ; 
hurried on with the doomed vessel through night and 
storm, and sharing its fate among the exultant 
breakers. And they should feel the calm of the close 
and the survival of the human interest beyond the 
short-lived triumph of the sea. Of course it will not 
be possible at first to make young children feel all the 
force of a poem like this, but our aim must be to rouse 
their imaginations by bringing the picture it presents 
vividly before them, so that they gradually become 
more and more sensitive to the stimulus of poetry, 

A course of reading lessons, graduated in difficulty 
from the simple ballad to such poems as " The rj,^^ second 
Forsaken Merman," " Tithonus," and the stage— the 

_^ , )> Ml 1 1 detailed 

"Ode to Duty, will lead up to the next study of one 
stage, the reading of a play of Shakspere. gpe^-e-g^" 
Here we must cline: very closely to our P^^ys> or 

. r • some other 

prmciple of the importance of enjoyment, work in 
Very few people who have read their first ^^^^'^" 
play at school are happy enough to have enjoyed it. 
And why is this ? Because a mistaken ideal has been 
before the teacher's mind, and a mistaken method has 
been used to attain it. Careful study and exact under- 
standing of the language of Shakspere is almost. 
a liberal education in itself ; but it is not always borne 
in mind that the understanding of the language is but 
a means to an end, and that notes, whether philo- 
logical or historical, are of value only when they really 
throw light on the meaning of the text. It is worse 
than useless to burden the memories of children with 
derivations of words from languages with which they 
are absolutely unacquainted. When the original or 
root- meaning of a word is really worth knowing, and 



196 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

a knowledge of it tends to a more accurate use of the 
word, then it should be learnt, but to make children 
learn Saxon or Welsh or Sanskrit words simply 
because an English word is akin to them is a waste 
of time and power, and this explaining of the vaguely 
understood by the totally unknown is a subversion of 
all educational methods. The teacher should exercise 
a wise discretion in the use of notes, and not disgust 
her class with Shakspere altogether, as is too often 
done, by forcing upon the children a mass of dry 
information which overloads their memories without 
bringing a ray of illumination with it. 

Some care will be needed with young children 
reading their first play to see that they can really 
follow the story of it. The dramatic form is puzzling 
to them ; the absence of descriptive matter, together 
with the constant change of scene, is apt to bewilder 
them, and it may be necessary to read the story to 
them in Lamb's Tales from Shakspere, or some such 
form, before we launch into the play itself With 
older pupils this will not be required. With them the 
kind of preparation we should give would be rather 
a very simple talk about those moral laws of which 
Shakspere is the inspired teacher. Children of sixteen 
years of age, or thereabouts, are easily interested in 
problems of character, and it is well to explain to them 
something of what we understand by character and ' 
how it may be built up or undermined, rousing their 
consciousness to realise what their own moral experi- 
ence has been, so that they look into themselves for 
confirmation of the facts with which the plays deal. 
Having done this, however, we must avoid tacking any 
specific " moral " to a play. Shakspere teaches, like 



English Literature. 197 

life, by indirection, and we have to consider his plays 
as pictures of life, not as tracts against particular vices. 

In bringing before a class the characters of a play, 
we should first form a clear conception of them our- 
selves. Shakspere's people are so complex that many 
different views can be taken of them, and no thoughtful 
estimate is without its value. But it is most important 
that no statement about a character should be un- 
supported by evidence from the text. Adherence to 
this rule will save the teacher from making fancy 
sketches of her own, and will also make her shun those 
little text-books which give catalogues of qualities 
attached to each name, bringing no image whatever 
before the mind, and destroying all true realisation of 
the character. We should not be satisfied until we 
have made the chief characters in the play we are 
reading so real to our children that they would recog- 
nise them if they met them in the street. 

When we have clearly realised the characters we 
shall be able to see the drift and the force of the play, 
and to show our children how the persons develop and 
change under the stress of circumstances and accord- 
ing to the absolute decrees of the moral law. To 
convey this teaching, all steeped in poetry of the 
richest kind, should be the purpose of a Shakspere 
lesson ; and the notes that are learnt should be sub- 
ordinate to that end. Our work must not be less 
thorough than it usually is at present, but it may well 
be less pedantic. 

The reading of a play usually takes up a course of 
lessons, so that it is impossible in this space to give 
notes on any particular one, but the same principles 
which guided us in our treatment of a simple ballad 



198 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

will hold good here, and in the study of such longer 
poems as may be chosen for the reading of our class. 
Here as there we must first secure clear understand- 
ing of the language, then we must realise the images 
called up by it, and lastly yield ourselves in intelli- 
gent self-surrender to the poet's thought, not obtruding 
our own personality but letting him lead us where he 
will, feeling ourselves, and teaching our class to feel, 
a deep reverence for what he has to say to us. 

The reading of prose may be treated in much the 
same way, bearing in mind the fact that the emotional 
element is less marked in prose, the appeal being 
rather to reason than to feeling. Such prose as has 
become a part of literature is, however, largely imagi- 
native, and we have to teach the children not only to 
follow closely a train of reasoning and to criticise it, 
if need be, but also to appreciate the means by which 
the writer makes his thought vivid to us, what figures 
he uses, what light he flashes upon his subject. Some 
of Macaulay's Essays, Addison's Essays, Rasselas, 
and similar works may well be read at this stage for 
the sake of the training they give in the right use of 
language, the first element of literary cultivation. 

The teaching of a period of the history of literature 
The most is a matter on which only broad general 
sta^— Ae principles can be laid down. Children of 
study of the fourteen to sixteen can hardly be expected 

history of . . 

literature. to realise clearly differences in style or 
treatment, or to be able to write criticisms on the 
poets of the period. With them, it will be best to 
make them acquainted with the lives of the chief 
writers, as far as may be necessary, and then to let 
them read as much as they can of their works. We 



English Literature. 199 

can teach them to love choice expressions, to recognise 
beauty of thought, to appreciate true imagination. They 
may not be able to say why they like these things, but 
they need not like them the less for that. With older 
pupils, capable of taking in general ideas as to the 
drift of thought in any particular age, the period to be 
studied should be set against its historic background, 
the first lessons being devoted to discussion of the stage 
of cultivation reached at the time, and the influences 
which had tended to produce it. For instance, a course 
on the Elizabethan period would require introductory 
lessons on the Renaissance as it affected England, on 
the Reformation in its bearing on education and 
freedom of thought, on the discovery of America and 
the spirit of adventure connected with it, and on the 
social and political conditions of the times. With 
clear conceptions on these points to start from, it will 
be easy to follow the art movement in poetry during 
the period, the growth of the drama, the development 
of prose writing in its various branches, and the students 
will be in possession of information which will help 
them to understand why Spenser, Shakspere, Bacon 
and our Authorised Version belong to that age and to 
no other. Then the chief authors should be read as far 
as possible at first hand, and the very cheap editions 
which are published of all our classics make it easy 
for the class to come provided with their own books. 
It will not be possible to read many of the longer 
works through with the class, but selection can be made 
of the choicest passages, and these can be linked to- 
gether by a short analysis of the rest. 

During this stage the sense of style should be care- 
fully cultivated. Differences in style may be shown 



200 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

by comparing examples of the treatment of similar 
themes by different writers ; for instance, in poetry, 
" Lycidas," Gray's " Elegy," Adonais, and Thyrsis, 
might be studied with this aim, while in prose, 
selected essays of Bacon, Cowley, Addison and 
Lamb might be used in the same way. Taste must 
also be trained, and it should be made as catholic as 
possible ; each author should be enjoyed for his own 
special excellence, Dryden for his vigour and common- 
sense, no less than Sir Thomas Browne for his " moth- 
like flitting " in intellectual twilight. 

A suggestion for reading-courses adapted for girls 
of different ages is subjoined. It is not, and could 
not be, in any sense complete, but it may serve to help 
those who have not yet had much experience to esti- 
mate the character and scope of the reading that may 
be expected from children of various ages. Except 
in the case of the youngest children, the choice of 
books has been made so as to include prose and poetry 
of different epochs, and thus make the intellectual out- 
look wider than it could be if the reading were restricted 
to the works of one particular age. A girl who had 
read through the books mentioned in this course, or 
any drawn up on similar lines, would have a fair all- 
round acquaintance with the best kind of literature by 
the time she was eighteen. 

Age. 
lo — 12. 1st year. Macaulay's "Lays"; " Marmion " ; Kingsley's 
" Heroes " ; Keary's " Heroes of Asgard ". 
2nd year. " Evangeline " and " Hiawatha " ; " Enoch 
Arden " ; " Ancient Mariner " ; Lamb's "Tales 
from Shakspere " ; " Ivanhoe ". 
12 — 14. tst year. "Midsummer Night's Dream"; "Lady of the 
Lake " ; " Deserted Village " ; " Gulliver's 
Travels " : " Kenilworth ". 



English Literature. 201 

Age. 

2nd year. "Merchant of Venice"; " Childe Harold"; 

" Morte d' Arthur " ; " Vicar of Wakefield " ; 

Essays from the " Spectator ". 
14—16. 1st year. "As You Like It"; "Henry V."; Gray's 

" Elegy " ; " The Princess " ; " Esmond " ; 

some of the " Essays of Ella ". 
2nd year. "Faerie Queene," book i. ; "Julius Caesar"; 

Milton's " Minor Poems" ; Macaulay's Essays 

on " Clive " and on " Mme. d'Arblay " ; Rus- 

kin's " Sesame and Lilies ". 
16 — 18. 1st year. " Macbeth " ; " Paradise Lost," books i. and ii. ; 

" The Holy Grail " ; " Areopagitica " ; Burke's 

" Speeches on America ". 
2nd year. " Hamlet " ; " Essay on Man " ; " Selections 

from Wordsworth " ; Bacon's " Essays " ; 

" Rasselas " ; " Carlyle, the Hero as Poet and 

the Hero as Man of Letters ". 



202 



PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION. 
By Dorothea Beale. 

The third division of Part I. has to do with man 
as subject, a person, self-conscious, related to other 
persons and to One All-embracing Personality in whom 
all live and move and have their being. I am to treat 
the subject from an intellectual point of view — religion, 
ethics, philosophy. 

No school, and especially no day-school for girls, is 
responsible for the whole of the religious 

Sphere of ^ 

school education. The school is the link between 

instruction, jj^fancy and mature life, between the home 
and the world, the secular and the spiritual. The 
school has to systematise instruction, and bring it to 
bear on the daily tasks, on the social life, on the 
developing character ; to make the secular and re- 
ligious life one organic whole. 

We have to teach our pupils, so that they may know 
the truth, feel nobly, and hence act rightly. We have 
to cultivate the power of thought by instruction, to 
purify the emotions by the teachings of history and 
poetry including the Bible and the utterances of heroic 
and saintly lives, to strengthen the character by the 
discipline of the mind, heart, will. 

Emotion and action must be the expression of an 
^ , . , intelligent belief. " He that cometh to God 

Relation of ° i i t t • 

dogmatics must belicve that He is, and that He is a 
'°''^^"'- rewarder of them that seek Him." We 



Philosophy and Religion. 203 

ought to offer the noblest gifts we can — a "reason- 
able service," a devotion of heart, which rests upon 
the truest conception we can form ; in the highest 
of all subjects there should be that clearness of appre- 
hension, that strong conviction, which is necessary, if 
any truth is to become a practical power. We are so 
made that we must, if we think at all, theorise, and 
our acts will depend on our theories ; no student of 
history can doubt this. Our sanitarians have found that 
we may teach the poor about the value of cleanliness 
and fresh air, but not until they understand the breath- 
ing functions do they act upon it. 

So in deeper things, it is ideas that govern the world. 
When the Apostle would teach the most practical truths 
of family life and social virtue, he began with the great 
doctrines of the indwelling Divine life, of our brother- 
hood in Christ, of our citizenship in a spiritual Kingdom, 
extending far beyond the regions of sense. We must 
found Christian teaching upon definite beliefs accepted 
and felt to be true by the highest reason. We must 
not be satisfied with cultivating the affections only. 
There must be something more than an " enthusiasm 
of humanity," something which can embrace and fulfil 
it, else it will blaze up like a bonfire, but soon die down, 
smothered under the ashes of pessimism. None of 
our faculties can be isolated from the others ; each acts 
and reacts on each, the thought stimulating emotion, 
emotions quickening thought, and the life acting and 
reacting upon both. Ethics springs from dogmatics. 

What do we mean by religion ? Our age has been 
fertile in definitions. May we not say it is the power 
by which we enter into conscious /^r^-^/z^:/ relation with 
the One, the Eternal, the Father of all ? 



204 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Though it may be truly said that all knowledge of 
Nature is knowledge of God, we feel that 
related to^ there is a difference between the teaching of 
phUosophy science and the teaching of religion — a dis- 
tinction between the knowledge of a thing, 
or an act, which we may know objectively, and the 
knowledge of a person whom we know subjectively. 
We might know all the movements of a machine, but 
we never speak of knowing a machine. It is possible 
to know the works of God, and not know Him. It is 
personal sympathetic knowledge which is the chief 
factor in the education of character — the humanities 
are educative in a different sense from mathematics 
and natural science. It is this personal relation to 
God with which religious teaching has to do ; its 
true end is to draw us into sympathy with the 
All-Good. 

Two things I would here insist on which are some- 
times overlooked. 1st. The child knows persons before 
things, and in the earliest exercises of will-power, it is 
the will of another that rules his will. 2nd. Through 
obedience to the higher intelligence, and trust in the 
love of another, the child is enabled to acquire right 
habits. 

Frobel's religious teaching is very beautiful, but he 
brings out less clearly than Rosmini the priority of the 
personal ; if Nature speaks to a child of the All-Father, 
it is because he knows that all has to come to him 
through persons, it is only much later that forces can 
be hypostatised, and power, justice, spoken of apart 
from a person ; though this is, as Lotze has specially 
insisted, as inconceivable as is quality without substance 
— attribute without subject. 



Philosophy and Religion. 205 

First in the old sense of the word the child " worships" 
his parents and those to whom he looks up, „. . . 

^ ^ Piety in its 

he is miserable when he feels the displeasure double 
of those with whom he is in sympathy, and ^^"^^* 
their approbation is the sunshine of his soul ; thus is 
he early led to think of the Father, to whom he and 
his parents owe all things, to whom they speak in 
prayer and whose unseen presence they feel. 

Hymns then and prayers, which express the feelings 
of a child to a father, or the love to Jesus, and the 
desire to be like Him, are suitable ; such as give rather 
the consciousness of a penitent reprobate, are sometimes 
heard at children's missions, to the great sorrow of 
those who know how dangerous it is to play with the 
emotions and to excite terrors. 

We must consider first that the conscious life is 
only gradually developed ; perceptions must 
become apperceptions by the controlling nessand^ 
power of attention ; very gradual is the ^eif-con- 
dawn of consciousness, marked as Rosmini 
thinks by the first smile. So too there is an epoch at 
which self-consciousness seems to awaken. Maurice 
and other philosophers have marked the dawn of it by 
the use of the personal pronoun. 

The baby new to earth and sky, 

What time his tender palm is prest 
Against the circle of the breast. 

Has never thought that " this is I " : 

But as he grows he gathers much, 

And learns the use of " I " and " me," 
And finds " I am not what I see. 

And other than the things I touch ". 

h"o rounds he to a separate mind 

From whence clear memory may begin. 
As thro' the frame that binds him in 

His isolation grows defined. 



2o6 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Then, as in teaching science or language we first 
awaken the powers of observation, and lead the child 
to reflect, so here, in the case of the self-conscious 
subject, we help the child to interpret the facts of 
the inner life as well as the outer. 

Whilst recognising the danger of forcing the sub- 
jective in children, we ought in this, as in other things, 
to follow the guidance of nature, and surely our own 
experience, and that of most children, will show how 
much they are occupied with their own feelings, with 
the struggles of the higher to subdue the animal nature, 
and how through contest they are developing the will- 
power, which is the only safeguard of later life. 

It is especially important early to correlate the sub- 
jective with the objective in early teaching. Surely 
much irreligion results in later life from the divorce of the 
two. As we guide the observing powers in the outward 
life, so as the power of reflection develops we should 
do with the inward life : the child is conscious of the 
pang which comes to all of us, when we act against 
conscience : that pang which makes our blood run cold, 
as we feel we have done wrong, is as much a fact of 
experience, as real, as the sensation of heat, when 
we touch hot iron. Would people grow up to deny 
the existence of the spiritual consciousness, if they 
had been led to question their own experience? A 
beautiful story is told by Parker and quoted by 
Armstrong.^ 

" When a little boy in my fourth year, my father took 

me to the farm and sent me home alone. 

I had to pass a pond. A rhodora attracted 

my attention. I saw a spotted tortoise sunning him- 

1 Man^s Knowledge of God. Swift. 



Philosophy and Religion. 207 

self in the shallow water at the root of the flaming 
shrub. I lifted the stick I had, to strike; though I 
had never killed any creature, I had seen boys destroy 
birds, squirrels and the like, and felt a disposition to 
follow their wicked example. All at once something 
checked my little arm, and a voice within said clear 
and loud, ' It is wrong'. I held my uplifted stick in 
wonder at the new emotion, the consciousness of an 
involuntary but inward check upon my action, till the 
tortoise and rhodora both vanished from my sight. I 
hastened home to mother and asked what it was that 
told me it was wrong. Taking, me in her arms, she 
said : ' Some men call it conscience, but I prefer to 
call it the voice of God. If you listen and obey it, it 
will speak clearer and clearer, but if you turn a deaf 
ear, it will at last leave you in the dark without a 
guide : your life depends on your obedience to its 
voice.' No event in my life has made so deep and 
lasting an impression." 

The fact that we cannot get rid of the consciousness 
of wrong, shows that there is a higher Self 
condemning the self, one other than our- forTh"^^^ 
selves ; we must not force answers on the spiritual, the 

' universal. 

child, but we can bring into his conscious- 
ness the presence of the holy and righteous God. 
We may help to make clear and permanent in his 
consciousness the facts, which he will only later 
interpret — the conflict of the merely individual, the 
selfish life, with the larger, the all-embracing life of 
unselfish love. 

We may appeal too to the experience of each child, 
who suffers punishment, rather than disobey conscience. 
Such victories establish faith, convince us that we are 



2o8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

more than creatures of time, that we are sons of God. 
Every true and self-denying act that a child is able to do 
is a ground of confidence ; " I write unto you, young men, 
because ye have overcome the wicked one". Each time 
that the mere animal desires are subdued by the love 
of truth and righteousness, we prove that we transcend 
the things of time and space. These are the eternal 
things, which eye sees not and thought cannot conceive, 
and yet for the sake of these unseen and eternal things 
men live and die, and count all earthly things as 
nought. Do not the hearts of all children "burn 
within them " as we expound to them the Scriptures 
which tell of heroes who have done battle, who laid 
down their lives for righteousness' sake, of Him who 
triumphed from the Cross ? We can appeal too to 
the inward experience of those who are naughty ; they 
do not in their inmost heart wish to be so, but they try 
and fail ; nothing is more touching than the penitence 
of children, when they find that we have seen the good 
which is hidden, and not only the evil that comes 
forth — that we know, not only what is done, but what 
is resisted. We can, as in the old myths, show that 
their deliberate choice is not for selfish pleasure ; they 
would if offered the things most delightful to the mere 
animal, refuse all, if they could have it only on con- 
dition of becoming wicked and cruel and deceitful. 
Hauffs Cold Heai't is a beautiful story on the sub- 
ject. Thus should we base healthy religious ex- 
periences upon facts, and foster habits of attention and 
obedience to the inward voice. 

Right ambitions too should be fostered, the desire to 
enter into the Divine purposes in thought and word and 
deed, to be a fellow-worker with God. This will take. 



Philosophy and Religion. log 

more definite form in the later idealising period of life ; 
still there will be developed sometimes at an early age 
earnest desires to become wise and good and to do 
some special work. 

For objective formal teaching the little ones would 
begin with the stories of the world's child- order of 
hood. The lessons first given in a simple ^^^^^^s- 
form will be expanded in the higher classes. The 
child who has learned to trust his father, will learn 
from Abraham's sacrifice that we can trust God ; the 
higher classes will see how by the frustration of his 
purpose Abraham, learned the true meaning of sacri- 
fice ; the Psalms and Prophets will carry on the sub- 
jective teaching, and the words of the old prophets 
will become a fact of experience ; " the word of the 
Lord came unto me ". 

The inner meaning of the sacred myths which had 
once been told as a mere story will now be felt ; the 
story of the flood as interpreted by St. Peter, and quoted 
in our baptismal service, the deliverance from the 
bondage in Egypt, typifying redemption from the 
slavery of sin, the New Testament teaching of the 
synoptical gospels, especially the parables, will have 
supreme educative power. 

It is essential that in this, as in other subjects, written 
exercises which require thought be set, and v^ritten 
corrected and criticised — this is often the ^°^^' 
only subject in which pupils are not required to formu- 
late their thoughts — hence there exists a vast amount 
of current religious phraseology to which no definite 
meaning is assigned ; the words may be true in them- 
selves, but not true for the person using them. An 
American writer tells of one who for years was a 

14 



2IO Work and Play in- Girls' Schools. 

regular attendant at church, and often encouraged 
him by her attentive and responsive expression ; when 
he came to know her later, he found to his surprise 
that she was as ignorant of the fundamental truths 
as if she had been brought up in a heathen land. 

The later period, that of ripening experience, of 
Sceptical adolescence, will give the maximum of re- 
phases, flective, as the earHest childhood, the maxi- 
mum of the sensitive power. As the mysteries of their 
own being are more and more unfolded, the problems 
of philosophy and metaphysics have an attraction which 
should not be disregarded : there is a desire to be 
alone ; the young feel that they must work out the 
problems for themselves, and they resent the attempt 
to force on them other people's solutions. They must 
question ere they can fully believe ; we mu.st never 
give utterance to the profane idea, that God is angry 
with those who make mistakes in seeking truth, only 
show that truth like light is a good, that we may 
not rest in an indolent agnosticism, for we cannot 
grow vigorous and strong out of the sunlight ; we must 
encourage them, in this as in all studies, to be ever seek- 
ing a fuller knowledge of truth, to live by the truth they 
have attained, and then they will gain more and more, 
even through the mistakes. The function of the teacher 
now is as Socrates described it, to be ready to give help, 
when needed, to bring to the birth the great thoughts 
which oppress the soul. 

Later the deep spiritual experiences of St. John and 
Need of the arguments wherewith St. Paul convinced 
leisure. himself, will come home to the religious ex- 

perience at least in some degree, and the v/ords in which 
he describes the vision of God as seen from the spirit- 



Philosophy and Religion. 211 

ual heights, which he had reached in his later epistles. 
But there must be for the ripening of the character 
time for quiet, and the incessant activities of to-day, 
the filling up of every hour, the deprivation of quiet 
even on Sunday, are much to be regretted, and all edu- 
cators should see that those who need time for spiritual 
thought, for working out the great questions which 
come to every thoughtful person, should not be de- 
prived of it, because some would misuse it. There are 
two excellent articles in the Pedagogical Review for 
July, 1891, on the ''Psychology and Pedagogy of 
Adolescence," by E. Lancaster, and another, a study 
in "Moral Education," by J. Street, both Fellows of 
Clark University ; the second article is especially 
emphatic on this subject. 

In the highest classes, some systematic reading 
regarding the history and foundations of Systematic 
philosophy in general and Christian philo- '"^^ding. 
sophy in particular should not, I think, be omitted : 
one cannot do better than begin with Plato ; taking 
the Apology^ the Crito and parts of the Phcedo^ or the 
two volumes of selections by Professor Jowett, or some 
less expensive edition. The Memorabilia of Xenophon 
is obtainable for 3d. Selections might be made from 
Aristotle's Ethics, and some good history of philosophy 
be made accessible, eg., Schwegler's, edited by Dr. 
Hutchinson Stirling, which is not too long ; and some 
such inspiring book as Fichte's Vocation of the Scholar 
may be recommended ; other books I might mention, 
e,g., Henry Jones on Browning ; Professor Frazer's 
selection from Berkeley; Mackenzie's Social Philosophy 
and the series of small hand-books edited by Professor 
Knight. There might be meetings for discussion and 



212 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

reading under the presidency of one versed in such 
matters ; this would give definiteness to thought, and 
would at least lead to the kind of wisdom which made 
the oracle pronounce Socrates the wisest of men ; such 
meetings would be specially useful for the staff. Some 
effort should be made to establish the primary con- 
victions which alone make life worth living, enable 
one to possess one's soul in patience, live in the faith 
that each is working out the will of the All-Wise and 
All-Good — if willingly, then with the fullest joy and 
reward. 

The subject is not ignored at the University 
Higher Colleges of the States, and there is much 

teaching. of deep interest in the article to which I 
have referred, viz., " Psychology of Adolescence ". 
In an article by Caswell Ellis, the special training 
of teachers of religion is insisted on, and the estab- 
lishment of professorships. '* A department of peda- 
gogy cannot be called complete that does not deal 
with this important part of its field. Religious 
training is as much a problem for the pedagogue, as is 
physical or mental training. Surely we cannot entirely 
separate them. We have already at our command in 
the Universities, many helps in the study of the Bible, 
of theology, of philosophy, of psychology, etc. ; why 
cannot there be found some man of broad culture, wide 
sympathies, reverent spirit, to focalise these in a chair 
of religious pedagogy, or whatever it may be called ? it 
would give the opportunity while in college to look at 
the larger phases of the problem of religious training. 
No subject is more vital, and our best men need not 
leave college ignorant of the problem or the possibility 
of its solution — and find in the decline of life that (as 



Philosophy and Religion. 213 

editors, preachers, etc.) they have been spending their 
energies on reformation, while the great work of for- 
mation was never considered." 

The means of giving a thorough and systematic 
teaching regarding the strong foundations Foundations 
of faith, is one that should be considered of faith. 
by all educators. It is true that the emotions and 
affections are, as in the case of all personal relations, 
the appropriate means of intercommunion ; but the 
religious life, if it is not to become weak and senti- 
mental, needs the bracing power of intellectual study, 
and the Scriptures, especially the writings of St. John 
and St. Paul, afford such exercise. 

I may perhaps summarise the lines on which the 
grounds of a rational faith seem to be established, and 
which should surely be formulated, as we formulate the 
principles on which we base our faith in matters of 
science. They may be arranged under two heads — 
objective and subjective : — 

I. Sense compels us to recognise the existence of a 
universe, to which we can set no bounds of space or 
time. We find everywhere at work forces adapted to 
produce results immeasurably greater, yet similar in 
character, to those produced by our own exercise of 
thought and will ; we are unable to conceive of either 
except as ultimately proceeding from a personal mind 
and will. 

Since our mind interprets the phenomena of sense, 
which is the language of Nature ; since the intelli- 
gent mind is related to an intelligible universe, the 
finite mind must be related to the infinite, man must 
be the child of God. 

The facts of history show us man in all ages re- 



214 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

nouncing all that the animal craves for, for the sake of 
the ideal, the transcendent. 

2. Man is self-conscious, he can become an object 
to himself; that he can do this proves him to have a 
dual nature. The higher sits in judgment on the 
lower, or animal nature (identified with the indi- 
vidual) seeks to bring it into obedience to the uni- 
versal. Since we can identify conscience with the 
universal mind and will, we infer that we are on the one 
side in communion with God, as on the other with the 
universe. 

Man has the power of sympathy. As we cannot 
conceive of light without postulating an all-compre- 
hending aether, through which all things are related, 
so the fact that we are affected, actually feel physically 
and mentally with others, is inconceivable without 
postulating one all-embracing Personality. 

The faith that good must ultimately triumph is an 
axiom of the moral life; we find it impossible to believe 
the reverse. 

These are some of the broad bases on which rest the 
Christian dogmas of the relation of man to God the 
All- Father, which tell of a perfect Son, and of the 
power given to all to rise through grace into the 
spiritual life. 

1 have dwelt on the subject at some length, because 
it seems to me that the intellectual relation to God has 
been too much ignored ; we should love with the mind 
as well as with the heart ; with the developing of the 
physical and ps3^chical life, the soul craves to root itself 
more firmly on the consciousness of the universal, it 
desires to be at one with the All-Wise and the All-Good 
Father of spirits to work out the purpose of its own 



Philosophy and Religion. 215 

existence. It seeks to be in harmony with all who are 
living by the highest ideal ; hence the impulse to work 
in associations, specially in the spiritual life, for life must 
overflow into action ! It seeks evermore to be at one in 
its being, and to bring the individual self into harmony 
with the all-embracing Spirit in whom we are one. 

I may recommend to teachers the recently published 
volume on Religions Teaching in Schools, by Dr. Bell 
of Marlborough. 



2l6 



PART II. MATHEMATICS. 

ARITHMETIC. 
By Dorothea Beale. 

Multiplication is vexation, 

Division is as bad, 
The Rule of Three doth puzzle me, 

And Practice drives me mad. 

Never will such lines express the feelings of properly- 
taught children. 

It may be convenient to work out the process of 
teaching arithmetic on strictly psychological prin- 
ciples. 

(i) From the concrete to the abstract. Let the 
Concrete children learn to count with the actual 

teaching first, things. 

Once the teacher would have set the child down to 
a slate, taught it to count, and write down the figures, 
and work sums in addition and subtraction, and then 
to learn the multiplication table. Now the child has 
actual things — stones, coloured beads, sticks, bricks — 
anything but marbles (which one of H.M. Inspectors 
recommends) or things which run about freely. A 
box of china buttons, which cost only a few pence the 
gross, is perhaps best. 

(2) Associate doing and knowing. Let the child 
add actual things : Mary has 3 buttons, Anna gives 
her 2, she now has 5. 



Arithmetic. 217 

(3) Put thoughts into words. Get the child to say 
exactly what addition is—" giving to " — and let her 
find out from words she already knows or may know, 
as donation, donor, etc., the meaning. The sign + 
for addition may also be given. 

Similarly, subtraction ought to be actually per- 
formed by drawing away, and the word explained — 
its connection with drag, traction, tray, dray, etc. Thus 
the common fault of writing " substraction " may be 
avoided. It should be thought of as undoing addition. 
The signs — and = may now be given. 

(4) We learn by analysis and synthesis, i.e., to see 
the parts in the whole, and the whole as Analysis of 
made up of parts. It is very useful at this "ambers, 
stage to get children to group numbers, to think of 
2, e.g., as I + I, of 3 as I + I + I and i + 2, of 8 as 
1+7, 2 + 6, 3 + 5,4 + 4, 2 + 2 + 2 + 2. This is 
much insisted on in Germany and America, In kin- 
dergartens there are many pictures which are used for 
grouping numbers, thus, e.g., a seven-branched candle- 




stick. We may give 7, as 3 + i + 3, as i + 2 + 2 + 2, 
as I + 6. This makes numbers, so to speak, easily fall 
into their constituents, which will be shown to be of 
use later. I knew a child who habitually thought of 
the written figures as picturing the number Children 
might arrange the 9 digits in various ways, thus, giving 
also the written figures : — 



21 8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 



12345 6 7 
. + . . + .. . + ... . + + + 

i + i 1 + 2 1+3 1+4 1+5 1 + 6 

2 + 2 2 + 3 2 + 4 2 + 5, etc. 

At this stage the question would naturally arise why 
there are only 9 figures, and an historical digression 
could be conveniently made. I give a sketch of such 
a lesson before coming to more difficult and abstract 
things. 

Dogs are very clever. A collie will go with the 
Historical shepherd and take care that none stray, 
methods. Suppose One has disappeared over a cliff 
when he was not looking, would he know one was gone, 
would he count like the shepherd ? No, he will track 
out a lost sheep, by scent, as we cannot, but I never 
heard of a shepherd setting the dog to count. If puss 
has 3 kittens and you take i, she seems not to know. 
Some savage races can count only a few numbers, but 
man carries a ready-reckoner in his fingers, and most 
can easily count up to 5 or 10, or, if taking in the 
toes, up to 20 ; all the higher races are marked out by 
their greater power of doing long and difficult sums. 

Now, suppose some great owner of sheep, as Abra- 
ham or Jesse, sent out a shepherd with many sheep, 
how would he know each day whether they were all 
right ? * Well, the simplest way would be to have two 
stones for each — the master could have one bag and 
the man another, and then they could calculate each 
night ; calculus is the Latin for a stone. The shepherd 
would need a long bag for his stones. Was that how 
David happened to have the one which he used as a 
sling to kill Goliath ? 



Arithmetic. 219 

Suppose, however, the flock was very large, a bag of 
stones would be heavy. Has a shepherd something 
else, which, instead of his exactly carrying, seems to 
help to carry him ? The shepherd's staff. Could he 
not put notches on this for his sheep ? It would hold 
a good many ; but in days when people had to use 
stones for knives, it was not so easy to cut a great many 
notches, and besides it would get used up with a large 
flock. Could he not make a sign like a hand, V, for 
every 5 sheep ? That was what the Romans did, and 
next they said, why not have a sign for two hands, X, 
and let that stand for 10? So, if they wanted to write 
sixteen sheep, they would put XVI instead of sixteen 
strokes. You see in the Bible the Roman numbers. 
The Greeks used letters, too, as the Romans did, for 
numbers. 

When people began to trade they wanted something 
more than tally sticks and stones — some- ,, 

Money. 

thing the value of which all knew. Amongst 
pastoral people the most ready things to calculate by 
were sheep or cattle. A piece of land would be sold 
for so many sheep, but it would be very inconvenient 
to have to drive your money about, and so people seem 
very early to have had pieces of metal which were 
reckoned to be equal in value to sheep or cattle, and 
to save weighing, each piece had, perhaps, a sheep 
scratched on it ; and this was called in Latin (from 
pecus, cattle) /^ecum'ay i.e.^ the piece of metal representing 
the value of cattle. This would be carried about and 
exchanged. Lawyers now put in our wills " goods and 
chattels " ; by the first they mean houses and lands, 
which cannot be moved ; by the latter, things which, 
like cattle, can be moved. Then people could have 



2 20 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

larger and smaller pieces of money, representing half 
or a quarter of a sheep, or many sheep. 

You wonder, perhaps, that people did not have 
Account- books to keep their accounts in, as we do ; 
keeping. ]^^^ [^ early days people's books were 
made of clay, and were more like our slates, and they 
scratched on them with a sharp instrument called a stylus, 
which looks something like our stylograph, but had no 
ink inside, and they could not put these in their pockets. 

It was not till the beginning of the third century 
Modern before Christ, that the Greek Archimedes 
arithmetic. proposed a plan not altogether unlike ours, 
because he was a very clever scientific man, and he 
wanted to do difficult sums, which he could not with 
the old Greek system. And something of the kind 
was used in India. But it was not introduced into 
Europe until about looo years after Christ by the 
Arabs, who had made many conquests. The first 
English book about it seems to have been written in 
the reign of Edward III. Chaucer, who died in 1400, 
talks of the " figures newe," i.e., the figures we use 
now, instead of those difficult Roman characters which 
we find in the Bible. 

But I think that before that, people had begun to 
use some such plan as ours. Have you ever heard of 
public-houses being called "The Chequers," and seen 
a painted board hung up covered with squares of 
different colours ? This was once a sign for a house 
of public entertainment, where people could make 
reckonings, and the place where they reckoned the 
money they paid was called a " counter," and the 
court belonging to the king where the people paid 
their taxes was called the Court of Exchequer. 



Arithmetic. 



221 



Suppose a man came into an inn, he would find the 
counter marked with Hnes thus : — 



Score. 


Dozen. 


One. 









and he could have say 3 glasses of beer ; the landlord 
would put a chalk mark for each, but when he had 
had 12, one mark would be put instead in the next 
row, or in the third row if he had had a score, i.e.^ 
20, and these marks would correspond with pieces 
of money. Thus we have pence and shillings and 
pounds, and we put dots between instead of lines to 
mark them off. 

Here we will take real pieces of money. Suppose 

S. D. 

£\ „ 14 „ 6 has to be added to 7 „ 9. I say 9 and 6 
make 15 pence. I change the 12 pence into one 
silver shilling, add that to the 14 shillings and the 
7, and I get 22 shillings. 20 shillings is one pound, 
so I change that and leave the 2 shillings. Thus I 
get altogether £2 „ 2 „ 3. We can now write that in 
figures and add, as before. Suppose I had to pay to 
A £\ „ 17 „ 9, and I had £2 „ 14 „ 6. We can first do 
the sum with real money. I find I have not enough 
pence to give 9, so I have to change one of the 
shillings, then I shall have 18 pence, out of which I 
give 9, and write down 9 left. Now, 1 have only 13 
shillings, and I want to pay 17, so I change one pound, 
then I have 33 shillings, out of which I take 17 and 
have 16 left. When I have given the pound, I have 

s. n. 

none left, and there remains in my purse 16 „ 9. We 



£ s. n. 
2 „ 14 „ 6 

I M 17 M 9 



hundreds 



22 2 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

can then also write it down thus — putting the money 
we have to take away below, pounds under 
the pounds, shiUings under shiUings, etc. 
After a while people all agreed to have 
for general arithmetic what we 

Decimals. ,, ., 1 • 1 i. *.- 16 „ 9 

call the decimal notation, or 

reckoning by tens, and so lines were drawn, and 

figures in the first row were 

worth one, in the second ten, 

in the third ten tens, ie., lOO ; 

after that would come figures 

representing ten hundreds or a 

thousand, and then ten thou- 
sands, and then a hundred 

thousands ; and so we could go 

on to any length. Ten seemed 

such a natural number to use, because we all have 

our ready-reckoner in our ten fingers. 

We can have bags containing lO buttons, lOO 

buttons, and then we can get change. Sonnenschein's 

box makes carrying very clear. Suppose I want to 

put down 5 thousands, 9 tens and 3 units or ones. I 

should write it thus, and if I wanted 
to add to this 2 thou- 
sands, 9 hundreds and 9, 

I should write that below. Then I 

should say 9 units and 3 units make 

12 units. But this is equal to i ten 

and 2 units, so I should carry on 10 

to the second row, and write down 2 in the unit row. 

Then I add the i to the 9, that makes 10, but 10 in the 

second row is the same as i in the third, so I carry 

that on ; 9 and i make 10, but 10 in the third row 



Addition. 



th. 


hun. 


tens 


units 


5 




9 


3 


2 


9 




9 


8 






2 



Arithmetic. 



223 



makes i in the fourth, so I carry again, and get 
5 + 2+1=8 thousands, and we should read it 8 
thousands and 2. 

Then after a while people said, " Why need we have 
all the chequers ? suppose we put a nought when there 
is no number, just to mark that there is a row, and all 
will come right ; " so they wrote thus : — 

And a little later they left off writing 
th. h. t. u. anything at the top of the line, because 
2 q o q ^^^^y o"^ knew. Here is a subtraction 
sum. We cannot take o units 

- . , Subtraction. 

2184 from 3 units, so we get change 

from the next row, that gives 13 units, from 
which we take 9, and have 4 left. We have nothing to 
take from our 8 remaining tens, so we write 8. We have 
no hundreds, so we cannot take away 9, but we change 
one of our thousands into 10 hundreds, and take 
away 9, leaving i ; lastly we take away 2 from our 
4 thousands, and get 2 — altogether 2184. 

Now would come in naturally the extension of this 
system of notation to decimal fractions. Decimal 
marking the unit by a full stop. If numbers fractions. 
decrease as we go from left to right, they might get 
smaller than one ; the next row to the right would be 
one-tenth of a penny or of an inch, and- the next one- 
hundredth, and so on. Sums in addition and subtraction 
might be worked at this stage with decimal fractions. 
Then it should be 
pointed out that 
to push the num- 
ber a row farther 
from the point which marks the unit row increases it 
tenfold, and pushing to the right diminishes tenfold. 



hun. 


tens 


units 


tenths hundth. thousandths 


I 


3 


2 


7 9 




2 


5 


897 



2 24 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

It is good practice and interests young children to 
work in different scales of notation — one may suggest 
that Goliath would prefer the 6 or 12 scale. 

It would be well now to give children some prac- 
tice in counting backwards, and in rapid viva voce 
addition, which the exercises in analysis of numbers 
will have made easy. E.g., 15+7, the number natur- 
ally falls apart into 5+2, and we get 22 ; 29 + 7, 
it falls into 6 + I, at the next step into 3 + 4. 

We should next proceed to continued addition or 
Muitipii- multiplication. Many children come to 
cation. school not knowing that multiplication is 

continued addition, and still fewer have any idea that 
division is continued subtraction. In entrance papers 
I have had sheets covered in reply to such questions 
as " How often can 19 be subtracted from 584? " 

A few multiplications should be worked with real 
things. Thus, we have to give to 5 people 3 buttons 
each. We arrange them in parcels of 3 and add 3 
to our pile five times. Now, if we have 1 5 and want 
to know how many times we can take away threes, 
we find we can do it five times over; this is sub- 
traction or undoing the addition. It is the same 
as making little parcels of 3 each, and so continued 
subtraction is called division. Some continued addi- 
tion sums should be given, thus : Find 4 times 

891. It will be easily seen that such sums are ^^ 

8gi 
done much more quickly if we know by heart g^j 

how much 4 nines come to, and how much 4 8gi 

eights ; and so people learn their addition tables 

by heart, and children make them out for them- ^^ ^ 

selves thus, generally up to 12 times, some learn up to 

20 times. Here is part of 7 times worked out : — 



Arithmetic. 225 



7 times 


I = 7 


7 7 


7 7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 7 






7 7 


7 7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 7 




2 = 


14 7 


7 7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 7 




3 = 


21 


7 7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 7 




4 = 




28 7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 7 




5 = 




35 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 7 




6 = 






42 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 7 




7 = 








49 


7 


7 


7 


7 7 




8 = 










56 


7 


7 


7 7 




9 = 


• 










63 


7 


7 7 




10 = 














70 


7 7 




II = 
















77 7 




12 = 
















84 



The signs x and -^ may now be given. All tables 
should be written out and learned, and it is well to 
say both ways, 6 x 7 = 42, and 7 x 6 = 42. There 
are certain numbers that are easily remembered, 
others in which children habitually make mistakes : 
it is a waste of time to hear the tables therefore all 
through after a time, but these difficult ones, 7x8, 
6x9, II X II, etc., should be insisted on; then, 
finally, the whole heard through, and any about which 
there is the slightest hesitation asked for daily. If 
children can learn up to 20 times without much trouble, 
it is an advantage. 

We could next point out that this continued addi- 
tion is called multiplication, and all the numbers 
made up by continually adding threes would be called 
multiples of 3, i.e., many times 3. So 12 would be a 
multiple of 2 or 3 or 4. 

Then examples should be worked, but here let me 
say that at the early stages concrete examples should 
abound. Many good books there are containing mis- 

15 



22 6 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

cellaneous examples of concrete quantities, such as, 
There are 319 fruit trees planted in each field for 
making jam, and there are 12 fields; how many fruit 
trees ? Or, 7 labourers have to be paid on Saturday 
£\y each ; how much will they get in 12 weeks ? 

When children know the effect of pushing numbers 
to the left, multiplication by two figures will be easy, 
but the child should be accustomed to write at the end 
of each row the real sum, thus : 7^ x 25 : — 

73 

25 

1460 — 20 times. 

365 = 5 M 

1825 = 25 „ 

and to work the same sum in a variety of ways, e.g., 
multiply by 5 X 5 ; by 100, and divide by 4 ; by 30, 
and take off 5 ; by 10, halve and by 10 again and 
halve : — 

73 4 I 7300 = 100 times. 

5 1825 = ^ of 100, or 25 times. 

365 = 5 times. 
5 

1825 =:: 5 X 5 times. 

73 2 I 730 = 10 times. 

30 365= 5 ., 

. 3650 = 50 „ 

2190 = 30 tmies. 

365 = 5 „ 1825 = J 50 = 25 times. 

1825 = 25 „' 

It is well to accustom children to begin to multiply 
with the left-hand figure, as we shall see later. Thus 
we get the most important part first. 



Arithmetic. 227 

It should be insisted on that division is undoing 
multipHcation — that if we divide 63 by 9, ^. . . 

01. 1 I'll Division. 

we are finding a number 7 which when 
multipHed by 9 gives 63. In working division sums 
it is better to put the quotient over the dividend, and 
the children should be ready to explain each step 
thus : Divide 3496 nuts amongst four schools equally. 
None will get as many as i thousand. 
They will get, out of 34 hundreds, 8 hundreds ^74 

each ; of 29 tens, 7 tens each ; of 16 units, 4 — — 
each. 

Long division should be fully explained thus : 
Divide 43921 amongst 23 people. We see 
that no one will have as much as i ten- _J9^ 
thousand. Out of 43 thousands, each can ^^ 

have I thousand, and there will be 20 thou- 209 

sands left, that is, 200 hundreds ; adding 9 ^"7 

we get 209 hundreds. We give 9 to each ^^^ 

and 2 hundreds or 20 tens are left. 22 tens — ^ 

do not give one each ; they equal 220 units. 
Of the 221 units we give 9 to each. Some dispense 
with the written multiplication. This seems to me 
to strain too much young children's attention, and 
to lead to loss of time. 

Here, while continuing to work many miscellaneous 
examples, it may be well to interpose some 
useful exercises on matters interesting and measures, 
yet puzzling to children, on factors and "^"^'P^^- 
measures of numbers, and primes and squares. If they 
get quite familiar with factors, they will not have such 
difficulty as they do when they come upon the whole 
set at once : factors, common factors, measure, common 
measure, G.C.M., multiple, common multiple, L.C.M. 



22 8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Let us bring out the box of buttons once more and 
arrange the numbers, finding the factors, i, 2, 3 have 
only the number itself, and so these are called primes, 
because they have no other factor than i, the first 
number. 



But 4 is not only 4 x i, it is 2 x 2, and we may notice 
that the dots form a square — it is a compound number. 
5 is again a prime; 6 can be arranged in three ways — in 
a row of ones, in three rows of 2 or two rows of 3, but these 
are the same if we look at them a different way round, 
i.e., 2 X 3 is 3 X 2. 7 is a prime, but for 8 we can 

have 2x4 and 4x2, which  

are the same. 9 is again a 

square number ; it has no fac- 
tors except 3. Here we might 
give the expressions 2'^ for 2 x . . y . . . . . 

2, 3^ for 3 X 3 and 3^ for 3 x ... 

3x3-    

We might go on to pick out all the primes by what 
is called the sieve of Eratosthenes, and to give all 
squares and cubes, say up to 100. Sometimes we 
speak of measure of numbers ; 4 can be measured 
into rows of twos, 6 into rows of twos or threes, so 2 is 
said to be a common measure of 4 and 6. 

After working some examples in factors and mea- 
sures, it will be well to leave the matter, returning to 
the subject later. I should pass over for girls the 
wearisome exercises in weights and measures, bills of 
parcels, etc., very slightly. These things belong to the 



Arithmetic. 229 

shop rather than the school, and waste the time that 
should be given to learning principles. 

We may proceed at once to fractions. In nothing 
is the advice Festina lente more valuable vulgar 
than now. Once give the children a clear fractions, 
idea of what a fraction is, how the two numbers re- 
present respectively the size of the pieces and the 
number taken, and all will be easy. They are al- 
ready familiar with Jd. and |d., so we can get from 
them that the lower figure stands for the number 
of pieces into which the penny is divided, and that 
the figure above shows the number of pieces taken. 
Many fractions should be drawn by the children — ^ 
of a line, a circle, a square, etc. The fraction may be 

,1 5 numberer 

written thus : -^ 

namer, 

5 gives the number of pieces taken ; is numberer or numerator ; 

6 gives the number of pieces into which the whole is cut, the 

size, the name, the denominator. 

Let there be plenty of such questions as these : What 
is the effect of increasing the numerator or the denomi- 
nator ? Of doubling each ? Of halving each ? Notice 
that most things grow larger the larger the number, but 
with a fraction the larger the denominator the smaller 
the pieces. Children should not have books giving ex- 
planations. They must discover these by the dialectic 
process, and then in their own words answer questions, 
and sometimes explain every step in the sum they are 
working. All we require in books are well-chosen ex- 
amples. Those who have not taught, have no idea how 
hard children find it to get really hold of the nature of 
a fraction. Homely illustrations should not be spared. 
For instance, there are two ways of getting much cake. 



230 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

To take many pieces, that is have a lar^e numerator, 
— or to look out the biggest piece, that is have a small 
denominator. 

We are now ready for multiplication and division 
Muitipiica- by integers. Take yV- There are two ways 
dTv^sforf b °^ making the fraction twice as large, that is 
integers. by taking twice as many pieces, that is If, 
or twice as large pieces, f. The shortest way must 
always be insisted on. Similarly, i may be divided 
by 2 in two ways. Many examples should be worked 
out in detail thus : — 

i^TX7 = ^;f^3 = i;i-^4=i;ix5=f;t-r8 = 5\. 

Nearly all children will write thus : f x 7 = | ^ 3, 
etc., and leave the whole unreadable. 

Next should come the proposition 7 is 8 times as 
large as J. (Some pupils might be ready to use 

letters by this time, a \s b times as large as t . The 

teacher must be on the watch for such.) It is very 
difficult for young children to see this, and also that | 
is the same as 7-^8. This should be illustrated by 
drawings in a variety of ways. 

On that would follow multiplication of fractions by 
fractions, which is explained as makings a 

By fractions. . , , • ^, -r , 

mistake and correctmg. Thus if we have to 
multiply f X §, we know how to multiply by 2, so we do 
that first : 4 x 2 = Y". l^^t we have multiplied by a 
number three times too large ; to correct the mistake, 
we must divide by 3 ; V" "^ 3 == It- Similarly, we explain 
division. Not until some sums have been worked in 
detail should pupils be allowed to get hold of the rules. 
They should work with factors only, whenever possible. 



Arithmetic. 231 

Now we might return to the subject of multiples and 
measures. We have J-J. We want to have „ , . 

. . . . , r TT7 1. • 1 • • Reduction. 

it m its simplest form. We divide it into 

factors : — = ; 2 is a common measure of both ; 

24 2 X 12 

the 2 above makes the fraction twice as large, the 2 

below twice as small, so both may be taken out. But 

we might have said — = -^ — ; 8 is the largest num- 
24 0x3 

ber that will measure both, so it is called the greatest 

common measure. I think it better not to give the 

ordinary rule for finding G.C.M. until its proof can be 

given algebraically. It is very seldom that children 

will fail in the attempt to analyse numbers, and so find 

out all their common measures. 

The common rules should now be given for finding 

at sight when a number is commensurable g.c.m. and 

by each digit, though the reason of these l.c.m. 

rules will not perhaps appear yet. These children 

know at a glance whether a number can be measured 

by 2, 4, 8, 3 or 9, and remove the common factor. 

Suppose we have , we cannot see a common 

9009 

factor, but we can proceed to break it up, one being 

commensurable by 8 and the other by 9. Then we 

,8 X looi 1 ^, ^ ^ 

get , and the greatest common measure comes 

9xic»i' „ 6 

to lierht. We see that the numerator of — r— is com- 
^ 2205 

mensurable by 4 and 3, i.e., by 12, the denominator by 

9'— 

1 176 3x4x98 _ 3x4x2x49. 

2205 ^ 3 x 3 X 735 ~ 3 X 3 X 5 X 147 ' 

SO the G.C.M. is 49 x 3, or 147. 



232 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

I may here notice there is an ingenious table by Mr. 
Ellis, published by Philip at 6d., showing graphically 
the common measures and multiples of numbers up to 
36, which makes this matter clear. I give a section 
of it :— 

I 23456789 10 II 12 

Ones 

Twos   .   . 

Threes ... 

Fours . . . 

Fives . 

Sixes  . 

Sevens . 

Eights 

Nines . 

Tens , 

Elevens . 

Twelves . 

We find at a glance the primes. 

Looking down the line we see the multiples thus, 
12 is a multiple of i, 2, 3, 4, 6. Looking horizontally 
and moving down, we come to all the measures of 
each number. 

It is also useful for teaching fractions. 

We should next proceed to bring fractions to a com- 
Commonde- "lon denominator preparatory to addition 
nominators, ^j^^^ subtraction. It is not always easy to 
find a number that will do for all the denominators. 
We want a common multiple, and of course the 
smallest we can have is the best. For this we 
have only to break up the denominators into factors 
and make up a number which shall contain all these. 
I would not let the pupils work at first by the 

mechanical methods sometimes mven : ~ — h -4^ + -^ — 

230 46 621 



Arithmetic. 233 

\ ^^ ~ "^ ^ ^ 1 We want therefore as 

Here^ 46 = 23 x 2 ,, , 

": ^ the common denomi- 

v56i = 3 X 3 X 3 X 23) 

nator 2x5x23x3x3x3, which is 6210. 

Suppose we want to add f + f " J + ii- ^ should 
write what we may call skeleton fractions Addition of 
below ; I mean simply the line ; next enter fractions, 
the denominator 24. This is 8 times as large as 3, 
i.e., we have made the pieces in the first 8 times as 
small, so we take 8 times as many. Only after work- 
ing a fair number of sums should children write all in 
a single fraction thus : — 

16 + 18 - 21 + 22 

If we have larger numbers, the pupils must never 

be allowed to make a number of long-division sums, 

7 ^ II 

but work thus : -^ + —:-{- ^ — . They would factorise 
230 46 621 

7 ^ II 

and put down ^ . j . 



2x5x23 2x23 3x3x3x23. 
To get the common denominator we see we must 
multiply the first by 3 x 3 x 3 ; the second denomi- 
nator by 5 X 3 X 3 X 3, the third by 5 x 2 : — 

7x3x3x3 + 3x5x9 + II X5 
2x5x23x3x3x3. 

I have not given a complete exposition, but touched 
on what seems essential as regards the method and 
the order of teaching, derived from my experience of 
children's difficulties, some will think, I fear, at un- 
necessary length. 

In regard to the later rules for decimals, I need 
only make two remarks : that the points should be 
always removed from the divisor, e.^. : — 

•000035 -^ 5*9623 = — — — 
59623. 



234 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

and the point put in as soon as we reach the deci- 
mal fraction. In working circulators it is well for a 
time to express the equations thus : '3294 = No. 

10,000 No = 3294*294, etc. 
10 No = 3*294, etc. 



9990 No = 3291 

.'. No = 3291 

9990 

As regards proportion, I need add Httle. But there 
is one vexed question : Shall we let children 

Proportion. ^ , , t i • i 

work by the unitary method ? I thmk not, 
at least not those who are likely to go on to mathe- 
matics. We cannot get the thought of proportion too 
ingrained, and the unitary method evades it. 

In compound proportion I would make pupils work 
out the double process in detail, and then with factors 
only, e.g. :— 

If 5 men dig a trench 14 ft. long in 3 days, how long 
ought 12 men to take to dig one 28 ft. long? Put in 
tabular form thus : — 

Men. Long. Days. 

5 14 3 
12 28 ? 

First confine attention to the length of trench. 

Ft. Ft. Days. Days. 

14 : 28 :: 3 : 6 

Now we have to consider the consequences of altering 
the men : — 





Men. 

5 

12 


Days. 
6 

? 


Men. 
12 


Men. 
: 5 : 


Days. 
: 6 



Days. 

2i. 

But we could have arranged it thus and worked it out 
fractionally at once : — 



Arithmetic. 235 

14 28 

^ : : : ^ : X 

12 5 -^ 

3 X 28 X 5 _ j^ X ^ X 1,^ X 5 _ _5^ _ oi 
14 X 12 ~ 1,^ X ^ X ^ - 2 ~ ^ 
2 

If practice sums are done, the meaning of each line 
should be marked at the end thus : — 



Price of 984 yds. at £2 „ 15 „ 6, 



£ 

984 price at £1. 

1968. „ £2. 

492 ,, lOS. 

246 „ 5s. 

24,, 12... „ 6d. 



2730,, J 2 ... at £2 „ 15 „ 6 

Approximate methods should be practised, and 
for this reason it is well to get the habit of Approxi- 
multiplying by the larger number first. mations. 

Suppose we want a sum accurate, say to 3 decimal 
places. We remove the point from one of the factors, 
pushing it, of course, an equal distance in the other. 
We make the whole number reversed the multiplier, 
and begin with the fourth decimal figure (one beyond 
the one we need). This will give the fourth place as the 
first number, since we are multiplying by units. In 
the next row we must take in the fifth decimal, since 
we are multiplying by 10, and so on. Here is a sum 
worked out at length and an abbreviated one : —  

Find correct to 3 places of decimals 3*45 x '000Sg6g2 : 
3-45 X -.00059692 = 345 X 059692 



•059692 

345 


•059692 
543 


17907600 

2387680 

298460 


2984 

23876 

179076 


20-593740 


20-5936 



236 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

In division we approximate by cutting off a figure 
each time from the divisor as soon as we have come to 
the number which is one less than the number of 
digits still to be found. Get correct to five places. 

454523) 145367-9 (-31982 

1363569 

901 100 

454523 



446577 
409068 

37509 
36360 

1 149 
908 

241 



I might summarise the order of teaching fractions 
thus :— 

Summary. - . , . , , 

What a fraction is — mixed numbers, im- 
proper fractions. 

Effect of increasing or diminishing numerator or de- 
nominator. 

Multiplication and division by integers. 

Proposition a is b times as large as -— 



Multiplication and division by fractions. 

Meaning of | of I. 

Measures, common measures, factors, common fac- 
tors. 

Reduction by inspection. 

Meaning of commonmul tiple, common measure, 
L.C.M. and G.C.M. 

Bringing to common denominator. 

Addition and subtraction. 



Arithmetic. 237 

There are interesting papers by Potts of Cambridge, 
2d., published by the National Society, giving the 
history of arithmetic. I have found it throws much 
interest into the subject to teach it historically. It 
seems to me that various thing^s at present ^ , . 

Ill- -1 -1 11 111 1 Exclusion of 

mcluded m arithmetic books should be de- some 
ferred ; e.g., present values, annuities, etc., ^" ^^^^^' 
which no one would be likely to attempt who is 
unacquainted with algebra. 

The Mathematical Conference called by the Com- 
mittee of Ten, U.S.A., writes as follows, and I quite 
agree with its view : '' The conference recommends 
that the courses in arithmetic be abridged and en- 
riched — abridged by omitting entirely those subjects 
which perplex and exhaust without affording any really 
valuable mental discipline, and enriched by a greater 
number of exercises in simple calculation and in the 
solution of concrete problems. Among the subjects 
which should be curtailed or omitted are compound 
proportion, cube root, abstract mensuration and the 
greater part of commercial arithmetic. Percentage 
should be reduced, and the needs of practical life — 
profit and loss, bank discount, compound interest, with 
such complications as result from fractional periods of 
time — are useless and undesirable. The metric system 
should be taught in application to actual measure- 
ments, and the weights and measures handled. 

" Among the branches of this subject which it is pro- 
posed to omit are some which have survived from an 
epoch when more advanced mathematics was scarcely 
known in our schools, e.g., cube root, duodecimals ; so 
far as any useful principles are embodied in them, 
they belong to algebra, and can be taught by al- 



238 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

gebraic methods with such facility, that there is no 
longer any sound reason for retaining them in the 
arithmetical course." 

I do not insist on algebra for all ; it gives the same 
sort of mental discipline that arithmetic does, and 
so, educationally, is not of special value. Geometry, 
on the other hand, gives a different kind of training — 
opens a different set of ideas. Many girls, therefore, 
do not learn algebra, especially those who come late 
with no clear ideas about arithmetic. Those who have 
been taught arithmetic well from the beginning can 
be led on to use algebraic symbols and letters very 
early. 

As soon as a pupil has gone through the course I 
have recommended, she is ready to take up algebra in 
a systematic way — I shall suppose she has already 
been familiarised with the use of letters as general 
symbols. 



239 



MATHEMATICS. 

By Dorothea Beale. 

How and when can we best introduce mathematical 
teaching ? We have to do at present in girls' schools 
with many who have come to the age, say of fifteen or 
sixteen, with no mathematical teaching except a very 
slight knowledge of arithmetical processes. For these 
it seems to me more important to give the mental 
training afforded by some initiation into geometrical 
ideas and methods, than to teach algebra. 

For the children (and they are happily a rapidly 
increasing^ number) who have had good ^ . . 

. . Beginnings 

teaching in the kindergarten, one may frame in the kin- 
a course more approaching the ideal. Chil- ^^s^"^"- 
dren can be quite early familiarised with geometrical 
forms and figures, and learn some of their simpler 
properties in connection with the drawing and model- 
ling lessons. 

The Conference on Mathematics, called by the Com- 
mittee of Ten, U.S.A., recommends that practical 
children from the age of ten should have s^°^^^^y- 
some systematic instruction in concrete or experi- 
mental geometry. " The mere facts of plane and solid 
geometry should be taught, not as an exercise in 
logical deduction and exact demonstration, but in as 
concrete and objective a form as possible ; the simple 
properties of similar plane figures and solids should 



240 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

not be proved, but illustrated and confirmed by cutting 
up and rearranging drawings and models. The course 
should include the careful construction of plane figures 
by the eye and by the help of instruments, the indirect 
measurements of heights and distances by the aid of 
figures drawn to scale, and elementary mensuration 
plane and solid." 

A small book by Paul Bert, First Elements of Experi- 
mental Geometry (Cassell), is very suggestive, and would 
throw much interest into the subject. Spencer's Con- 
structive Geometry may be referred to, but it is not 
altogether satisfactory. A useful and practical book 
is Geometry for Kindergarten Students, by Pullar 
(Sonnenschein). 

I consider that geometry should be preferred to 
alg^ebra in order of time, because, as I have 

Geometry ^ ' ' 

before Said, arithmetic gives the same kind of 

age ra. mental training as algebra, whereas from 
geometry the learner gains a unique mental discipline. 
Thus the learner is taught to frame a definition ; he 
itseduca- has to put before the imagination the ab- 
tionai value, g^fact generalised idea, and then describe, 
in words clear and precise, what is in the mind. Each 
proposition begins with a general statement regard- 
ing what is to be proved, or to be done, and com- 
pels us to have a clear idea of what we are going to 
talk about before we begin. The sub-enunciation 
makes us bring the general into the region of the 
particular, and infer the general from' it. We must 
for the demonstration select certain relations relevant 
to the subject and omit all others, and we must be 
ready to give a reason for every assertion. Thus 
geometrical teaching trains the judgment and forms a 



Mathematics. 241 

most useful and logical habit of mind. One finds the 
tendency is greatly checked to use words without any 
clear idea of their meaning, to plunge into a subject 
without having set in order in the mind, what is the 
matter to be discussed, or the problem to be solved, 
and order is introduced into the general work in all 
other subjects of study. 

But geometry has still higher uses in the process 
of mental development. It is, so to speak, , 

^ ' 1 Leads up to 

the link between the real and the ideal ; the region 
as Professor Cayley has said, " imaginary ° ' ^^ *  
objects are the only realities, the oVrco? ovra, in regard 
to which the corresponding physical objects are as the 
shadows in the cave " ; ^ if, on the one hand, it opens 
the gates of science, on the other it leads us to philo- 
sophy, and so Plato is said to have placed over the 
door of the Academy, " Let none enter here ignorant 
of geometry ". 

To study geometry is to enter a new path, and we 
do not see at first to what heights it leads, upwards to 
the universe of ideas ; ideas are nothing for sense, and 
yet they are the most necessary things for the every- 
day life we lead. Thus, a point, though it exists not, 
yet as a thought-dynamic is — it moves and traces out 
lines which do not exist, and yet give us direction, 
and are of most practical use ; by them we calculate 
the height of real things, we guide our ships, we find 
paths in the heavens. Again, moving lines give us 
planes, and these, which exist only in thought, as they 
move, form what we call solid figures, i.e., something 
which occupies space. 

1 Presidential Address, Brit. Assoc. 
16 



1^2 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Of course, no one who is grounded in the principles 
Forming ^^ ^^^^ education, would think of letting 
definitions, children begin by learning definitions ; they 
must be made to put their vague notions into words ; 
and it will be well for them to see how difficult this 
is, e.g., in the case of a straight line, an angle, though 
the notion is quite clear to the mind's eye. It is sur- 
prising to those who have not taught the subject how 
long it takes girls, who have not been trained to exact- 
ness, to bring out, e.g., the definition of a circle. They 
will say, all lines drawn from the centre are equal ; or 
all lines drawn from the centre to the circumference 
are equal. 

No child should be allowed for a long time to see a 
Euclid. Each proposition must be treated as a rider, 
and a copious supply of riders provided in addition ; 
the child helped to discover the solution or the proof, 
then set to write it ; if wrong it must be gone over 
again and again ; it will take a long time to get through 
a very few propositions thus, but later all is easy. 

It appears from the report of the Oxford Local Ex- 
Methods of aminations, August, 1897, that the methods 
teaching. of the dark ages still prevail in too many 
schools ; we read : "In many cases candidates who 
wrote out correctly all propositions for the first six 
books sent up attempts at problems that can only be 
described as grotesque, and showed their complete 
failure to understand the subject, giving the unpleasing 
impression that all they knew was learned by heart ". 

As a formal introduction to Euclid for young pupils, 

I know nothing better for the teacher to 

study and use than Bradshaw's First Step. 

Many others might be named. The Harpur Euclid 



Mathematics. 243 

is good (Longmans), and Books I. and II., by Smith 
and Bryant, may be specially recommended. Still I 
regret that the text-book in England is Euclid ; its 
inconsistencies are manifest ; we stand alone in keeping 
it. Yet a good workman will make the best of his 
tools, and there are editions which remedy many of 
the defects. One would, however, hope that some day 
Societies for the Improvement of Geometrical Teaching 
and Reformed Spelling will rejoice together. It does 
seem an anachronism not to have an angle as large as 
180°; to use the circle, and think of a circumference, 
yet refer to no other loci, and work out in a cumbrous 
manner the propositions of Books III. and IV. — to 
talk of lines touching and not make use of limits. 
The more a teacher knows of the higher mathematics, 
and looks forward for the pupil, the better will he teach 
the rudiments. The treatment of the subject by Pro- 
fessor Henrici (London Science Class-books, Long- 
mans) seems excellent, but I do not know how far it 
would answer for young beginners. I shbuld be glad 
to have the experience of some who have tried it. 
The professor derives the notion of a point from a 
solid, particular figures from infinite planes, and pro- 
ceeds generally in an inverse direction from that of 
Euclid ; the nomenclature is admirably compact, and 
must result in a large economy of thinking power — 
the notion of a locus is introduced early, and the 
methods employed lead up to the modern or projec- 
tive geometry. 

I once spent some time at Zurich, a town especially 
remarkable for its intellectual activity, and chiefly for 
its mathematical school. Through the kindness of 
Professor Kinkel and other friends, I easily obtained 



244 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

permission to be present at various lessons in the Poly- 
technic and Canton School. I found the method there 
similar to that which we follow. The pupils used as a 
text-book Wolff's Tasche^t-buch, a duodecimo of less 
than 300 pages, which contains the principal results in 
pure mathematics and the applied sciences, but no 
demonstrations. I heard a lesson given in the Canton 
School. Professor Weileman first read the proposition ; 
it was the same as Euclid, XI. 2 : to draw a perpen- 
dicular to a plane from a given point without it. About 
a dozen held out their hands to show they were ready 
to demonstrate. The professor selected one, who took 
his place at the board, and, subject to correction, worked 
the problem. The professor gave as little direct in- 
struction as possible, appealing rather to the class. I 
was much struck with the eager interest that the class 
(I think it was Class II. B) took in the work. The 
next proposition (in Wolff) afforded much amusement. 
The demonstrator jumped to the conclusion that the 
lines required to complete the construction would meet, 
and could not be made to see he had assumed what 
required proof Other members of the class offered to 
take the matter up ; he was accordingly superseded by 
No. 2, who having surmounted this difficulty, also broke 
down before he reached the end. No. 3 therefore took 
his place at the board. Thus were the reasoning and 
inventive powers of the boys developed, and a keen 
interest awakened ; there was no weariness, no apathy. 

I make a few remarks on what may seem to some 
trivial matters, yet which are of importance to be- 
ginners. 

In giving the proof at the board, there is no need to 
use three letters, and drag children by their help round 



Mathematics. 245 

every angle ; we can write a Greek letter or a number, 
as we constantly do in trigonometry, or we could colour 
the angles ; say the red is equal to the blue, and let 
the children write out the propositions in an abbrevi- 
ated form first ; or we might adopt the convenient and 
concise plan of Professor Henrici : let capitals stand for 
points, small letters for lines, and let angles be repre- 
sented by the small letters with Z prefixed. Thus we 
have line PQ or a; PR or b ; and z QPR- or Z ab ; 




anything to avoid tediousness is good ; children are so 
bored by verbosity. 

Riders need not be always mere lines without any 
human or scientific interest. Suppose instead of saying 
— From two points to draw lines to a given line, which 
shall make equal angles with the given line, we say — 
Let CD be a mirror or a wall, a ray or a ball strikes it 
at P, draw the direction it will take after — or. There is 
a big house A, and a little house B, near a river — the 
man in B has to fetch water for A daily, where should 
he draw the water so as to go the shortest possible 
distance? 

A 

B 
C ^^^ D 

The method of determining the distance of the moon 
can be made clear long before a child is able to con- 
ceive the trigonometrical ratios, and if we are able to 
arouse an interest in astronomy, we may excite ardour 
in some which will make hard thought and work 



246 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 



delightful. The distant prospect of the mountain top 
has a wonderful power of leading us on. The writer 
can never forget the joyful enthusiasm with which she 
threw herself into the study of mathematics in conse- 
quence of hearing courses of lectures on astronomy 
from Mr. Pullen of Cambridge, Gresham Professor of 
Astronomy, and the late Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge 
has described to her the power which the first realisa- 
tion of the wonders of the boundless universe had over 
him when a boy of fourteen. 

Mr. Glazebrook has suggested that some insight may 
be given to those who have no high mathematical 
ability into what seems so marvellous to the unin- 
itiated, the development of curves from equations. 
The close relation between algebra and geometry 
becomes apparent in Euclid, Book II., but 
this might be shown somewhat earlier by 
methods such as those recommended by Mr. Wormell 
in the first pages of Plotting or Graphic Mathematics. 
We can see by a figure that 1+2 + 3 + 2+1 = 3^, 



Algebra. 







f//A 




1 


f/M, 


i 


1 


« 



and lead the pupil on to the general proposition which 
is in constant use, when treating of falling bodies. 
Or we can show similarly that the sum of an arith- 

. , . , « + / 

metical series equals — - — 



Mathematics. 



247 




As regards the formal introduction of generalised 
arithmetic or algebra, one cannot lay down any limit 
of age, owing to the very untrained state in which girls 
come to secondary schools, but with children who have 
been taught thoroughly the principles of arithmetic up 
to fractions, it is easy to introduce literal symbols and 
so prepare the way : this should be done much earlier 
than is usual. 

Children well taught in arithmetic might perhaps 
begin the subject formally about thirteen, and I think 
it well for the first term to drop arithmetic altogether, 
so as to get as much time as possible for ove^-coming 
the initial difficulties, and making use of the zeal which 
a new study gives ; but of course every good teacher 
of arithmetic will train his pupils to use letters for 
numbers very much earlier. There is a good deal put 
into arithmetic books, which would be much better 
dealt 'with by algebraical methods, and should be post- 
poned, e.g.^ involution and evolution, and much time 
should be saved by omitting long sets of examples on 
weights and measures, etc., and giving sums to be 
worked out mechanically with large numbers. As in 
arithmetic, it is extremely important to give an insight 
into the composition of quantities, so that de-composi- 
tion may be easy, subsequent mechanical work in mul- 
tiplication, division, involution, etc., minimised, and 



248 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

the pupil reach sooner the more attractive branches of 
the subject, and feel the power it gives. 

If children have acquired early a fair knowledge of 
Mixed geometry and algebra, they may, say at six- 

mathematics, teen, be ready to pass on to those branches 
in which the alliance of the two is most intimate, and 
which are so closely correlated with all the teaching in 
mechanics and physics. It takes most girls some time 
to assimilate the ideas of the trigonometrical ratios, and 
it is fatal to hurry them.^ Those who are able to pro- 
ceed further, and enter upon the study of co-ordinate 
geometry, usually take great delight in it ; and it is 
well, too, to lead them gradually on by some such 
books as Proctor's Easy Lesso?is in the Differential 
Calculus, to form some idea of what a powerful instru- 
ment the Calculus is, before they actually make use 
of it or formally study it ; it takes time for a new 
method to infiltrate the mind of an ordinary student. 
Historical Finally, I would once more recommend that, 
method. whenever it is possible, pupils should be led 
along the path of discovery pursued by original in- 
vestigators, both in physics and applied mathematics ; 
I have found the interest of logarithms greatly increased 
by this method.^ 

^ I may add that there is an interesting chapter in Herbart's ABC 
of Sense-Perception, in which he works out trigonometrical ratios 
on the basis of his philosophical system : this chapter would interest 
those teaching mathematics. 

2 Professor Salford {Monographs on Education and Health) insists on 
the importance of teaching logarithms as a part of scientific arithmetic. 
" Often logarithms are first taught in connection with trigonometry, and 
the average pupil does not learn the difference between a logarithmic 
and a natural sine ; there is no cure for this confusion but to teach 
logarithms where they belong and to apply them to purely arithmetical 



Mathematics. 249 

Professor Lodge's popular book, Pioneers of Science^ 
is very much appreciated by the young, and I may 
quote apropos evidence given by Dr. Bryce of Glasgow 
before the Royal Commission of 1864 : — 

" Pure mathematics cultivates the power of deductive 
reasoning, and as soon as boys are capable of forming 
abstract ideas, and grasping general principles, as soon 
as they have got correct notions of numbers, and an 
accurate knowledge of the essential parts of arithmetic, 
and have made some progress in geometry, then 
natural philosophy may be advantageously taught. -I 
speak on this matter from experience. My relative 
and colleague, who had charge of the mathematical 
department in the Belfast Academy, introduced natural 
philosophy as part of the work of all the mathematical 
classes. After these classes had gone a certain length 
in geography and algebra, he took up the elements 
of natural philosophy two days in the week, as part of 
the work of every mathematical class. He began with 
simple experiments, and according as the progress of 
the boys in Euclid and algebra admitted of it, more 
mathematical views of natural philosophy were intro- 
duced. The great advantage of the study of physical 

problems." He advises the introduction of logarithms " as soon as the 
pupil has reached in algebra the proposition «»» x'a" = aw x «, and 
he should be shown that the practical method of dealing with powers 
and roots is the logarithmic. Teachers will then abstain from annoying 
young pupils with difficult and needless problems solved in the anti- 
quated manner ; they will learn how to calculate a compound interest 
table, an excellent exercise in itself, as well as a labour-saving contriv- 
ance in arithmetic. The reason why logarithms are so little appreciated, 
is that teachers of arithmetic have not as a rule really learned their use ; 
they go on wasting time in arbitrary exercises in evolution, interest, etc., 
done by tedious methods, and do not appreciate how instinctively the 
best calculators employ logarithms." 



250 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

science is that, when properly taught, it interests boys 
in intellectual pursuits generally. For instance, New- 
ton's great discovery, the identity of the power which 
retains the moon in her orbit with terrestrial gravity, 
was being explained to a class of from twelve to 
eighteen boys. The teacher did not tell them the 
result ; he enumerated the phenomena by which New- 
ton arrived at it, taking care to present them in the 
order most likely to suggest it. As fact after fact was 
marshalled before them, they became eager and excited 
more and more, for they saw that something new and 
great was coming ; and when at last the array of 
phenomena was complete, and the magnificent con- 
clusion burst upon their sight, the whole class started 
from their seats with a scream of delight. They were 
conscious that they had gone through the very same 
mental operation, as that great man had gone through. 
The consciousness of fellowship with so great a mind 
was an elevating thing, and gave them a delight in 
intellectual pursuits. An unusual proportion of those 
boys who passed through the Belfast Academy during 
the twenty years that I was able to have natural and 
physical science taught on those principles, have, as 
men, been distinguished and successful ; and they owe 
it, I am convinced, in a large degree to the taste for 
intellectual pursuits thus formed." 



251 



PART III. SCIENCE. 

PSYCHOLOGICAL ORDER OF STUDY WITH 

SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SCIENTIFIC 

TEACHING. 

By Dorothea Beale. 

As Rosencranz expresses it, there may be distinguished 
three epochs : — 
I. The intuitive — I use the word with the German 

meaning of sense-perception. 
II. The imaginative, during which the developing 
mind is more accustomed to dwell on mental 
images, is less passive to impressions, more 
active in calling them up, in fashioning them 
anew. 
III. The logical, during which the impulse is to 
harmonise the world without and the world 
within, to fit all things into a scheme of space 
and time, of order and law. 
Regarding these, we may ask what is the thought- 
material in which the developing mind may best 
work successively — or if we take the same material, 
in what varying way shall we deal with it? The 
near objects which the children can touch and 
taste and see objectively, these are the first things 
which call forth the attention, that self-activity by 
which the mind fastens on its prey, and converts 



252 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

percepts into concepts ; as the jelly fish catches the 
floating prey in its tentacles, and absorbs it into its 
substance, so the child stores up experiences and 
memories which enrich all future percepts. 

What subject of systematic study can be better suited 
to the child then, than that which calls out 
its sense of wonder and beauty, and which in 
harmony with its own restless nature is ever changing ; 
in which is found endless variety with underlying order ? 
Surely the world of flowers is specially suited for teach- 
ing the little ones. How the colours and forms delight 
them — has not the first sight of a flower remained 
with many of us through life, " a joy for ever " ? It is for 
us to teach how to observe, so that the memories shall 
be not mere vague impressions, but clear-cut, accurate, 
lasting : all the senses must combine to give unity and 
completeness to the sense-concept, so that the child 
may feel the beauty, enter into loving sympathy with 
Nature, and perfect that "inward eye, which is the 
bliss of solitude". Children should be led to form 
collections, by which the first observations may be re- 
peated and fulfilled ; they should also learn to draw, 
so that not merely the individual, but the essential, the 
typical may be brought into clearness ; we should, too, 
encourage in them the desire to co-operate with Nature 
in making the earth beautiful, and call out the affections 
towards the Unseen Giver of all good things. 

These are a few of the reasons why botany in its 
simplest forms is fit nourishment for the child. The 
hard names, the intricate divisions into classes and 
orders, the physiology of growing plants can be touched 
on only lightly ; but the power of observation can be 
greatly developed, and the main facts of classificatory 



Psychological Order of Study. 253 

botany can be taught, and teaching full of interest 
given as regards structure, growth, seed distribution 
and relations to the insect world. Mrs. Bell's Science 
Ladders form a good introduction. When we have ex- 
hausted our material, so far as the little child is capable 
of understanding, it is better to turn to some fresh 
subject ; we may later, when the mind is ripe for these 
things, take the subject up again. Children whose eyes 
have been opened, will be able to go into the country, and 
note down the things they have seen. Diaries I have 
seen quite beautifully kept by poor children taught at 
the House of Education at Ambleside. The children 
knew the different buds as they came out on the trees, 
and watched the delicate and deepening tints, saw 
the leaf-buds develop into leaves, and the opening of 
the flowers. 

Elementary botany should, I think, be followed by 
a year of zoology (say at ten years old), 
treated in a simple way ; the teacher should 
dwell not upon the internal structure, but on what pre- 
sents itself to the eye, beginning with living creatures 
that the children are familiar with, or can get to know 
— domestic animals, " beasties " from garden and pond, 
caterpillars and birds, tadpoles and dragon-flies — they 
should have their menageries, and watch the creatures' 
habits. Especially suited to women is the work of observ- 
ing insect life, and there are worlds for us to discover, if 
we, as we walk round our garden, have eyes to see. 

The animal world too is specially calculated to 
develop the affections rightly. The character of the 
human being is too complex, too far above the under- 
standing of the child, and as long as he is dependent, 
he should not be exercised in observing and chroni- 



2 54 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

cling the doings of those whom he cannot yet under- 
stand. It is something to give him objects, on which 
he can exercise his powers of criticism and observation. 
So too the sense of responsibility may be fostered to- 
wards those who depend upon him, and are in his power. 

These two sciences bring the child into contact 
with things on the earth ; he might next 
lift up his eyes to the heavens. It de- 
lights the child to learn the names of the constella- 
tions, and trace their forms, to notice the movements 
of the planets, the changing aspect of the sky as the 
years go round. The sense of the greatness of the 
universe gradually dawns on him, and the awe and 
reverence for that power and wisdom which is revealed 
in the heavens, prepares the way for those deeper teach- 
ings which belong to religion. Especially stimulating 
is astronomy to the developing reflective powers, from 
the number and variety of problems it suggests ; and 
yet it is not altogether baffling, for the child can be 
led on to draw conclusions respecting the movements 
and distances of the heavenly bodies ; very early 
he can be shown how to solve such questions by 
simple processes, and thus the mathematical passion 
awakened ; surely most of us can remember the first 
time that our soul really ascended into the seventh 
heaven. I have heard a mathematician describe what 
it was to him — how at fourteen he fled from the school 
into the fields to be alone. 

And what next ? There is something near to the child, 
Physical which he can touch, which lies at his feet, 

geography. ^ rnagic book with mysterious characters, 
in which he reads of infinite time ; let him open the 
pages of the great rock-book, and gather the relics of 



Psychological Order of Study. 255 

the past. Geology will help him to observe in a new 
way ; astronomy and geology (I use it in the sense 
of earth-history) are more suited than the two first 
to the beginning of the reflective period, because there 
is nothing to be done to alter the objects of the two 
last sciences — whereas we can do much, and observe 
the effect of our doings on plants and animals. 

Physiography, including geology and all that has 
to do with the phenomena of Nature included under 
the head of physical geography, would claim a two 
years' course and unify the subjects already touched 
on : the pupil will learn many facts on physical science. 

And now the girl, say about fifteen, with an in- 
creasing power of abstraction and reflection, and a 
greater knowledge of mathematics, will be ready to 
receive more formal and definite instruction regarding 
what we call matter and force — elementary physics ; 
the subjects of light and heat, electricity or chemistry 
might be selected ; the girl is becoming the woman — 
the reflective powers are gaining the ascendant — she 
is longing to interpret more than to gain ever more 
knowledge, she understands something of physics and 
chemistry ; let her return now to her first study and 
carry it still further, see the mysteries of life revealed 
in the flower, take physiological botany, the chemical 
changes produced by the physical processes, watch 
the plants as they grow, and trace the relation of 
flower and insect, plant and animal — recognise that 
all-embracing intelligence working in all, which has 
harmonised not only the outward things, but the 
intelligence of every living creature, and made each 
able more or less to know the laws of their life and to 
obey them. The developing and deepening religious 
instinct will find utterances from heaven in these earthly 



256 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

things, hear the voice of God among the trees of the 
garden. Later still we can pass into the inner temple, 
treat of physiology, show how marvellous is the living 
tabernacle of the soul, how fitted for our temporary 
abode. 

It is objected by some that physiology should not 
be studied because it involves the whole circle of 
sciences, whilst others regard it as the most necessary 
and fundamental branch of instruction. Experienced 
teachers know that much of great educative and prac- 
tical value can be given on the lines of Mrs. Bell's 
Laws of Health, and brought home to comparatively 
uneducated people by the tracts of the Ladies' Health 
Society, and we all know how important it is for those 
who are growing into womanhood, that the subject 
should be treated with the wisdom and judgment and 
reverence which it demands. 

On the later stages of the teaching of natural 
science I do not propose to dwell. Those who take 
up science as a speciality will have to limit the field, 
and others will be guided by circumstances, but what- 
ever special line they may follow later, such a course 
of study must surely have nourished the powers of the 
mind, developed the sympathies, disciplined the char- 
acter, enlarged the horizon beyond the petty concerns 
which occupy the whole attention of the uneducated 
of all sorts and conditions. The woman who has 
really thought about these things, when she travels 
will see things with different eyes, she will understand 
enough to profit by the companionship of able and 
thoughtful men, and later perhaps to share it may be 
a man's work as Miss Herschel, and Mrs. Huggins, 
and Mrs. Proctor, and Mrs. Marshall, and Mrs. Sidg- 



Psychological Order of Study. 257 

wick and many more — to be the friend of her brothers 
and the first teacher of her sons — and she will surely 
have learned the first lesson of wisdom, the humility 
which knows that all we know is to know that our 
knowledge is as nothing in the presence of the Infinite, 
that if any man think that he knows, he knows no- 
. thing as he ought to know it. 

I have worked out the order in detail in respect to 
science ; it will be enough to touch very briefly on the 
parallel teachings in other subjects, which must also 
be taught scientifically. 

Take, e.g., language. The child is ever observing 
and imitating ; restless activity characterises the child. 

The teacher has to perfect the observing powers by 
insisting on right pronunciation, as 1 have shown in 
another chapter, first in English, then in another lan- 
guage ; knowledge is first empirical. 

Next will follow, not grammatical definitions and 
rules to be learned, but the discovery of classification, 
just as in the case of botany, through observation — the 
discovery of rules inductively ; then, when the need is 
felt for a shortening of the process, the collections made 
by grammarians may be produced, as the book of dried, 
specimens, say of ferns, which the child had not time 
and opportunity to collect for herself Afterwards will 
come reading and reflection upon the relationship 
of words, like the systems of scientific classification of 
flowers, and later the age of poetry and philosophy. 
It is the giving the grammatical abstractions to 
children who are at the stage of observation merely, 
which creates the distaste for school learning ; it is 
the giving dead languages at a time when children 
are at the active, intuitive age, and have not the 

17 



258 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

powers of thought necessary to disentangle the classi- 
cal authors, that makes so much of our teaching a 
failure. 

So with history. First the simple tales, e.g., Jack 
and the Giant — no complications of character there — 
good and bad, black and white — stories of fairies and 
hobgoblins, beings so unlike ourselves, that- we are 
not troubled too much with rnoral scruples ; they are 
like dream people. Then old-world heroes, in whom 
the moral emerges — not the priggish boys and girls, to 
cramp the character, but boys and girls, writ large. 
Then passing from the individual to the general, the 
specimen to the species, we have family life enlarged 
to the state under a kingly constitution, as in ancient 
patriarchal times, the first teachings of which are best 
gathered from the Old Testament. As in the nature 
teachings we shall lead children to feel underlying all, 
the sense as of an unseen presence, a King of Kings 
ruling the course of this world, leading and guiding the 
mind of man to work with Him as in the nature realm. 
And lastly in the highest teachings, which have to do, 
not with the objective surroundings, but with the man 
himself, with his thoughts and aspirations, with the 
expression of these in literature, in art, in ethics, and 
politics, and philosophy, the student will find enough 
to develop the highest powers of thought, as he wrestles 
with the problems of life, when he has reached the 
later period of study. 

And the same order is observed in religion. The 
objective first — the Divine acts seen in nature, in the 
acts of the good, in the punishment of evil ; at first the 
thought of God is more objective, since it must be so in 
the early life of the child under parental government. 



I 



Psychological Order of Study. 259 

Later more subjective, through conscience. Sin is at first 
regarded chiefly as an act against a loving person, later 
it is felt to be the degradation of our nature, or that of 
others, by taking in a poison as it were ; or as afxaprla, 
the frustration of the true ends of our being, the ex- 
clusion from the light and life and joy of the Divine 
presence, which is the soul's sunlight, into outer dark- 
ness — the conceptions formed will be different, the 
underlying truths one, the thoughts will pass from 
the physical to the panpsychical, and later to the 
highest conceivable by us — the anthropomorphic, 
stripped of the transitory and the finite, but embracing 
all those eternal things by which we know that we are 
more than creatures of time, since we gladly throw 
from us all that would then be our highest good, for 
the things which eye sees not and ear hears not, 
but which can come to us by revelation only of the 
spiritual ; things which all men, in all ages, have felt 
to be the best, whatever their actions may have been, 
truth, love, righteousness, justice, the eternal things. 

The worst man knows in his conscience more 
Than the best man does, whom we bow before. 



26o 



THE TEACHING OF THE BIOLOGICAL 
SCIENCES. 

By Charlotte L. Laurie. 

The biological sciences deal with the manifestations of 
life. This distinguishes them at once from 

Introduction. , i • i i , . , . 

the physical and chemical sciences ; not, 
indeed, that it is possible to understand the life of 
any organism without some knowledge of physics and 
chemistry ; thus to explain intelligibly the circulation 
of the blood some acquaintance with mechanics is 
necessary, but organisms have certain properties which 
belong to them from the very fact of their being 
endowed with life ; the inherent properties of proto- 
plasm, its contractility, irritability, etc., are all vital 
properties due to the presence of life. 

The first point then that a teacher of biology has 
to decide in order to teach this subject rightly is : 
What is it possible to teach about life ? Is this nine- 
teenth century with its marvellous electrical discoveries 
any nearer the secret of life ? Although it may fairly 
be claimed that the manifestations of life are better un- 
derstood, yet scientists will be the first to confess that 
what life itself is still remains a mystery ; therefore the 
teacher of biology must never be satisfied without 
arousing in the minds of his pupils a growing con- 
sciousness of the limitations of knowledge, the basis 
of true reverence. Any teaching of science, not only 
of biology, which fails to do this is defective. 



The Teaching of the Biological Sciences. 261 

The teacher of biology then will desire first of all to 
develop a reverent attitude of mind, so that Development 
the facts of life may be understood aright, ofobserva- 
Observation of vital phenomena is by no class and 
means an easy thing ; it needs much ac- °"^*^ ^°^ ' 
curacy, constant patience and minute attention to 
detail. In school teaching the foundations of accurate 
observation ought to be laid. Botany affords much 
scope for this. In planning lessons, in choosing speci- 
mens for home work, the teacher should aim at 
developing this faculty. A lesson on a buttercup 
may very well be followed by home work on a marsh 
marigold. The two plants belong to the same order 
and have great similarity in structure, but certain 
important differences ; the tendency of unobservant 
pupils will be to conclude that the same description 
will apply to both, and possibly nectaries will be 
described as present on the sepals of the marsh mari- 
gold instead of on the carpels, etc. As a rule, home 
work should demand original observation on the part 
of the pupils ; it should not be a mere repetition of 
what has been done in class ; thus, supposing the 
sweet-pea has been worked through in class, clover 
may be set for home work, provided of course that 
the class is sufficiently advanced. 

Then, as regards the observation of vital phenomena, 
it is possible to show that plants, like animals, take in 
oxygen. The details of " Garreau's experiment " can 
be contrived even in schools where there is no physio- 
logical laboratory ; with a water plant such as Anacha- 
ris, the evolution of oxygen in the making of starch 
can be demonstrated ; and with such a simple thing as 
yeast growing in sugar and water, it is easy to show 



262 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

that carbonic acid gas is given off by fungi ; more 
elaborate experiments are necessary to demonstrate 
the evolution of this gas by green plants. The teacher 
should always point out any similarity of process in 
plants and animals ; transpiration of plants should 
be compared with the perspiration of animals, so 
that after a few lessons on the physiology of plants, 
it is possible to indicate the essential differences 
between plants and animals as far as they are 
known. 

In zoology, as in botany, the teacher should aim at 
developing the power of observation, but zoology is a 
much more difficult sifbject to teach well ; for it is not 
always possible to get animals for observation, conse- 
quently lessons in zoology are often dry ; they are 
wanting in that living interest which comes not from 
book study, but from watching the animal itself 
Where, however, this has been done, keen interest is 
aroused. A teacher who has spent hours off the 
coasts of Devonshire, pulling sea-anemones out of 
the crevices of the rocks, or watching them expand 
their tentacles and draw them in, will give a very 
different lesson from one who has merely read about 
a sea-anemone. 

A class, having lessons in zoology, should have 
access to an aquarium, which can be kept in the 
class-room, and in planning a course on this subject, 
especially for young children, it is most important to 
choose those types which can be observed. In a first 
year's course for children of ten or eleven, preference 
should be given to the habits of the animals, and 
structure introduced only so far as is necessary to 
explain habit. Living specimens for lessons may be 



The Teaching of the Biological Sciences. 263 

obtained from aquaria in Jersey, Birmingham and 
elsewhere. 

It is not possible, however, to do all that ought to 
be done in developing observation within (^) By means 
the limits of an hour a week in a school- ^ffi^idwork. 
room. The teacher of botany or zoology should be 
.willing to organise expeditions into the country for 
botanising or pond grubbing. Here we have a Field 
Club, consisting of three or four sections : botanical, 
geological, zoological, archaeological. The teacher of 
each subject is naturally the leader of the section, and 
is thus able to arouse a keener interest than is possible 
in the class-room alone. A yearly conversazione, when 
collections are exhibited, gives zest to the working 
of the sections, brings all the members of the club 
together, and affords an opportunity for obtaining a 
lecture from some original worker. It is found that 
if 200 belong to a school society of this kind, each 
member subscribing one shilling a year, a conversa- 
zione can be held, and prizes for collections given out 
of the funds of the society ; each member bears in 
addition her share of the expense of an expedition ; 
but the less expensive and the nearer home these are, 
the better. 

An excellent means of arousing a real interest in 
science lessons, and of developing the ob- ,^\ Through 
servation, is to have a school museum. That ^ museum. 
part of the museum devoted to natural history should 
combine two functions ; it should have perfect speci- 
mens of the chief types of animal life arranged mor- 
phologically ; for instance, the covering organs, such as 
scales of fishes, feathers of birds, hair of animals, should 
be grouped together, so that the homology of these 



264 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 

organs can be seen at a glance ; secondly, the museum 
should have surplus specimens specially intended for 
teaching purposes. One specimen will not serve these 
two purposes ; for the only way of preserving any 
specimen in its perfection is to keep it under lock and 
key in a glass case, which must be air- and dust-tight. 
As soon as a specimen is taken out and passed about 
from teacher to teacher and from class to class, it will 
inevitably get damaged, as the curator of many a 
school museum can testify. 

What share can the pupils take in the museum 
work ? They may furnish specimens, but here the 
difficulty is to get them perfect enough ; children 
require to be trained to aim at a standard of perfec- 
tion, and in this particular the school museum may do 
valuable work ; at the same time if the curator de- 
mands too much, the ardour of the children becomes 
damped ; so it is sometimes well to accept an imper- 
fect specimen, and put it in the museum until a more 
perfect one is forthcoming. Pupils can also do much 
useful work in making diagrams and drawings ; every 
specimen in the science portion of the museum should 
be drawn, and parts explained by means of an ac- 
companying diagram. Reference may here be made 
to the scheme at the end of this paper for a specimen 
museum case, illustrating the flowering plant. It has 
been drawn up on the lines of the Natural History 
Museum at South Kensington, where, as is well 
known, great attention is paid by Sir William Flower 
to the homology of organs. This scheme has been 
carried out in our museum ; almost every specimen 
has been illustrated with a drawing done by pupils, 
the scientific explanation being written by the teacher. 



The Teaching of the Biological Sciences. 265 

In the first instance, as the case was being arranged, 
specimens and diagrams were merely pinned, not 
gummed, so that as the work progressed it was pos- 
sible to alter and improve upon the first arrangement. 

In connection with the development of observa- 
tion, a word may be said about the use 
of the microscope in schools. Every school micro- 
should have at least one microscope, if even ^^°P^^- 
it has only one or two powers ; a great deal can be 
done with a i-inch and 2-inch objectives. At present 
many girls take the course required by the University 
of Oxford for the Senior Local without having seen 
a single structure under the microscope. This ought 
not to be, especially now that microscopes are so 
inexpensive (a microscope with i-inch and |-inch 
objectives can be obtained for ;^3 6s.). 

There is considerable difficulty in managing 
microscope work with large classes ; not more than 
two pupils, or at the most three, can work at a 
microscope at the same time, and where there are 
only one or two microscopes in a school, the simplest 
plan is for the teacher of botany to have pupils out 
singly, whilst the rest of the class are doing paper 
work at their desks. Lantern slides are an immense 
help in class work, but they cannot ailtogether take 
the place of the microscope, and it is very important 
that elder pupils likely to do anything at science 
should learn to manipulate the microscope. 

In no subject is it more necessary to plan lessons 
carefully than in science, for not only does Order of 
the development of the observing faculty 1^^^°"^- 
depend on a right sequence, but the scope of science 
is ever widening. 



266 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Biology alone includes at the present time sub- 
divisions which hardly existed thirty years ago. 
Teachers of botany now have to find time for vege- 
table morphology, histology and physiology, for the 
life-histories of plants as well as for the descriptions 
necessary to classification. At the same time there 
are other considerations, besides a right sequence, 
which must be borne in mind in planning a course. 
Theoretically, it would be best in botany to begin 
with a description of the plant as a whole ; root, 
stem, leaf, flower, branch, and the relation of these 
parts to each other, should be the subject of the first 
lessons. But children of ten or eleven could hardly 
be expected to be interested in learning that a leaf 
is a lateral appendage of a stem, and a branch an 
axillary outgrowth, whereas they are fascinated by 
flowers, and enjoy lessons about the visits of insects 
to flowers, etc. Undoubtedly with young children it 
would be wiser to begin with the flower and gradually 
lead up to the plant as a whole. The teacher, too, 
must be guided to some extent at any rate by his own 
individuality. In a subject as wide as botany some 
minds are attracted by one part, some by another ; 
one teacher can be so luminous in his account of 
structure and its adaptation to function that the 
children are in their turn interested, especially if 
minute structure is seen through the microscope, and 
the delight of drawing forms part of the lesson. 
Another teacher revels in classification, and loves to 
point out the resemblances between plants of one 
order and those of another. 

There must be, and it is almost impossible to over- 
emphasise this, a certain sequence, a certain gradation, 



The Teaching of the Biological Sciences. 267 

a definite plan, on which the lessons are arranged ; 
but this plan, this sequence should be the teacher's 
own, it should be the outcome of his own in- 
dividuality ; he will best teach what most interests 
him, hence he had better follow his own order than 
that of any text-book, however excellent. In higher 
classes, where the work is arranged on examination 
lines, the teacher has a definite syllabus for his guid- 
ance ; but even in this case there is play for his 
individuality, and nothing can dispense with this. 
He must be always reading the new books on his 
subject ; he must keep himself in touch with the new 
work that is being done through visiting museums, 
botanical gardens, working in laboratories, etc., so as 
to be keen about his subject, otherwise his lessons will 
be dull and lifeless, and the unforgivable sin in a 
teacher is dulness. 

Although teachers of biology will naturally attach 
much importance to the development of 

, ... Science culti- 

observation, it is very necessary to remem- vates the 
ber that observation is only a means to an [magination 
end, not an end in itself. If teachers aim and 

1 ... 1 r 1 r ^ rcasoning. 

only at cultivating the faculty of observa- 
tion, they are likely to produce pupils who will make 
good collectors (a work not to be despised), but nothing 
more. The accurate observation of facts is absolutely 
necessary, but it is by no means the only thing to be 
done in science teaching. The power of generalisa- 
tion, from the facts collected, should follow if science 
is to advance at all. It may be thought that this 
cannot be done in school work, but surely some at- 
tempt should be made in this direction, for it is most 
necessary that pupils should be taught to understand. 



268 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

to some extent at any rate, when a generalisation is 
sound and when unsound. This is specially the case 
in teaching physiology ; for instance, pupils are most 
interested in hearing something of the cell theory of 
the body, and can quite appreciate the bearing of the 
discovery, that the walls of the capillary blood-vessels 
are composed of cells, on this theory. 

Science is not a matter merely of memory and 
accurate observation, it needs considerable reasoning 
power and much imagination, for without the power of 
seeing resemblances in facts, i.e., true induction, pro- 
gress is impossible. The theory of evolution, which 
has revolutionised not only science, but the whole 
thought of the present day, could never have been 
formulated had Darwin and Wallace been mere 
observers, however accurate, and in this connection a 
science teacher may be allowed to bear witness to the 
importance of the Humanities in the training of the 
mind. As a scholar of Shrewsbury Grammar School, 
Darwin had little training in science, but possibly 
without the mental discipline of the classics, he would 
have been unable to accomplish what he did for science 
in later life ; for the higher walks of science require 
much imagination. In science lessons pupils may be 
called on to devise experiments for themselves, to 
invent diagrams, to find out resemblances, to note 
dissimilarities, in order to develop the faculty of 
imagination. Speaking very generally, in younger 
classes the aim of the teacher will be to cultivate the 
faculty of observation, in the upper to develop not 
only observation, but the imagination and power of 
reasoning. 



The Teaching of the Biological Sciences. 269 

Notes of a Specimen Lesson on Growth of 
Seedlings for Senior Oxford Class. 

Time — one hour. 

In a previous lesson the structure of the seed of 
bean, maize and sunflower has been given. 
Material required : — 

A. Seedlings of bean, maize and sunflower, ten 

days old ; one of each kind for each pupil. 

B. Seedlings of the above, three weeks old. • 

C. Seedlings grown in different media ; water, 

sawdust, soil. 

1. The Seedlings of the Broad Bean should first be 
examined. 

{a) The radicle, observed in the seed, has given 
rise to the primary root, on which possibly 
lateral roots have begun to develop. This 
is an instance of a true tap root. 
{b) The plumule is beginning to form the stem. 
{c) The cotyledons are gradually getting smaller, 
for the seedling is feeding on them. 
These points should be emphasised by means of the 
blackboard, the pupils themselves drawing the seed- 
lings as exactly as possible, always naming each part. 

2. Seedlings of Sunflower. — These the pupils should 
describe as far as possible by themselves. They 
should notice from the green colour and absence of 
soil on the cotyledons that they are above ground, and 
that there is a portion of the seedling between the 
cotyledons and the beginning of the root ; this the 
teacher tells them is called the hypocotyledonary 
portion of the stem, and the pupils ought to be able 



270 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

from previous lessons to explain the word, or even to 
make it up for themselves. 

3. Seedlings of Maize. — Here the pupils will be able 
to describe by themselves the endosperm and the 
primary root, provided that only one root has shown 
itself If the lateral roots have begun to develop, the 
teacher must explain which are lateral and which 
primary, and point out the difference between the 
primary root of this seedling and that of the bean and 
sunflower. It should be noticed that there is only one 
cotyledon, and here the point to emphasise is, that the 
bean and sunflower live on the food contained in, or 
rhade by, the cotyledons ; the maize on the food present 
in the endosperm. 

The seedlings three weeks old should then be com- 
pared with those already observed, the differences in 
length of radicle and plumule being noted. 

The observation of these seedlings will naturally 
suggest the subject of growth. What is growth ? By 
judicious questioning the teacher will show that it is 
impossible to define it, except by its manifestations in 
plants and animals ; it is associated with the taking in 
of food ; then by comparing the growth of a building 
or rock with that of a plant and animal, it will be 
possible to give some idea of growth by accretion as 
distinct from growth by assimilation; thus the mystery 
of growth will be gradually approached, the teacher 
pointing out that growth is only possible where there 
is life. This should be illustrated in every possible 
way, e.g., growth of the body, of the mind, of a school, 
a nation, etc. 

Lastly, the effect of environment on growth will be 
illustrated by the seedlings grown in different media. 



The Teaching of the Biological Sciences. 271 

The home work in connection with this lesson 
should consist of: (i) Descriptions of seedlings ; instead 
of maize, wheat may be given ; nasturtium instead of 
bean ; these the teacher must have ready for distribu- 
tion; a drawing of each should be insisted on, with 
parts named ; (2) Short notes on the conditions of 
growth and its essential nature. 

The children should also be invited to grow seed- 
lings for themselves ; these should be exhibited in 
subsequent lessons. 

LIST OF BOOKS ON BOTANY. ^ 

(A) Text-books for Class Use. * 

Elementary Botany. By Joseph Oliver. 2/-. Blackie. Useful for 
S. Kensington and London Matriculation. 

Elementary Text-book of Botany. By Edith Aitkin. 4/6. Long- 
mans. This is specially suitable for Senior Oxford Course. 

Student's Introductory Handbook of Systematic Botany (Blackie's 
Science Text-books). By Joseph Oliver. 4/6. This is one of 
the best text-books for Group E of Cambridge Women's Ex- 
amination. 

Practical Elementary Biology. By Bidgood. 4/6. Longmans. This 
gives most of the types, animal as well as vegetable, required for 
the Biology of Group E of Cambridge Women's Examination. 

(B) For Teachers. 
Naked-eye Botany. With Illustrations and Floral Problems. By 

F. E. Kitchener. 2/6. Percival & Co. Very useful for teachers 

of younger classes ; it is most suggestive. 
A Manual of Botany. By Reynolds Green. Churchill. Vol. i. 

Morphology and Anatomy. 7/6. Vol. ii. Classification and 

Physiology. 10/-. Very helpful for London Examination work. 
The Natural History of Plants. From the German of Kerner von 

Marilaun. Translated by F. W. Oliver. 4 vols. 12/6 each. 

Blackie. This is a very readable book, full of suggestion and 

beautiful drawings, and not too technical. 
Handbook of the British Flora. By Bentham. Vol. i., 10/6. //- 

lustrations of the British Flora, vol. ii., 10/6. Reeve & Co. 

This is indispensable for the identification of species. 



272 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

A student^ s Text-book of Botany. By Vines. 21/-. Sonnenschein. 
Practical Botany. By Bower and Vines. 10/6. Macmillan. Both 
of these are very technical, suitable only for advanced work. 



MUSEUM SPECIMEN CASE. 

BOTANY. 

ANGIOSPERMS OR FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Root. Stem. 

Tap Root. — Seedling of Sun- (a) Underground stems, 
flower. Rhizome — Solomon's Seal. 

Primary Root. — Seedling of Bulb — Long: Section of /?a;n/n- 

Maize (not a tap root). cuius biilbosus. 

Corm — Long: Section of crocus. 
Drawing of transverse section Tubers — Drawing of potato in 

of a dicotyledonous different stages of growth. 
Histology root, showing axial ar- Runner — Drawing of straw- 

01 root. .. ru Ji u 

rangement of bundles, berry. 

{b) Histology of stem. 
Illustrated by drawings of trans- Drawings of transverse and long- 
Development verse sections of itudinal sections of monocotyle- 
of bundles, young and old roots, donous and dicotyledonous stems. 
Drawing through long : section Specimens of bast fibres of 
of root, showing hemp, Mexican aloe, lace tree. 

Origin of lateral roots arising {c) Axillary outgrowths of stem 
l&terEi roots. _ . , 1 • f* 1 1 1 

from pericycle. or modified branches. 

Drawings of carrot, turnip. Tendrils — Sweet bryony. 

Forms of orchid, etc. Thorns — Black thorn and gorse. 

roots. 

Leaves. 

1. Drawing of poppy plant in five different stages, showing coty- 
ledons, foliage and floral leaves, in illustration of Goethe's generalisa- 
tion, " all lateral appendages of the stem are leaves". 

2. Cotyledons. Seedlings of mustard, cress, nasturtium, etc. 
Drawings of bean to show fleshy cotyledons. Seedling of maize. 

3. Covering leaves. 

(a) Bud scales from horse chestnut. 

(6) Bracts forming an involucre as in the wild carrot, black 
knapweed, acorn. 

4. Foliage leaves. 

A typical leaf with parts named. 

Drawing of transverse section. 

Arrangement of foliage leaves, alternate and whorled (includ- 
ing opposite). 

The chief types of " simple divided " and " compound " leaves 
should be mounted. 



The Teaching of the Biological Sciences. 273 

Chief modifications of foliage leaves : — 
(a) Tendrils for climbing — Vetch. 

Petiole developed into tendril — Lathyrus aphaca (rare). 
{b) Spines — Barberry. 

(c) For food, e.g., carnivorous plants, sundew, pitcher plant, 

bladder-wort. 

(d) Modifications due to the medium in which the plant 
lives — Water crowfoot. 

The Flower. 

I. Inflorescences. — A specimen and diagram of each. 

Racemose, (i) Capitulum, e.g., daisy; (2) raceme, e.g., lily 

of the valley; (3^ spike, ^.j^., wheat. 
Cymose. i. Dichotomous, e.g., most of the Caryophyllaceae. 

2. Helicoid cyme. Forget-me-not. 

3. Scorpioid cyme. Rock-rose. 

4. Verticillaster. Dead nettle. 

II. Flower. — Drawings (coloured alike throughout) to show hypo- 
gynous, perigynous and epigynous flower. 

Calyx — Spurred, larkspur ; galeate, monkshood. 

Corolla — Papilionaceous, sweet-pea ; bilabiate, dead nettle ; 

rotate, convolvulus ; cruciform, wall-flower. 
Andrcecium — Diadelphous, sweet-pea; monadelphous, mallow; 

didynamous, dead nettle ; tetradynamous, wall-flower. 

Attachment of anthers — drawings. 
Ovaries — ^Diagram of monocarpellary and unilocular, tricarpel- 

lary and unilocular, polycarpellary and unilocular, poly- 

carpellary and multilocular ; free central. 
Ovules — Drawing of orthotropous, anatropous and campylotro- 

pous — each part of the ovule coloured the same throughout. 

Fertilisation. 

The two forms of primrose to show heterostylism. 

Drawing of figwort to show protogyny. 

Drawing of epilobium angustifolium to show protandry. 

Nectaries — Drawings of petal of buttercup, stamens of wall-flower, 
stamens of violet, carpel of marsh marigold, style of coltsfoot ; nec- 
taries coloured blue throughout. 

Fruits. 
A specimen and explanatory diagram of each. 

Dry Indehiscent. Dry Dehiscent. Succulent. 

Nut — Follicle— Berry — 

Hazel. Marsh marigold. Drawing of goose- 

Acorn, berry. 

Achene — Legume — 
Corn buttercup. Sweet-pea. 

Yellow goat's beard. Capsule — Drupe — 
Clematis. Thlaspi arvense. Drawing of peach. 

18 



2 74 Work and Play m Girls* Schools. 

Schizocarps — Shepherd's purse. 

Geranium and urn- Violet. 

belliferae* Porous Capsule^ — 

Poppy. 

Spurious Fruits. 

Pome- — Apple; Hip — Rose; Haw — Hawthorn, etc., etc. 
Modes of Dehiscence of Fruits. Diagram of 

Septicidal — specimen of datura. 

Loculicidal — ,, ,, horse chestnut. 

Septifragal — ,, ,, cruciferae. 

Seed. 

Bean [a) with testa; (/;) without testa. 
Maize {a) with pericarp ; (b) without pericarp. 
Date cut through to show position of embryo, 
^onee ,, ,, ,, ,f ,, ,, ,, 

Walnut to show cotyledons. 

Dispersion of Seeds. 

1. Wings. — Scale attached to seed of pinus. 

Wing attached to fruit of sycamore and ash. 
Seed of Bignonia alba. 

2. Hairs. — E.g., silky hairs of seed of cotton and epilobium. 

Pappus of compositae (fruit). 
Awns of clematis (fruit). 

3. Hooks. — Bristles of geum. 



75 



GEOGRAPHY. 

By Margery Reid, B.Sc. (Lond.). 

It is a vexed question how far the study of geography 
should be looked upon as a training for the ^im in 
mind, or whether its primary function be teaching. 
not to supply material on which the trained mind 
may work. 

This difficulty may be to some extent solved by 
dividing the geography teaching into two distinct 
branches— physical and general geography. 

If this be not done it will be found that the general 
geography lesson is overloaded with a mass of expla- 
nations of physical phenomena. 

Thus, in a general lesson on the climate of India, it 
detracts from the unity of the subject if the teacher is 
obliged to make a digression to explain the theory of 
barometric pressures, but, presupposing this scientific 
knowledge, references to the special application of it are 
within the bounds of the lesson. 

The first course in physical geography should consist 
of lessons requiring only observation of Physical 
phenomena with which the children are well geography, 
acquainted. 

In a town like Cheltenham, situated within walking 
distance of the source of the Thames, the ^^ 

1 • r ^ , 1 1. . 1- 1 11 Observation 

subject of the watershed dividmg the small and 
streams flowing into the Severn from those ^^P^"™^"^- 



276 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

flowing into the Thames, forms a much better subject 

for observation and reasoning than the form and 

movements of the earth. Simple experiments also 

may be performed, but artificial conditions should 

as far as possible be avoided. Thus in a lesson on 

the principles of evaporation, the children may be 

made to observe the gradual drying of a cloth, but 

if heat artificially obtained be used to hasten the 

operation, the object-lesson loses the greater part of 

its value. 

At the beginning of this course the work should be 

„ , , almost entirely that of observation and 

Style of . , . , . . ,, . . 

written Simple reasonmg, but it is well to insist 

^°*^  from the very first that exercises either 

spoken or written should be good in form as well as 
in matter. The composition should be as terse as is 
compatible with clearness, though this applies rather 
to the description of experiments than observations, 
for in the case of an observation, if we are to minimise 
the danger of overlooking the true cause, all accidental 
circumstances must be carefully noted. 

The difference between an observation and experi- 
ment should be carefully explained, and the children 
should be shown that whereas in an observation we 
have to listen to whatever Nature says, an experiment 
is a question so framed that Nature will answer " Yes " 
or " No," and that we must only ask one question at a 
time. Thus we may ask the question : " Is water- vapour 
lighter than air ? " We boil water in a kettle and the 
visible cloud appears above the spout showing that the 
invisible vapour must have risen as it left the kettle. 
The question asked was " Does water-vapour rise 
through the air ? " and the answer is " Yes ". The 



Geography. 277 

children should then write a description of the ex- 
periment with as close attention to form as though it 
were a proposition of Euclid. 

Experiment. To prove that water-vapour is lighter 

than air. 
Apparatus. A kettle containing water and a spirit 

lamp. 
Method. Place kettle on spirit lamp, light lamp and 

boil the water. 
Result. Water-vapour issues from the spout in an 
invisible form and becomes visible as a cloud some 
little distance above the level of the spout. 
Deduction. That water-vapour is lighter than air. 

Subject-matter of the earliest course in Physical 
Geography. 

This course should include lessons on the following 
subjects : — 

1 . Clouds : introducing the foregoing ex- gubject- 
periment to show why they occur high up matter of 

. til o A early course 

m the atmosphere and how they are pro- in physical 

duced. geography. 

2. Rain, snow, hail, etc. : the different conditions 
under which clouds discharge their moisture. 

3. Winds, with only such simple facts about their 
causes as can be shown by the movements of air or 
draughts in a room. If tissue paper be cut into fine 
strips, and held at different points in a room in which 
is a fire, the draught towards the fire may be simply 
demonstrated and also the draught up the chimney. 

4. The sea : its saltness, the rising and the falling 
of the tide and the fact that high tide is later by nearly 
an hour every day, also that some tides rise higher and 



278 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

retire lower than others. (Causes of tides should not 
be touched upon till later.) Waves and their causes. 

As this course proceeds the children should be 
exercised in the making of good defini- 
tions. It is a mistake to think that 
definitions must be given by the teacher. It is well 
to ask one child what she means by the word to 
be defined. Write the definition on the board, and 
then, by means of a series of questions to the chil- 
dren, criticise all those points which are superfluous in 
the definition given. Having eliminated all these, let 
the teacher take the definition as it now stands, and by 
giving examples of all the facts which come under it, 
show that it is probably a great deal too wide, and draw 
from the children gradually all the necessary limita- 
tions. 

A definition so obtained will be easily remembered, 
and, as the children get practice in framing them, they 
will appreciate the meaning and neatness of a clear 
definition. 

In the later part of this course the physical features 
of countries may be introduced, and the children should 
get clear conceptions and accurate definitions of terms 
commonly used in geography, such as mountains, 
valleys, plains, islands, capes, etc., and they should 
both be shown models and allowed themselves to 
make them. 

The simpler facts concerning the work of rivers and 
other forces modifying the surface of the land will also 
find a place among these lessons. 

The physical geography which should follow this 
preliminary work must of course be modified to suit 
the age and intelligence of the pupils. 



Geography. 279 

Physical and chemical experiments may now be in- 
troduced, and the mathematical side of the , 

. Later course 

subject will be more insisted upon as the in physical 
children begin to learn algebra and geo- ^^^^^^^ ^^ 
metry. 

The illustrations also need no longer be drawn 
from the child's immediate surroundings, but may 
be the result of reading, or of description on the 
part of the teacher, and whereas in the lesson general 
laws are arrived at from special cases, in the home 
work the class should be encouraged to search for 
new cases illustrating the laws. 

These later courses should be preceded by simple 
work on the physical and chemical properties of air and 
water. The form and movements of the earth should 
be treated of, and with the help of a tellurium most of 
the simple facts may be made clear, and the phenomena 
of the seasons and the varying length of day and night 
may be demonstrated. The nature of the proof of the 
earth's movement round the sun is appreciated by few, 
and the children should be encouraged to make for them- 
selves some of the observations on which it is based. 

Thus they might be expected to keep an account of 
the groups of stars seen due south every evening at a 
given hour. The change of constellations will stimulate 
their curiosity, and it will not be necessary to wait for 
the whole year before giving them some explanation. 
Or they might be asked to keep a register of the 
varying length of the shadow of a stick at noon for 
three months. The fact could then easily be drawn 
from the children that the sun is at some times higher 
in the heavens than at others, but they would almost 
certainly have to be helped to find out the reason. 



2 8o Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

The meaning and use of the various lines ordinarily 
drawn on a globe may now be given. 

After this work on the earth as a planet, its gaseous 
Theatmo- envelope should next be studied, i.e., the 
presTureand atmosphere, its Composition, pressure and 
temperature, temperature, and the instruments used for 
measuring them. In an earlier course the instrument 
and its use will be enough to deal with ; in a course 
to older pupils the construction and correction of the 
instruments may be considered. 

The children might keep a chart of both temperature 
and pressure for a month, and at the end of that time 
be taught to find the average temperature for the month, 
and to understand the methods for showing variations 
of the barometer used in the leading daily papers. 
The nature of isobars and isotherms should also be 
explained, and the isobars for July and January should 
be filled into two maps and kept for use later. A map 
with isotherms filled in should also be given, and the 
children encouraged to find reasons for the curves in 
any given line. 

They will now be prepared to understand the laws 
treating of movements of the atmosphere. 
With younger classes only the more im- 
portant winds should be taken, such as cyclones and 
anti-cyclones, land and sea breezes, trade and anti- 
trade winds and monsoons, whilst the older classes 
should be led to observe the local variations arising 
from peculiar circumstances. 

When the principles are grasped, an exercise might 
be given to indicate with arrows the direction of the 
wind on the maps on which they have already marked 
the isobars. 



Geography. 281 

The water envelope of the world will next demand 
attention, i.e., the depth of the ocean and ocean 
its deposits. This at first sight will appear depths, 
to the children to be a subject about which they 
cannot possibly be expected to have any know- 
ledge, but by a short recapitulation of the work of 
rivers treated in the preliminary course, the fact of 
the -necessary existence of a continental shelf may be 
drawn from them, as also the fact that the breadth of 
this shelf will depend on the slope of the continent 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the coast, and 
on the amount of deposit made by rivers. 

A wall map contoured to show depths in the Atlantic 
should be shown to the class, and the instruments 
should be described used in investigating depth and 
nature of the deposits on the ocean floor. With an older 
class the nature of the evidence with regard to the belief 
in the permanence of ocean basins may be touched upon. 

Saltness of sea and causes regulating it. Various 
seas should be compared with regard to their salinity. 

The tides. Their causes ; spring and neap tides ; 
reason for high tide being fifty-four minutes 
later each day. The subject of the tidal 
wave as experienced in England requires careful treat- 
ment, as many text-books leave the impression on 
the minds of children that the tidal wave in the North 
Sea travels from east to west, and that the shores of 
the Baltic are experiencing low tide when the eastern 
coast of England is having a high tide. 

Currents. Causes of currents should be sought in 
the movements of the atmosphere. The 
class should be asked to indicate on the 
map showing winds, which they drew to illustrate 



282 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

a previous lesson, the effects of the trade and anti- 
trade winds in the production of currents. Attention 
must then be drawn to the way in which the position 
of the land modifies the currents so produced, and 
thus the class may gradually evolve a chart of the 
currents of the Atlantic. For an exercise they may be 
given a chart of the currents of the Pacific and asked 
for the causes of the direction of the currents. 

The teacher must then proceed to the more com- 
plex subject of the physical features of the 

Land. , , 

land. 

Mountains produced by folding ; their position with 
regard to the ocean. Volcanoes and their distribution. 

Hills produced by denudation. 

Plains and valleys. 

Rivers ; their work and the various causes determin- 
ing their volume, velocity and course. 

Springs. 

Islands. 

Climate. Temperature and rainfall. 

Distribution of plants and animals. 

The order of treatment of the general geography of 
General vanous countries does not vary, and conse- 
geography. quently, notes of a first term's course will 
sufficiently indicate the lines of later work. Opinions 
differ as to whether it is better to begin with 
the study of a continent or a smaller division of 
land. 

Lesson L Before the actual course begins, the chil- 
dren should have a preliminary lesson on the making] 
of plans and the use of scales. A plan of the school- 
room and of the immediate surroundings has now-a- 



Geography. 283 

days generally been made by children whilst still in the 
Kindergarten, but if so, a little recapitulation will do 
no harm before a first lesson on the nature and mean- 
ing of a map. 

The teacher's preparation should be done several 
weeks in advance, so that no point essential to a later 
lesson may be omitted in its proper place. 

Lesson II. For the second lesson an outline map 
of the continent or country to be studied Position of 
is given to the children with the lines of P^rt?s°" 
latitude and longitude. If the work has surface. 
not already been done in a physical course, the 
meaning of latitude and longitude should be clearly 
explained. After having shown that the distance 
between the equator and either of the poles is 
divided into 90 degrees, a sphere may now be taken, 
and by rough measurement the two parallels corre- 
sponding to those through the top and bottom of the 
given map may be drawn upon it. After a short 
description of what we mean by longitude, the longitude 
of the given country is then indicated on the sphere, 
and the use of the two sets of lines to show exact 
position on the earth will be appreciated. If it be 
not a first course, the position of the given country 
may be compared with others equidistant from the 
equator, or on the same meridian. 

In this lesson may also be introduced a few words 
about the temperature of the given country so far as 
it is dependent on latitude. 

Lesson III. Height above sea level. 

For this lesson the teacher should have drawn and 
painted for the class a map of the continent 
being studied, with contour lines marked in °" ounng. 



284 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

two different colours or with two different kinds of 
lines. (Too great detail only tends to confuse the 
children.) 

The first contour line should be drawn joining all 
places 500 feet above the sea level, and the second 
joining all those places 1 500 feet above sea level. Each 
child should then be provided with one of these maps, 
and a wall map similarly contoured and also coloured 
should be hung on the wall. 

The teacher then explains the nature of contour 
lines, and shows that if that part of the map between 
the 500 contour line and the sea be coloured green, 
the coloured part will represent all that part of 
the land which is less than 500 feet high, that is, 
generally speaking, the i)lains. That part between 
the 500 and 1500 contour lines is then coloured 
light brown, and all those areas enclosed within the 
1500 contour line a darker brown. When the maps 
are coloured, and each child has her own, they may 
then be taught how to read a map so coloured. The 
teacher will draw from the class that if the contour 
lines come close together the ground slopes very 
rapidly, but that the slope is more gradual when the 
contour lines are more widely separated — that the 
greatest height of the land lies near the greater ocean, 
and that the more gradual slope is towards the smaller 
ocean, and that this allows of the development of 
larger but slower rivers than those flowing down the 
steeper slope. 

A raised model may then be shown to the class, and 
this may be coloured in the same way as the maps, but 
the children must clearly understand the disadvantages 
of a model, and be shown that the vertical heights are 



Geography. 285 

always enormously exaggerated in proportion to the 
horizontal distances. 

In recapitulating, the children might be asked what 
they consider a common slope for the sides of moun- 
tains. Their notions will always be found to be ex- 
travagant, many of them thinking they have seen and 
even climbed slopes of 60 degrees and upwards. By 
placing a piece of india-rubber on the cover of a book, 
and gradually opening the book and sloping the cover 
till the india-rubber rolls off, the children may be shown 
how very small is the angle at which it is perfectly 
impossible for anything to rest on a slope, and that 
therefore if we find stones on the side of a hill, we" 
know that the slope cannot be greater than 30 degrees. 
Examples may be drawn from any hill in the neigh- 
bourhood of the school. 

Lesson IV. A second lesson will be necessary on 
the contour of the given continent, when the names of 
the mountain ranges and of the plains may be given, 
short descriptions of them read, and exercise given in 
filling them into a blank map from memory. 

Lesson V, The teacher fills into a wall map, blank 
and uncontoured, the principal rivers, and Position of 
asks the class to put them in their con- '"'^^^s. 
toured maps. Many of the children will be found 
not to have appreciated the meaning of contour lines, 
but will have drawn a river flowing from the part 
coloured green to that part coloured brown. One 
such map will form a good object-lesson, and the 
children can be brought to see the absurdity of what 
they have done in representing a river as flowing up 
a hill. 

The properly contoured wall map may then be 



2 86 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

hung up, and the actual position of the rivers followed. 
The meaning of watershed will now be apparent, and 
the fact should be noted that it does not necessarily or 
even generally correspond with the highest land. 

The varying velocity of the river should be drawn 
from the children from the nature and position of the 
contour lines, and from that, which parts of its course 
are being sculptured and in which parts deposition is 
taking place. 

Lesson VI. If a physical course is given, the work 
of rivers will already have been treated, but certain 
rivers in the continent should be chosen for special de- 
scription. From the contour line the children will be 
able to say for how great a distance the rivers are pro- 
bably navigable, and the uses of the given rivers as a 
means of communication and the position of towns 
on their banks may be discussed. 

Lesson VI L Coast line. Sufficient knowledge will 
now have been gained to render possible 
the appreciation of some of the causes 
affecting coast line. 

When rocks are hard and folded, producing moun- 
tains, then they will also give rise to rocky promon- 
tories. Clays and sands, which inland allow themselves 
to be worn into plains and valleys, will here produce 
bays. Rivers, if still capable of erosion, will produce 
valleys, which a slight subsidence will convert into 
narrow gulfs. Finally the accessibility of various 
points on the coast may be considered, and the position 
of the chief harbours and ports. 

Lesson VIII. Climate. This lesson may be treated 
deductively, as the class is already familiar 
with those phenomena upon which both 



Geography. 287 

temperature and rainfall are mainly dependent. The 
rainfall might be given as an exercise, allowing the use 
of contoured maps, and the chart of the prevailing 
winds. 

Lesson IX. Distribution of vegetation, pastoral and 
agricultural districts. 

Lesson X. Distribution of minerals, centres of 
population. 

At the end of this course a physical map of some 
country not already studied by the children should be 
hung before them, and they should all be asked to write 
an essay about the country from the facts that they 
find in the map. 

If they can do this, they will have learnt to read a 
map intelligently, and one of the great ends of a course 
in geography will have been attained, since they will 
not only have acquired many new facts, but have also 
gained the power of searching for and assimilating facts 
for themselves. 

When England is the country being studied, this 
course must be supplemented by more detailed work 
on the causes that have determined the positions of 
cities and towns, and how these causes have operated 
during the last 2000 years. The children should be 
shown that British camps were generally on escarp- 
ments overlooking the surrounding country. The 
district round was cultivated, and the inhabitants 
sought safety in the camp in time of danger. After 
having been told that the position of some of these 
" duns " or hill forts is still indicated by such place- 

iiames as London, Dunstable and Dundee, the children 
night be encouraged to suggest other places them- 



288 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

by the Romans, many of the sites being marked b}^ 
corruptions of the Latin word castra, as Chester, 
Colchester and Winchester, and these camps were 
joined by well-made roads. 

Later immigrants formed their centres either in the 
neighbourhood of these roads, as the Saxons, who 
often formed villages at a point where the road crossed 
a stream, as Hertford and Stamford on the Ermine 
Street, or on sheltered bays and navigable streams, 
like the Norse and Danes, whose towns and villages, 
ending in " ley," " thorpe," " wic," are never found 
except where there is a spring or other natural water 
supply. 

As the various races inhabiting England became 
amalgamated, and the land was cleared, there was a 
tendency for towns and villages to spring up over 
such districts as the Weald, the eastern counties, the 
central plain and broad river valleys. But there was 
no great concentration of population save in the south- 
east, where the neighbourhood of the continent called 
into existence the Cinque Ports, and where iron 
smelting was carried on by using the wood of the 
Wealden forests. 

As the Cinque Ports declined, the growth of the 
navy and the increase of fisheries and trade with the 
continent increased the size of other ports, and the 
growing importance of the woollen trade called into 
existence the large Norfolk towns, which flourished 
until vexatious guild regulations induced many workers 
to leave the towns, and form industrial villages as 
Manchester, Birmingham and Sheffield. Settlements 
of foreigners, as the French silk weavers at Spital- 
fields, also formed a nucleus for other industries. 



Geography. 289 

At this point the children might be shown a geo- 
logical map of England, and also a map in which all 
those districts with a population of more than 500 to 
the square mile are coloured red ; they would notice 
that almost all these red patches correspond with coal 
fields, and be told that the period of beginning to work 
many of these coal fields, corresponded with that at 
which America was being opened up ; that conse- 
quently such ports as Liverpool and Bristol on the 
west coast became identified with the importing of 
cotton and sugar, and that towns engaged in these 
industries sprang up in the neighbourhood of these 
ports. 

The use of steam power in various manufactures 
still further attracted the cotton and woollen in- 
dustries to the towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, 
and the working of iron, found in the neighbour- 
hood of coal, accounts for many other centres of 
population. 

Another map may now be shown with the various 
manufacturing towns marked, and attention called to 
the physical features which have caused the location 
of the industry at that spot, as the presence of water 
power, the possibility of water carriage, the neighbour- 
hood of a port, the presence of hard water used in 
beer-making, as at Burton. 

When the internal growth of England has been 
considered, a lesson should be given on her commer- 
cial supremacy, and the factors which have determined 
it England's position in the centre of the great land 
hemisphere, the climate, the indented character of the 
coast, and the mineral wealth, should all be touched 
upon ; nor in doing this should points not geographical 

19 



 



290 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

be omitted, as the needs of a continually increasing 
population, the founding of colonies by a part of this 
surplus population, and, above all, the character of the 
people, upon which alone the greatness of an empire 
can rest. 



t 



291 



PHYSICS. 
By Agatha Leonard, B.Sc. (Lond.). 

As a preliminary to any remarks on the teaching of 
physics, it will be well to consider the place position of 
which the subject should hold in a general "phpcs" 

. . '^ in scheme 

scheme of science teaching. It is not the of science 
most suitable subject for junior classes ; for ^^^^ *"^' 
young children the sciences of botany and zoology 
which cultivate the observing faculty, while making 
less demand upon the reasoning powers, are prefer- 
able, but for children of thirteen or fourteen a course 
of elementary physics affords valuable training and 
arouses great interest. The subject must, of course, 
be treated on purely experimental and non-mathe- 
matical lines, indeed the chief value of physics at this 
stage is to teach the children the true use and nature of 
experiment. They will probably begin with the idea 
that the use of experiments in a lecture is some^vhat 
the same as that of illustrations in a story-book, to 
render it more entertaining, though they might be 
dispensed with, and it takes time to make clear to them 
that experiment is the very groundwork of all science, 
the careful " questioning of nature " as to what effects 
follow upon certain causes. These lessons on physics 
will lay an excellent foundation for a course on physical 
geography, which may be taken for the next year's 
work. 



 



292 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

With girls of fifteen or sixteen either a second course 
of physics, involving a knowledge of elementary mathe- 
matics, may be taken, or chemistry may be begun ; 
while with older classes the choice of a subject will 
greatly depend on the nature of their previous work, and 
on the facilities for laboratory work in chemistry or 
physics. Physiology should not be taken with girls 
below sixteen ; it is of less educational value than either 
of the subjects above-mentioned, the possibility of 
personal observation being less, and the whole as taught 
in schools too often a matter of memory rather than 
of observation or reasoning ; if taught to elder girls it is 
rather for the practical advantage of the information 
imparted than for scientific training. Some such 
scheme of science teaching throughout a school as 
the following might therefore be suggested : — 

. Botany or Zoology. 
. Elementary Physics. 
. Physical Geography. 

fChemistry or Physics 
,, „ „ 15 ,, 16 . J. (Magnetism and Electric- 

\ ity or Heat and Light). 

I Chemistry or Physics or 
Botany ; Physiology and 
Hygiene (in addition to 
one of the above). 

The first course of physics (see end of chapter) may 
deal with some of the chief forces of nature (gravity, 
cohesion, friction) ; the three states of matter and their 
properties, under which head would come lessons on 
atmospheric pressure ; elementary ideas of work and 
energy ; and the simple phenomena of sound and heat. 
The subject of light is better omitted until sufficient 
knowledge of geometry has been acquired to allow of 



Classes of average age 10 to 


12 


13 M 


14 


j» »> >> ^4 »' 


15 



Physics. 293 

the laws of reflection and refraction, and the effect of 
prisms and lenses being rather more adequately dealt 
with than is possible at this stage. Magnetism and 
electricity also are better postponed until a later course. 
No text-book should be given to the children, as their 
home-work in science should never take the Home- 
form of learning from a book. Some teachers, ^°'"^- 
to avoid this, let the children take notes, and attempt 
to reproduce the lesson, others give, either on the 
blackboard or by dictation, a clear summary which the 
pupils take down verbatim, but neither plan is satis- 
factory ; the first leads to confusion and inaccuracy, as 
the children are not old enough to take good notes, 
while under the second all the work is done by the 
teacher. I have found it best to end each lesson by 
setting some questions, framed so as to bring out the 
chief points of the lesson, to be answered by the 
children in their own words. The answers must be 
carefully looked over and criticised at the next lesson, 
and a methodical account of experiments insisted on, 
specifying in order the object of the experiment, the 
apparatus employed, the method adopted, and the re- 
sults obtained and conclusion drawn. Specially good 
passages may be read to the class, both as an encour- 
agement to the writer, and as an example to the rest 
of what can be done by one of themselves ; and special 
censure should be given to careless work, but great 
care must be taken to avoid confusing mere mistakes 
with "bad work"; the children should be made to feel 
that more value is attached to even faulty explana- 
tions or descriptions, which show that their minds have 
worked on the subject, than to the most perfect repro- 
duction of the teacher's exact words. 



294 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Besides the advantage of securing that the pupils and 
not the teacher shall do the main part of the home- 
work, the teacher may gain most valuable hints from 
the errors of the children ; they will be found often to 
arise from some misconception, the removal of which 
will suggest a quite fresh method of explanation ; 
indeed a teacher will be unlikely to succeed in im- 
parting clear scientific ideas to her pupils who is not 
on the watch for any indications of what ideas, right or 
wrong, they really have formed, and able therefore to 
see their difficulties from their point of view. 

The only case in which knowledge may perhaps with 
_ ^ . . advantage be cast into words not by the 

Definitions. .,11 1 1 , • , r 

pupil alone but by the teacher, is that of a 
definition, the construction of a concise and accurate 
definition being in most cases beyond the child's un- 
aided powers. Even here, however, the child should 
do as much as possible of the work herself, only it 
should be done in class with the teacher's help instead 
of at home alone. Thus, suppose the lesson to be on 
the three states of matter, it is better not to give a 
definition of each as the starting-point, and then go 
on to illustrate and explain the same, but to start 
from the undefined idea which every child possesses 
of a solid, a liquid, and a gas, and develop from it by 
degrees the precise definition. Suppose the class to 
suggest as definitions that substances in the solid state 
are " hard," in the liquid state " wet," and in the gaseous 
state " invisible," they will be much interested in having 
the imperfection of these definitions brought home to 
them by the help of the liquid metal mercury, which 
does not " wet " glass or porcelain, and of the visible gas 
chlorine, and in being led to find out the true distinctions 



Physics. 295 

by observing the different behaviour of soHds, liquids, 
and gases respectively when placed in vessels of differing 
shapes and sizes. 

It must indeed be a fundamental principle throughout 
these lessons to tell as little as possible ; not Science 
only should the children produce unaided If^mhofitT 
reports of their work, but the reports should tive ". 
be of what they have themselves observed, not of what 
they have received on authority. The worthlessness 
of authoritative science teaching is very generally felt 
in these days, and some modern teachers are disposed 
to deny any value at all to science lectures for young 
children, asserting that only by experimental work 
carried out by themselves, with as little interference 
from the teacher as possible, can any really scientific 
ideas be communicated to them. The value of per- 
sonal practical work I, of course, fully admit, but I 
am sure that really "scientific" training may also be 
given in a " lecture " lesson, by a teacher who knows 
her subject, and is skilful in the art of questioning, 
and in making her children tell her what they really 
do see in an experiment, instead of telling them what 
they ought to be seeing. 

That observation may thus be trained, it is of im- 
portance to secure that all experiments shown to 
young classes should "go". With older classes the 
occasional failure of an experiment may be no great 
matter, they are capable of understanding that the 
conditions of the experiment were not fulfilled and 
hence the failure, but with beginners in science it is 
very undesirable to produce the impression that when 
Nature is " questioned " she sometimes gives one answer 
and sometimes another- Experiments that cannot be 



296 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

shown to the children should as a general rule not be 
described, though when any principle is thoroughly 
grasped and driven home by experiments performed 
before the class, there is no harm in mentioning as 
additional illustrations such phenomena as the falling 
of the mercury in a barometer tube on being carried up 
a mountain, or the impossibility of making good tea at 
high altitudes owing to the lowering of the boiling-point 
of water ; but should the want of apparatus prevent an 
experiment otherwise suitable for a lecture from being 
performed it is generally better with beginners to omit 
all mention of it. 

For carrying out such a course as that now being 
. , considered very simple and inexpensive ap- 

Apparatus J r 11 

foreiemen- paratus is for the most part needed. The 

lary course. , . . , , 

only expensive piece really necessary is an 
air-pump ; for the rest, an ordinary pair of scales, a few 
glass beakers, flasks and funnels, some glass tubing 
and rods, a little mercury, some wire gauze, some 
sheet india-rubber, thermometers, a Bunsen burner, 
and a j-etort stand or two, are all that is needed, 
though the addition of such pieces of apparatus as 
the Magdeburg hemispheres will enable interesting 
experiments to be shown. 

As regards the children's own practical work it is 
Practical not always possible to arrange in schools 
work. ^Qj. laboratory work for beginners ; the time 

at disposal is often insufficient, and the class too 
large for a single teacher to give the supervision 
needed by children so young ; but where the class 
can be taken in sections of not more than ten or 
twelve pupils for an extra lesson, nothing so greatly 
rouses the children's interest and gives so real a 



Physics. 297 

grasp of principles as a course of simple experi- 
mental work carried out by themselves. Accuracy 
must be insisted upon from the very beginning ; each 
experiment must have a definite object, and a de- 
scription of the experiment with the results obtained 
must always be written out by the child. It is a good 
plan to give as many experiments as possible in which 
the result aimed at is quantitative, it is a great satis- 
faction to a child to obtain a result whose correctness 
can be gauged, but it is not necessary that the work 
should be exclusively of this type. The course may 
begin with the careful measurement of lengths, em- 
ploying different methods, such as the direct applica- 
tion of the rule to the object, the transference of 
distances by means of compasses, and obtaining the 
lengths of curves by means of a string laid along 
them and afterwards measured ; and the children 
should be taught to make measurements on the 
metrical system as well as in feet and inches, especi- 
ally if they already possess any knowledge of decimals. 
When they can measure as accurately as their scales 
will allow, the vernier may be introduced, its principle 
explained by the aid of a large-sized model, and 
practice given in reading the verniers on barometer 
scales, etc. Then may follow measurement of the 
area of rectangles, and, if the children's mathematical 
knowledge allow of it, of triangles and other rectilineal 
figures, then the determination of the volume of rect- 
angular solids from their linear dimensions. The 
determination of mass may next be taken up, and the 
pupils taught how to use a balance properly, the C.G.S. 
unit being again employed as well as the pound ; 
then they may learn how to weigh in water, and how 



298 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

to prove experimentally that the loss of weight of a 
body weighed in water is equal to the weight of the 
displaced water ; then the volume of a body may be 
determined by finding the mass and hence the volume 
of the water it displaces ; from this they pass readily 
to the determination of specific gravities. Experi- 
ments on air pressure may follow ; the children may 
learn to read the height of the barometer, and to 
make for themselves barometric charts showing the 
variation of the height from day to day ; this affords a 
good opportunity of teaching them to use squared 
paper. There are also many simple experiments in 
mechanics, such as the experimental determination of 
the principle of the lever, the finding of the position 
of the centre of gravity of a lamina, the finding of the 
resultant of two parallel forces, etc., very suitable for 
such a class. Then may come easy experiments and 
measurements in heat, the reading of various ther- 
mometer scales, the filling of a thermometer and its 
rough graduation, and experiments proving the fact 
of expansion and of the force exerted by expanding 
or contracting bodies; measurements of the amount 
of expansion are too difficult for this stage. Much 
supervision is required ; special care should be taken 
that children are not left with unoccupied intervals 
during which they get listless and bored ; this requires 
careful previous planning out of sufficient experiments 
for the whole class. It will stimulate interest if 
several children in succession are allowed to make 
the same measurement, and then to compare their 
results. 

Even where no laboratory class is taken, the teacher 
can still take opportunities of convincing the children 



Physics. 299 

that experiments can be performed by themselves as 
well as by their class-teacher ; they enjoy being called 
up to perform an experiment in class, and will, if they 
have any taste for the subject, take an interest in re- 
peating any possible ones at home ; they can convince 
themselves of air-pressure by private experiment with 
syringes, siphons, and inverted tumblers, or can find 
centres of gravity, or experiment with sounding strings 
of various lengths, but of course such desultory 
experiments, followed by no careful writing out of 
results, do not give very valuable training in scientific 
accuracy. 

I would insist also on the importance of requiring 
children from the first to illustrate their 

, , ,. , . . ,, Diagrams. 

work by diagrams ; a little time is well 
spent in criticising these, and in showing how they 
might be improved. Very neat and serviceable dia- 
grams may be produced even by children with no 
natural taste for drawing, but they need to be shown 
how to work, and perhaps to have the lines of a 
diagram suggested to them at first by a rough black- 
board sketch, or it may not occur to them that a few 
simple lines will show all that is necessary better than 
a would-be realistic sketch of apparatus, with impos- 
sible perspective and smudgy shading. ' 

I pass on now to somewhat higher classes. With 
pupils whose average age is about fifteen, course of 
some one or two of the branches of physics fnd^^''^'*^ 
may be taken more in detail. Suppose magnetism. 
electricity and magnetism to be chosen, the aim 
throughout the course should be so to impart ele- 
mentary ideas that they may be a real help and not a 
hindrance to any future effort to take in modern views 



300 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

of electricity. To this end attention should from the 
very first be directed to the electric or magnetic " field " 
about any charged or magnetised body and not ex- 
clusively concentrated upon that body itself, and the 
pupils should be accustomed to attribute the motions 
in such fields not to the " action at a distance " of a 
charge, a pole, or a wire carrying a current, but to the 
special condition of the medium immediately around 
the moving body. The idea of a magnetic field is more 
readily grasped by beginners than the corresponding 
idea in electrostatics, owing to the ease with which 
the field may be mapped to the eye by means of iron 
filings, or by marking down successive positions of a 
tiny magnetic needle ; it seems to me, therefore, well 
to begin with the study of magnetism, rather than, as is 
common in text-books, with that of statical electricity. 
From magnetism the more natural transition is to 
current electricity, and it will be found a good plan to 
take the subjects in this order, passing from the mag- 
netic fields which surround permanent steel magnets 
to those which are found to exist in the neighbour- 
hood of a wire whose ends have been joined to plates 
of zinc and copper immersed in a vessel of dilute 
acid. The existence of such fields will be proved by 
the magnetisation of iron round which the wire is 
coiled, and by the motion of permanent magnets near 
which it is held, and the direction of the lines of force 
will be inferred from the direction of such motion. 
The existence of the magnetic field established, the 
term " current of electricity " may be introduced ; the 
children will readily understand that it arose from the 
idea that it was something flowing through the wire 
which gave it such strange properties, and that whether 



Physics. 301 

this is the case or not, there is a practical conveni- 
ence in retaining the old terms. 

Some of the practical applications of the magnetic 
effects of currents may now be explained, e.g.^ the 
electric telegraph and electric bells, and the use of a 
galvanometer as a current indicator. Simple experi- 
ments on the induction of currents by motion of 
magnets, or starting and stopping of currents may 
follow, it being carefully pointed out that the one 
essential for such induction in a coil is some change in 
the magnetic field in which it lies. The principle of 
dynamos readily follows. The heating and decom- 
posing effects of electric currents may next be con- 
sidered with their practical applications to electric 
lighting, and electro-plating respectively, and the 
attention of the children should be directed to the 
energy appearing as heat or as chemical separation in 
the two cases. If they have gone through the pre- 
liminary course they will know enough of the conser- 
vation of energy to look for the disappearance of 
energy in some other form, and the chemical action 
in the battery may now be pointed out. Some ex- 
planation of " polarisation " and of the need for more 
complicated forms of battery than the simple voltaic 
cell may be given. 

Lessons on statical electricity will end the course ; 
they may be connected with the preceding lessons by 
first speaking of the discharge of a Leyden jar, and 
that between the knobs of an induction machine as 
instantaneous " currents," and going on to the state of 
affairs in the medium between the knobs or coatings 
when they are not sufficiently near for the discharge to 
take place ; this will be made clear by going back to 



302 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

earliest facts known about electricity and following the 
ordinary course of electrostatic experiments. 

Should " heat and light " be chosen instead of elec- 
Heatand tricity for this year's course, the mode of 
light. treating the subject must depend very much 

on the mathematical advancement of the pupils. It 
is probable that their knowledge will not exceed the 
first two books of Euclid, and algebra to simple 
equations, and it will therefore not carry them very 
far in the treatment of geometrical optics ; it will 
enable the laws of reflection to be intelligibly ex- 
plained, and the position of the image in a plane 
mirror to be determined (the law of refraction may 
also be made clear, as the children can easily be 
made to understand the meaning of the term " sine "), 
but formulae connected with mirrors and lenses should 
be left to a later stage, the changes in size and position 
of the image formed by a curved mirror or a lens being 
determined experimentally and not by calculation. A 
general explanation of the action of optical instruments, 
telescope, microscope, spectacles, etc., can be given, 
without exact calculations, and illustrated either by 
carefully drawn diagrams, or by models with lenses of 
cardboard and rays represented by strings. The in- 
terest of lectures on dispersion and the spectrum is 
greatly increased if they can be illustrated by lantern 
experiments. The subject of heat lends itself better 
to non-mathematical treatment, and is specially good 
for practical work by the pupils themselves. 

The work of senior classes, i.e., girls of seventeen or 
Work of over, depends so much upon circumstances, 
senior guch as their previous training, their mathe- 

independent matical knowledge, etc., that it is difficult 
reading. ^^ ^^^ much to the point about it, but a 



Physics. 303 

word may be added on a very common fault of 
such classes, a tendency to rely too much on their 
teacher and their notes of lectures, and to read and 
think too little for themselves. The practical work, 
which is an essential for such classes, does much to 
encourage self-reliance, but besides this they should 
from time to time be given some reading to do on 
points which have not been previously made clear in 
lectures ; difficulties met with in the reading should be 
brought up at the next lesson, when the teacher will 
either solve them or put the pupil in the way of doing 
so for herself. This kind of work takes time, and is 
therefore apt to be crowded out from a full time-table, 
but it is worth an effort to find a place for it. 

LIST OF SOME BOOKS USEFUL FOR TEACHERS. 
L Practical Physics. 

For Beginners — 
Inductive Physical Science. F. H. Bailey. Heath & Co., Boston, U.S.A. 
Practical Lessons in Physical Measurement. A. Earl. Macmillan. 5/-. 
Exercise Book of Elementary Practical Physics. Arranged according 
to Head Masters' Association Syllabus. R. A. Gregory. Mac- 
millan. 

For rather older Classes — 
Elementary Physics. Henderson. Longmans, Green & Co. 
Elementary Practical Physics. W. Watson. Longmans, Green & Co. 
Intermediate Course of Practical Physics. Schuster & Lees. Macmillan. 

For Senior Classes — 
Practical Physics. Stewart & Gee. Macmillan. 
Practical Physics. Glazebrook & Shaw. Longmans, Green & Co. 7/6. 

n. Theoretical Physics. 

Primer of Physics. Balfour Stewart. Macmillan. i/-. (May suggest a 

course for beginners.) 
Heat. H.G. Madan. Longmans. 9/-. (A good course for junior classes.) 
Elementary Treatise on Heat. Garnett. Deighton, Bell & Co. 4/6. 

(A good course for rather more advanced students.) 



304 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Light. A course on Experimental Optics. Lewis Wright. Macmillan. 

(Suggests good experiments, especially with lantern.) 
Elementary Lessons in Electricity and Magnetism. S. P. Thompson. 

Macmillan. 

For Senior Classes — 
Theory of Light. Preston. Macmillan. 15/-. 
Theory of Heat. Preston. Macmillan. 17/-. 
Electricity and Magnetism. Foster & Atkinson. (Based on Joubert.) 

Longmans, Green & Co. 7/6. 
Theory of Heat. Clerk Maxwell. Longmans, Green & Co. 4/6. 

COURSE OF ELEMENTARY PHYSICS. 

Definition of Physics. 

Distinction between physical and chemical phenomena.— Iron heated, 

Iron rusted. Candle melted, Candle burnt, etc., etc. 
Motion. Force. Illustrations of familiar forces. — Muscular force. 

Force of stretched spring, etc., etc. 
Consideration of some particulai forces. — Gravity. Friction. Co- 
hesion. 

Gravity. — Distinction between body's weight and mass. Weight 
is the earth's pull upon it. Might be different while body 
unaltered. Centre of gravity. Experimental determination 
for laminae of various shapes. Stable, unstable and neutral 
equilibrium dependent on position of centre of gravity. 
Everyday illustrations. Stick balanced on finger, etc. 
Friction. — Everyday instances. Effect if it were removed. 
Cohesion.— Three states of matter. Solids. Liquids. Gases. 
Essential difference between them. Experiments showing 
retention of size and shape by solids, of size by liquids, of 
neither by gases. 
Pressure of Liquids — 
Transmitted in all directions. Effect of boring hole in side of vessel 

containing a liquid. 
Pressure increases with depth. — Experiment. Lower into jar of water 
cylinder closed at bottom by glass disc, the pressure of the water 
supports the disc. Pour water into cylinder till bottom falls, the 
lower the cylinder is sunk, the more water is required for this. 
Liquids find their level. — Experiment with communicating vessels of 
different sizes. Water level, spirit level. Water from reservoirs 
rising to tops of houses. Exception in case of very narrow tubes. 
Capillarity. 



Physics. 305 



Floating power, or buoyancy of liquids. — Experiments on weight of 

water displaced by bodies immersed and by floating bodies. 

Principle of Archimedes. 
Specific gravity. — Definition. Experimental determination (i) by 

catching and weighing displaced water ; (2) by loss of weight 

in water. 

Pressure of Air — 
Experiments showing existence of atmospheric pressure {e.g., inverted 

jar of water, experiments with air-pump, suckers]. 
Barometer. — Construct by filling long tube with mercury. Show by 

passing barometer tube through cork of receiver that mercury 

falls when air withdrawn from above mercury in cistern, rises 

if air is let in. 
Action of syringes. Pumps. Construction and working of air-pump. 

Heat— 
Temperature or hotness. — Sensation not reliable guide. 
Expansion. — Experiments to show in solids, liquids, gases. A few 

exceptions to law of expansion, e.g., water near freezing-point, 

ice forms on top of water. Force of expansion. 
Thermometers. — Construction and graduation. 

Fusion. — Temperature remains constant during fusion. Latent heat. 
Evaporation and boiling. — Latent heat of vaporisation. 
Boiling point depends on pressure. — Experiment of boiling water 

under air-pump. 
Conduction. 
Convection. — Heating of water in kettle ; heating of houses by hot 

water. 

Sound — 
Sounding bodies always in vibration. — Bells, tuning-forks, metal 

plates (vibrations shown by means of sand),, strings, etc. 
Mode of propagation. Illustrations. Air or other medium necessary 

for transmission ; no sound through vacuum. 
Sounds differ in loudness, pitch, quality. 
Physical cause of loudness. — Violence of vibration. 
Physical cause of pitch. — Rapidity of vibration. Siren, or perforated 

disc. 
Strings. — Note given depends on length, thickness, tension and 

material. Experiments with monochord. Illustrate by violin 

strings. 

Harmonics. — Subdivision of strings. Experiment with riders on 
string. 

20 



3o6 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Physical cause of " quality ". — Intermixture of other notes with 

fundamental. 
Resonance. — Experiments with tubes of air and tuning-forks. Organ 

pipes. 
Velocity of sound. — How first determined. Calculate distance of 

thunderstorm. 
Reflection. — Echoes. 

Work and Energy — 
Work done when force overcome or yielded to through any distance. 
Gravity does work when body falls. — Work done against gravity in 

lifting a body. Foot-pound, unit of work. 
A body which has power to do work has "energy". — May have in 

consequence of motion, or of position, or of being heated, 

etc., etc. 
Conservation of energy. — Transformation of energy. 



307 



THE TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY. 

" By Clare de Brereton Evans, D.Sc. (Lond.). 

The committee appointed by the British Association 
in 1889 to inquire into the " Present Methods of Teach- 
ing Chemistry," gave it as their opinion that " the high 
educational value of instruction in physical science has 
never been exhibited to its full advantage in most of 
our educational institutions," and it will be admitted by 
the majority of those who interest themselves in the 
teaching of chemistry in girls' schools that in spite of 
the growing tendency towards more rational methods 
of imparting the subject, the progress made in this 
direction during the last eight years has not been 
great enough to warrant any change in the above 
dictum. 

After all that has been said and written about 
the difference between instruction and education, it 
should be unnecessary to reiterate that the object of 
our schools is not so much to develop the memories 
of the children as their capabilities, their powers of 
reasoning and doing, and although the attainment 
of this object is brought about chiefly no doubt by 
the method of teaching, it is also dependent upon 
the subject taught. 

Natural science is specially valuable in calling into 
action at once the logical and practical faculties, train- 
ing simultaneously the mind, the eye and the hand; 



3o8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

but it is necessary in order to avoid teaching the subject 
dogmatically to make the course progressive — to pre- 
Eiementary facc Icssons in chcmistry, for example, by a 
scienc?asa preliminary ground-work of physics suffi- 
basisfor cient to render the chemistry intellig-ible. 

chemistry ^ -^ ^ 

teaching. Elementary physics is the logical sequence 
of arithmetic, and may be taken up with the greatest 
advantage as soon as the four simple rules of arith- 
metic have been mastered ; moreover the practical 
application of these rules afforded by simple measure- 
ments of length, area and volume is of immense 
use, not only because each pupil verifies for herself 
in this way the rules she has learnt to apply on paper, 
but also because arithmetic is thus shown to be of 
practical and not merely theoretical value. If children 
were taught from the beginning to make practical use 
of their arithmetic one of the greatest difficulties with 
which the science teacher has to contend later on 
would be obviated, that namely of explaining the 
application of mathematics to the solution of simple 
chemical and physical problems. 

Chemistry again is the logical outcome of physics, 
and should not be attempted, because it cannot pos- 
sibly be understood, until the fundamental principles of 
physics have been mastered. It cannot be too strongly 
insisted upon that chemistry should be preceded by 
elementary physics ; the sequence, practical arithmetic, 
elementary physics, chemistry, being the only one which 
affords a satisfactory progressive scientific course suit- 
able for being carried on throughout a school starting 
where the object-lessons of the kindergarten end ; then 
by the time examination classes are reached there need 
be left none of those gaps in the understanding of the 



The Teaching of Chemistry. 309 

pupils, gaps with regard to elementary principles, which 
are so usual as to be looked for as a matter of course 
by the chemistry teacher, and which she is obliged to 
span here and there by dogmatic assertions on which 
rests as a rule all the physico-chemical knowledge re- 
quired of the examination student. A well-arranged 
course of this kind, moreover, possesses the great ad- 
vantage over others, botany or geology for example, 
that it may be made free from technical Educational 
language, a point of considerable import- ofa^pro?^^ 
ance, not only because the tax upon the gressive 

' "' . ^ , , ^ chemistry 

memories of the children is thus lightened, course, 
but because they are at liberty to express their ob- 
servations in their own words. It has been truly said 
that " strange words are non-conductors," and it is un- 
reasonable to suppose that clear ideas on any subject 
may be imparted in a language which is only partially 
intelligible. 

It is necessary of course to begin early if a sound 
basis of physics is to be laid for the teaching Need for 
of chemistry ; the elementary physics les- ^^""^^ ^'"^'"" 
sons should in fact be made to continue the science, 
work of the kindergarten without any break, thus 
carrying out the aim of natural science teaching, which 
should be to foster the powers of observation and re- 
search which almost all young children possess to a 
very high degree ; nor are these the only faculties 
which benefit, since physical science is specially fitted 
also to develop independence of thought, agility of 
mind and hand and soundness of judgment ; the 
simplest experiment may be varied in a hundred ways 
to produce the same result, and it is this possibility 
of variation which gives the individual pupil so much 



3IO Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

opportunity for the exercise of originality, which culti- 
vates quickness of observation and encourages so 
largely the valuable quality of self-reliance. 

It is evident that a course of lectures unaccompanied 
"Practical" hy laboratory work gives no scope for the 
teaching. educational possibilities of technical sub- 
jects such as those with which we are dealing ; the 
teaching must be made " practical ". It is not suf- 
ficient that the teacher should perform a number of 
illustrative experiments at her lectures, for it is rare 
to find a child capable of grasping the meaning of 
such illustrations ; it is not even sufficient that the ex- 
periments shown by the lecturer should be repeated 
subsequently by the pupils themselves ; this is no doubt 
good as far as it goes, for it breeds familiarity with ap- 
paratus and gives practice in manipulation, but that is 
all ; as to educating the particular faculties which science 
is specially adapted to educate it is useless, for the 
results of the experiments being already known the 
reasoning powers are not required ; on the contrary the 
performance of the experiment on the lecture-table 
has led to the belief that there is one stereotyped 
method of doing it, and consequently the child's memory 
alone is exercised in trying to remember every detail 
of the apparatus used and the method of carrying 
it out. 

For success in examinations it is now necessary to 
have a certain amount of practical knowledge of chemis- 
try, and examination classes are therefore given some 
practical training, but this reform still remains to be 
extended universally to the junior classes, which need 
even more than the senior ones that the teaching should 
be objective : a child may learn and repeat correctly a 



The Teaching of Chemistry. 311 

dozen times that water is composed of oxygen and 
hydrogen, and the thirteenth time she will assure you 
that its constituents are oxygen and nitrogen ; but let 
her make the gases for herself, test them and get to 
know them as individuals, and mistakes of this kind 
will become impossible. 

A further reason for giving practical instruction to 
juniors is that examination students are generally 
pressed for time, being on this account often obliged 
to do the necessary laboratory work out of school hours ; 
moreover they find it difficult as it is of a kind" to 
which they are unaccustomed. It would obviously be 
a great advantage to train the children from the 
beginning in the use of apparatus during the years 
when such work is a recreation and a real delight to 
them. 

There is one other point to be noticed. The science 
course may be begun early and continued a central 
without intermission throughout the school ^^^^ '" 

o science 

career, the teaching being of a sufficiently teaching. 
" practical " character, but the result will not be a 
success unless there is a central idea running through 
it. From the very beginning the experiments must 
be chosen in illustration and explanation of the 
fundamental physical laws which may thus be made 
perfectly familiar to the pupils. It is necessary, how- 
ever, that these experiments should be of the simplest 
character ; to quote the words of the British Associa- 
tion report above referred to, " the lessons ought to 
have reference to subjects which can be readily under- 
stood by children, and illustrations should be selected 
from objects and operations that are familiar to them 
in everyday life". 



312 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Briefly then, I would recommend that the following 
Broad broad principles should be adopted with pre- 

principies examination classes : — 

mended. (i) The course of elementary physical 

science which is then ecessary foundation 
tary physical for a sound knowledge of chemistry should 
be made^° be made continuous with the object-lessons 
continuous of the kindergarten, and should form a pro- 

with kinder- & ' r^ 

garten gressive course extendmg over three or four 

teac ing. years, passing imperceptibly into elemen- 
tary chemistry. 

(2) This course should be of an entirely practical 
(2) The character and should be carried out in a 
elementary room very simply equipped for the purpose, 
entirely No tcxt-books should be allowed and no 
"practical". ^^^^^ dictated by the teacher, but each 
pupil should subsequently to the lesson write out in 
her own words an account of her own experiments, of 
which she is encouraged to take notes at the time of 
doing them. 

Although all formal lessons on the simple subjects 
of investigation serve only to prejudice the 

Advantage ° -; ^ . 

of occasional mmds of the children, lectures given at 
ectures. ^^^^ intervals on kindred subjects and pro- 
fusely illustrated serve as a healthy stimulus to the 
youthful appetite for experiment and research. 

(3) The practical course should be so chosen that 
{3) Choice of ^ach experiment illustrates in the simplest 
experiments, possible manner some fundamental principle 
or " law " of nature. It is precisely here that a teacher 
has the opportunity of educating the logical faculties 
of the pupils, each of whom is required to solve in- 
dependently the simple problem set before her at the 



The Teaching of Chemistry. 313 

lesson and is thus placed in a position to deduce for 
herself from her own experiment the principle involved. 
The children are in fact placed, as Dr. Armstrong re- 
commends, " in the attitude of discoverers," and it is 
astonishing how soon they learn to become indepen- 
dent in their methods of attacking new problems if 
their minds are not prejudiced by preconceived ideas 
of the results to be expected. 

(4) As regards the size of the classes and the time 
to be allowed for each, the Committee of (4) size of 
the British Association recommends that classes. 

" a teacher should not be required to give practical in- 
struction to more than from fifteen to twenty pupils at 
one time, although the classes at lectures and demon- 
strations might be somewhat larger". For the course 
indicated below one hour a week may be made suf- 
ficient at first, but later on an hour and a half should 
'be allowed for each practical class. 

(5) As to accommodation, it is quite possible, at any 
rate at first, to use an ordinary class-room, (^) Accom- 

[but as environment no doubt does exercise modation. 
[a certain influence the use of a special room very 

jimply equipped with long tables supplied with water 
l^and gas is strongly advised.^ 

The above recommendations are meant to apply to 
[all classes up to the time when the needs of public ex- 

iminations demand a special course ; this must neces- 
[sarily be given by means of set lectures, as it could 
[not otherwise be covered in the limited time which is 

^ Full details of fittings and of the very simple and inexpensive 
[apparatus required are given in the syllabus issued by the Incorporated 
[Association of Head Masters, which can be obtained at the "Educa- 
Itional Supply Association," 42 Holborn Viaduct. 



314 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 

generally allotted to the subject ; they are more or 
less in accordance with those drawn up by Dr. Arm- 
strong for the Committee of the British Association of 
which mention has been made, and which were em- 
bodied in the Syllabus of Physics and Chemistry issued 
by the Incorporated Association of Head Masters in 
1895 ; since this date they have been successfully carried 
out in various boys' schools. Owing to the enterprise 
of Miss L. E. Walter a similar course was introduced 
at an even earlier date into the Central Foundation 
School for Girls, where it is now in operation. Ap- 
pended is a very brief outline of the course there 
pursued, together with a typical set of lessons in 
chemistry. 

On leaving the kindergarten the science teaching is 
Outline of a Confined to what is really practical arith- 
cours?now "i^tic and geometry, elementary measure- 
in operation, ments being performed by the most ordi- 
nary methods. The children are thus accustomed to 
the use of simple apparatus such as pipettes, burettes, 
etc., also to the use of the balance, the simple numerical 
calculations involved in weighing and measuring being 
performed in both the English and decimal systems, 
which are thus made quite familiar. 

The following example, quoted from Miss Walter's 
paper, ^ gives a clear idea of the sort of introductory 
teaching needed. This lesson, although of the simplest 
character, had for its object to show the necessity for, 
and to choose a unit of length. This is how it was 
done : " I gave each girl but one a piece of string, all 
the pieces being the same length ; the one odd girl I 

1 " The Teaching of Science in Girls' Schools," by L. Edna Walter, 
B.Sc, reprinted from Education, Secondary and Technical. 



The Teaching of Chemistry. 315 

kept by me, and we had a ball of string. I asked the 
children to tell me how long their pieces were so that 
I could cut a similar piece. Naturally they began by 
guessing — a yard, half a yard ; but as I had no yard- 
stick, I feigned ignorance of what a yard was. Soon 
one put the string along her slate and expressed the 
length as a slate and three-quarters. Every one else 
followed suit. . . . After each of the sensible measure- 
ments which they made ... I did the same to my small 
comrade as they had done to themselves and cut off a 
piece of string. Then they all watched with great in- 
terest to see if my piece really did come like theirs. . . . 
This lesson may not sound very exciting, but during 
the whole time each of those children was alive ^ each was 
thoroughly interested in what she was doing." 

The preliminary course consists in its earlier stages 
of exercises in the measurement of length, area and 
volume with the use of the balance ; this is followed 
by experiments on density, and subsequently some 
work on heat is done, a simple thermometer and 
barometer being made and graduated by each girl, 
who is encouraged to use them to record the weather 
by means of curves showing variations of tempera- 
ture and pressure. It may have been completed by 
girls of about fourteen, who will then be' quite prepared 
to begin chemistry, having by that time gained a 
very good idea of how to apply their arithmetic as 
well as their knowledge of the fundamental physical 
principles to the solution of practical problems. 

It is important to point out that the system here ad- 
vocated inverts the usual order of teaching chemistry. 
This subject is divided into " pure" and " physical," and 
it is usual at the present time to begin by teaching 



3i6 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 

" pure " chemistry, that is to say, the preparations and 
properties of a number of the commoner elements and 
compounds, this part being considered easier than 
"physical" chemistry, which however ought logically 
to precede it, since it treats of the fundamental laws 
upon which "pure" chemistry depends. 

A knowledge of simple physical chemistry is now 
required for all chemistry examinations, candidates for 
which are expected to have a working acquaintance 
with simple physical apparatus, to be familiar with 
the barometer and thermometer, the effects of heat on 
solids, liquids and gases, density and specific heat, etc., 
etc. ; they are liable moreover to be asked to solve 
any simple problems on measurement. Now by giving 
precedence to " physical " chemistry, all this is done 
and done thoroughly before examinations are thought 
of, so that what is generally regarded by pupils at the 
present time as the most difficult portion of their sub- 
ject is made by this means its ABC, and the time 
spent upon actual examination work can be consider- 
ably curtailed. 

" Pure" chemistry is introduced by the study of the 
methods of testing all kinds of substances, so as to 
be able to classify them roughly as mineral or vege- 
table, organic or inorganic, etc. The chemistry course 
suggested by Dr. Armstrong and adopted by the 
Incorporated Association of Head Masters is strongly 
to be recommended, as it is drawn up particularly with 
a view to imparting " not only information but chiefly 
a knowledge of method". It opens with "studies of 
the effect of heat on things in general ; of their be- 
haviour when burnt," and goes on to the investigation 
of such familiar things as air and nitrogen, combustion 



The Teaching of Chemistry. 317 

and oxygen, hydrogen and water. Formulae and equa- 
tions are rigidly excluded, the aim being to give a 
broad introduction to the subject ; on the other hand 
quantitative experiments form a much larger part of 
the curriculum than is usually the case, the previous 
training in physical methods having prepared the way 
for teaching chemistry in a more exact manner than 
is generally possible with beginners. 

A girl who has gone through the scientific training 
outlined in the preceding pages will possess an elemen- 
tary knowledge of many subjects ; she will find little 
difficulty in mastering the information required for the 
London Matriculation or any other preliminary exami- 
nation in physical science, the greater portion of the 
ground both in physics and chemistry having already 
been covered during the preliminary course indicated. 
It is certain that students who have undergone such 
a systematic education without hurry and without 
pressure, and with opportunities for reasoning out 
each step for themselves, will be in a condition to 
derive< the maximum of benefit from subsequent in- 
struction not only in chemistry but in all other 
branches of knowledge. 

Typical Lessons in Chemistry. 

At the beginning of the lesson the problem to be 
solved is announced by the teacher, who invites 
suggestions as to how it should be attacked. A 
scheme of work is thus prepared which is carried 
into practice by the pupils ; every detail of manipula- 
tion is performed by the girls themselves, who select 
their own apparatus, bend their own tubing, etc., 
referring only occasionally to the teacher for help. 



31 8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

The scheme is elaborated as the investigation proceeds 
so as to form a piece of consecutive reasoning which 
may extend over a series of lessons. 

Problem. To discover the constitution of chalk. 

Being familiar with simple methods of testing un- 
Typicai les- known substanccs, heat and the action of 
^°"- acid are at once suggested by the pupils as a 

means of investigation, and a preliminary examination 
is made showing that heat does alter chalk in some 
way, whereas the addition of acid causes the liberation 
of a gas. The next step is to find out whether the 
chalk loses or gains anything by being heated ; also 
to determine the nature of the gas given off under 
the influence of acid. 

Suggestions are again received from the girls, who 
are led to decide that the first part of the question may 
be answered by submitting a weighed quantity of chalk 
to a moderately high temperature, weighing at intervals 
until the weight, if it changes at all, again becomes con- 
stant. 

They proceed therefore to weigh their empty cru- 
ciblies with the usual precautions and then to reweigh 
them after having put in some dry chalk. The numbers 
obtained are carefully entered in the laboratory note- 
book with which each girl is provided. The crucibles 
are then placed in a "muffle" furnace, which the pupils 
are taught to manage for themselves, and are only 
withdrawn at the end of the lesson and placed in desic- 
cators to be reweighed at the beginning of the next 
lesson, w^hen they will be again submitted to the same 
treatment until the weight is constant. 

While the crucibles are being heated preparations 
are made for finding out the action of acid on chalk ; 



The Teaching of Chemistry. 319 

the pupils are led to suggest a simple form of ap- 
paratus for measuring the volume and weight of the gas 
given off, and hence for determining its density. By 
the time this is done the hour and a half allowed for 
the lesson will probably have expired. At the next 
lesson, after a preliminary questioning as to what each 
pupil has done and is going to do, the apparatus de- 
cided upon at the previous lesson is carefully prepared ; 
subsequently the actual experiments to determine the 
quantity of gas given off are performed and its density 
determined, and finally it is shown that the gas given off 
from chalk under the action of heat is identical with 
that released by acid, chalk being composed of this gas 
and the residue left after heating it in a muffle furnace 
until the weight is constant. 

It will be seen that this work involves a consider- 
able amount of weighing and calculation, but this is 
rendered easy by the previous grounding in elementary 
physics, and a series of experiments such as that de- 
scribed may be carried out intelligently by any pro- 
perly trained class of girls. 




320 



PART IV. ESTHETICS. 
ART. 

By Dorothea Beale. 

This part is one of great and perhaps increasing 
importance owing to the development of musical 
education and of art and technical schools. 

The power of music over the emotional life has ever 
. been felt ; in many ways it is opposed to 

thought, if we regard it from the standpoint 
of the listener, who yields himself up to its influence ; 
on the other hand, the performer, and still more the 
composer, can bring to bear on the subject high in- 
tellectual gifts, and it may have a great educational 
value. It is of the utmost importance, that in this as 
in all aesthetics, a taste be cultivated for all that is true 
and pure and lovely ; not for low and false and sensuous 
music such as Browning has described in the "Toccata of 
Galuppi," but for the thoughtful, the devotional, as given 
in the two companion poems, " Hughes of Saxe Gotha " 
and " Abt Vogler " ; and the learner should feel that she 
is studying to express right feelings, as Mme. Schu- 
mann and Jenny Lind insisted, not to show off her exe- 
cution and make a display. It is greatly to be regretted 
that the general education is often stopped in order to 
specialise in music and art, before the mental equilibrium 
is fully established ; if, besides this, there is an uprooting 
from one's home and country, at the most impression- 



Aft. 321 

able and excitable period of life, much danger is in- 
curred. 

Music is not only a powerful means of expression 
and of promoting sympathy, it also draws people 
together for healthy recreation ; especially valuable 
for this purpose are orchestral and choral classes. 
The power of the artist in music is far better under 
stood than it was fifty years ago. I remember Dr. 
Kinkel, the German poet, saying to me about the year 
i860, "the English will become a musical people, 
they are learning". We owe much to Mr. Hullah 
for this, and to the Tonic-Sol-fa system. I subjoin 
a paper by a most able teacher of the piano, one on 
the violin, two papers on singing and one on voice 
production and elocution. 

We are beginning now to study art in connection 
with the history and literature of different Art 
periods and countries. In another section historical. 
I have touched on art in connection with history. 
We all know how great has been in all ages the 
power of art in expressing and forming religious 
ideas ; we cannot but see that Fra Angelico and 
Dante interpret one another. There is not space here 
to dwell on the subject ; the writings of Ruskin and 
Browning and the works of the Pre-Raphaelite brother- 
hood have helped this generation to feel all that art may 
be in our life. The educative power of great paintings 
has been practically recognised by those who have 
gathered together great pictures in East London — the 
Art for Schools Association recognises its importance ; 
by visits to galleries, by good reproductions, and occa- 
sional lectures, children should if possible have their 
eyes opened to see what are the higher teachings 

21 



322 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

which painters and sculptors and architects have 
expressed in their works ; those who have heard Miss 
Harrison's lectures know how the statues, vases, friezes, 
etc., of old times help us to make these live again 
for us ; especially valuable is what those of our own 
time have given us, for these utter what is most intrinsic 
in our life. England is richer for such pictures as 
" The Light of the World ". 

Mr. Thring used to insist much on schools being 
as beautiful as possible, and that painted windows 
and all the surroundings should help in the great work 
of education, the fulfilling of the human nature with 
the sense of the spiritual underlying realities ; it should 
be the earnest endeavour of all educators to make, 
as Herbart has done, aesthetics in its widest sense, a 
help in ethics, and to consecrate and enrich the ex- 
periences and the teachings which come to us through 
sense. 

Drawing as a mode of expression is a really necessary 
subject ; it is a form of writing ; and model- 
ling is another form of effective expression. 
In their higher aspects these arts are ennobling, 
cultivating the taste and leading up to the ideal. 
"Once," writes Dr. Harris, "trained to recognise the 
beautiful and graceful, the pupil has acquired a quality 
of mind useful in every occupation and every station." 
There is an admirable paper by 'Mr. Cooke, " The 
A B C of Drawing," in the volume of Re- 
ports just issued from the Education Office. 
AH who have heard Mr. Cooke lecture, must recognise 
that he has a real genius for teaching. In schools we 
have to do chiefly with cultivating the power of seeing 
things as they are, and expressing what we see. The 



Art. 323 

copying with the pencil of the Greek sculptures has 
been of much educational value, but enough impor- 
tance has not been attached to modelling. I add an 
excellent paper on the subject. 

Technical schools are so much the fashion of the 
day, that I may perhaps add something 
more on the subject of manual training. All technical 
students of Pestalozzi and Frobel knew the 
great educational value of manual work, but the general 
public, though they knew that mind acted on muscle, 
did not realise the fact that muscle reacted on mind ; 
when this was recognised, many educational thinkers 
saw the importance of giving to hand arts a more 
prominent place in school work. A great reaction 
set in against mere book learning, and as I venture 
to think an exaggerated and indiscriminating value 
was by some attached to manual work. The en- 
thusiasm of Herr Salomon brought to the front the 
use of Sloyd. Political circumstances and the need 
of competing with foreign countries have contributed 
to give a great impulse to education in art, and to 
develop and improve the training which had never 
been altogether neglected in girls' schools. 

I subjoin papers on various hand arts, including 
one on Sloyd. 

At a meeting held at Washington in 1889, the 
matter was brought before the department of Super- 
intendence, and a volume was issued from the Bureau 
of Education which contains a very full account of 
the proceedings ; it includes an admirable paper of 
about twenty pages by Dr. Harris, Chief Commissioner 
of Education, from which I make some extracts. 
The matter is considered in reference to " Educational 



324 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 

Value". He begins by defining what is the main purpose 
of school teaching, criticising the definitions which point 
to false or ill-comprehended or crude ideals, which turn 
our thoughts to the means rather than the ends of 
education, and which lead the educator away from the 
essential idea of education by fixing attention on the 
" puny individual " rather than on the " higher self" 
embodied in institutions ; the ideal man, whom we can 
see only as a member of the great human family. 

Education he defines as ** the great preparation of 
the individual to help his fellow-men, and to receive 
in turn and appropriate their help ". Whilst conceding 
that manual training is educative, he shows why it is 
much inferior to the usual subjects of school instruction. 

" Man elevates himself above the brute creation by 
his ability to withdraw his attention from the external 
world of the senses and give attention to energies, 
forces, producing causes, principles. He can look from 
the particular to the general ; without losing the par- 
ticular he grasps together the whole realm of the 
particular in the general — in mastering the cause of 
anything he grasps together and comprehends an in- 
definite series of effects. 

" A false psychology tells us that we derive all our 
knowledge from sense-perception, but we do not by 
the senses learn the idea of causal process. By this 
idea all the data of sense are transformed radically. 
They are given us in sense-perception as independent 
realities. In thinking them by the aid of causality, 
we make all these matters of sense-perception into 
phenomena — or effects and manifestations of under- 
lying causes which are not visible or tangible." 

Dr. Harris shows how school studies are calculated to 



Art. 325 

give general principles, right ideals, and to exercise the 
powers in elaborating the data of sense. " That the 
ordinary branches of instruction in school relate to this 
function of elaboration of data into plans of action far 
more than they relate to the mere reception of sense- 
impressions or to the exercise of the motor nerves, is 
obvious. It is not desirable that children shall be 
taught that rough hand labour is in itself as honourable 
as the elaborative toil of thought, which gives rational 
direction to the hand. The general who plans the 
battle, and directs the movement of his troops so that 
they secure victory, is of course the executive man in a 
far higher sense than the private soldier who mechanic- 
ally obeys what he is ordered to do. The general may 
use his motor nerves only in issuing the words of com- 
mand, while the private soldier may exert to the utmost 
every muscle in his body — yet the real executive is the 
general." And he concludes that only in so far as 
manual training is calculated to develop the higher 
faculties, ought it to be regarded as a valuable branch 
of school education. The pupils' minds must not 
however be fixed on the acquisition of manual dex- 
terity, so that they think more of the " execution " 
than the musical thought — more of mere copying than 
of interpreting nature or the artist's ideal. 



I 



326 



PIANOFORTE TEACHING. 

By DoMENico Barnett, of the Leipzig Conservatorium. 

Like every branch of school education, the teaching 
of the pianoforte requires consideration from two 
simultaneous points of view. Two all-important 
questions have to be answered with clearness and 
decision. What is, or what ought to be, the definite 
aim of the teacher ? And what is the most efficacious 
process for achieving this aim ? 

As to the aim and purpose, we may happily dis- 
miss, once and for all, the old and imbecile notion 
of the piano as a conventional "accomplishment" ; in 
more accurate language an instrument of unintelli- 
gent and repulsive mechanical drudgery, calculated to 
eradicate from the pupil whatever modicum of music 
Nature might have bestowed on her. The cultivation 
of the piano for the sake of vain display is not yet 
obsolete. But though this unacknowledged object 
must inevitably continue to actuate many pupils and 
many parents, the teacher, so far from indulging it, 
should set his face sternly against it. It is true that 
it is his business to develop his pupils' performing 
powers to the utmost of their varying capacities. But 
this practical and visible result is but subordinate and 
auxiliary to one which is infinitely higher. Not every 
pupil, however musically gifted, has it in her to become 
a fine executant, any more than fine execution implies, 



I 



Pianoforte Teaching. 327 

of itself, much beyond mere manual dexterity. But 
what the properly qualified teacher can do for all is 
to educate — that is to say to draw out — all that Nature 
has put into them : to show them what music means : 
to quicken and develop their musical feeling, be it 
much or little, by rendering it intelligent : to give 
their taste a foundation of right principle : to cultivate 
the ear and the brain as well as the hand : to put 
them in the right road for pursuing and perhaps 
specialising their studies after their school course is 
over : in short, to make them musicians, so far" as 
musicians can be made. 

The study of the pianoforte, then, is an indispensable 
means to a very large and serious end. There is no 
occasion to dwell upon the peculiar suitability of the 
piano as the basis of musical study. As to that, there 
are not, and cannot be, two opinions, even if universal 
experience had not settled the matter. Nor is it need- 
ful to dwell upon the qualifications to be required in a 
teacher. Every one knows the requisite qualifications 
of all teachers of all subjects. But it so happens that 
the teacher of the pianoforte, in any school where 
much is — as it ought to be — expected, has to contend 
with a peculiarly formidable list of preliminary diffi- 
culties, and to dispose of these before he can proceed 
to build upon a properly prepared ground. With 
these two topics, the preparatory and constructive 
portions of his duty to his pupils, to himself, and to 
his art, I will proceed to deal in as few words as the 
nature of so large a subject allows. And first, as to 
the commonest of all his obstacles, which is — 

Previous Home Teaching (so-called). — Music, even 
more than with most other branches of education, 



328 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

should begin with careful, intelligent and systematic 
instruction at home. Yet how seldom does the teacher 
find this to be the case ! A truly appalling ignorance 
of the merest rudiments is constantly found in girls of 
all ages on first coming to school, after six or seven 
years of *' lessons from a master " or " from a lady ". 
In exceedingly few instances has any attempt been 
made to awaken a love of music, much less to lay a 
foundation for its serious study. Parents, one must 
presume, have not yet outgrown the delusion that 
anybody is good enough to start a child's musical 
education ; whereas it is precisely during the period 
preceding school life that instruction generally pro- 
duces the most lasting results for good or for evil ; and 
it is usually for evil. It may be that a certain — or 
uncertain — amount of mechanical fluency has been 
acquired, but to the total exclusion of all else ; and 
this leads to a further grave difficulty for both teacher 
and pupil — 

Insufficient Time. — There would be amply adequate 
time for musical progress at school if the ordinary 
pupil had not so much to unlearn. As things are, the 
inevitable strain upon a girl imposed by other studies 
renders the comparatively short time allotted to music 
a period of weariness of mind. The pupil, naturally 
enough, rebels against the severity of a proper course 
of study ; and it is long before the most patient 
teacher can get his impatient pupil well in hand. He 
is thus sorely tempted to make a — 

Compromise with Conscience. — This is not stating 
the matter a whit too strongly. Handicapped by 
wrong preliminary training and its consequences, the 
teacher, in order to render some result visible to 



I 



Pianoforte Teaching. 329 

parents and school authorities, often sacrifices sub- 
stantial education to superficial display. How abso- 
lutely wrong this is, requires — it is to be hoped — no 
argument. But, inexcusable as it is on every principle 
of educational ethics, it is bound to be of constant 
occurrence wherever the school authorities fail to 
understand a music master's duty, and to support 
him in doing it fearlessly and honestly, without respect 
to the ignorant impatience of parents or pupils who 
have not laid to heart the maxim of sat cito si sat bene. 

In proceeding to the positive work of teaching, as 
distinguished from the preliminary task of ^//^-teaching, 
it will be the simplest course to dismiss these only too 
formidable obstacles as non-existent or overcome, and 
to consider at what a teacher should aim who enjoys 
all the advantages that he can reasonably expect. 
Under the most disadvantageous conditions he can at 
any rate aim as high as circumstances allow. Let us 
suppose, then, that he has the inestimable advantage 
of a pupil who is a complete beginner, with everything 
to learn and nothing to unlearn. At the very outset — 

A Feeling for Well-marked Rhythm should receive 
cultivation. This is perhaps most easily acquired 
where a kindergarten has been available, by march- 
ing round to strongly-marked tunes or even to the 
beat of a drum. This feeling — more or less instinctive 
with most, and seldom beyond acquisition by any — 
should, as soon as possible, be reduced to form and 
order by — 

A Knowledge of Time System and the K ey -board : 
that is to say, a thorough acquaintance with the notes 
on the key-board, so that they may be readily recog- 
nised by their shape, together with their equivalent 



330 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

rests and other signs belonging to the time system. 
All this should become instinctively familiar ; and is 
followed in natural sequence by — 

A Knowledge of the Scale Sysiern. — The beginner 
should be able to locate the several scales on the 
instrument and to understand their formation. But 
time ought not to be wasted by insisting too much 
upon scale practice, until the pupil's hands are suffi- 
ciently strong. It will be quite sufficient, at this 
period of a course, to gain a thorough knowledge of 
the notes and fingering of the various scales and 
chords, great care being taken at the same time to 
cultivate a good position of hand and a proper use of 
the fingers themselves, by way of foundation for a 
good and sound technique. In the case of older and 
more advanced pupils who have been neglected in this 
direction, it should be constantly impressed upon their 
minds that this process is but a means to an end ; that 
adequate interpretation of music is impossible without 
this mechanical exercise of the fingers, which must be 
trained to follow and express the most delicate nuance 
of their owner's intention. On the other hand, such 
pupils — especially those gifted with a natural dexterity 
— should be warned that manual skill has nothing, as 
such, to do with music : that brilliant execution and 
the triumph over difficulties are neither more useful 
nor more admirable than dancing among eggs unless 
they are subordinate to the real sense and meaning of 
a composition. Having fairly mastered the notes, time 
and scale systems, the pupil is now in a position to be 
introduced to — 

A Methodical Selection of Exercises and Pieces Pre- 
senting Varied Rhythmical Difficulty^ beginning with the 



Pianoforte Teaching. 331 

simplest, and gradually advancing to those of increased 
complexity. As the pupil advances, easy duets, dances, 
marches, etc., sometimes if possible accompanied by 
another instrument, may be given with advantage, 
insistence being laid upon a proper habit of counting 
time. This should not be done in a drawling, unde- 
cided manner, but with a clear, sharp and decided 
utterance. It ought not to be — but is — necessary to 
add that the production of a fine broad tone and 
proper touch should receive attention from the outset ; 
and meanwhile, even from the earliest moment of her 
studies — 

No Bad Music should be given to a Pupil for any Pur- 
pose, or under any Circumstances. — No doubt where a 
very bad state of taste exists, it is a matter of necessity to 
start from a comparatively low level of merit ; because 
in respect of music, at any rate, a pupil should never 
be given what she cannot possibly understand. Dr. 
Arnold, it is true, used to say that if you only taught 
a boy what he could understand, you would teach him 
very little. But large margins must be allowed to 
large maxims, and had Dr. Arnold taught music, 
where the first and foremost thing is taste, instead of 
language, where the first and foremost thing is memory, 
he would have modified if not reversed his dictum. 
Yet though the pupil's taste and intelligence may be 
at a low point, and require very simple fare, there is 
happily no lack of good music adapted to every degree 
of intelligence, and even of appetite ; and under its in- 
fluence it is surprising how soon any taste for the posi- 
tively bad will imperceptibly pass away. Of course, 
the teacher will have to observe much thoughtful care 
in his selection of music in each individual case of this 



332 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

kind, always remembering two things — to give his 
pupil the best that she can comprehend, but never to 
surpass her comprehension. To read Shakspere in 
a kindergarten would not be worse waste of poetry 
and brains. 

But it is not enough merely to avoid bad music — 
that can always be done. There is good music which 
may be as unsuitable to certain temperaments as it is 
suitable to others : and the teacher should be some- 
thing of a psychologist in order to exercise his 
judgment prudently. Chopin's would be bad music 
if given in large doses to a girl of sentimental and 
romantic temperament, though she would probably 
excel in it. She needs something of a more robust 
and less emotional character. Bach's music, on the 
other hand, is always right for all and cannot be too 
much employed. For studies, Mr. Franklin Taylor's 
judiciously selected Progressive Exercises may be safely 
and strongly recommended, as enabling the teacher to 
find, without trouble, instances, from the best composers, 
of every kind of difficulty. 

The Musical Ear simultaneously demands attention. 
Some pupils have a natural gift for discerning, with- 
out reference to the instrument, the exact pitch of a 
musical sound. This is by no means a necessary 
indication of great musical ability ; but it is unques- 
tionably a very great advantage. Fortunately, it can 
to a considerable extent be cultivated in many cases 
where it does not exist naturally : and for this purpose 
there is nothing so efficacious as — 

The Elementary Singing Class^ which should be a 
portion of the curriculum of every school, and should 
be compulsory for every student of music. Properly 



Pianoforte Teaching. 333 

conducted, this class cannot be valued too highly. In 
it, rudimentary theory is taught in a systematic and 
practical manner. Very few girls are able to think 
musically. To the best informed among them a major 
third consists of so many semitones, and can be found 
in so many scales ; but when seen upon paper, the 
notes convey no idea of their proper sound. Here 
then, the pupil will be taught to recognise and sing all 
intervals and chords, and even to write them down 
from dictation. As practical instruction in time and 
rhythm forms an important portion of the lesson, the 
evil effects of the defective sustaining power of the 
pianoforte can be in a measure remedied. Franz 
Wiillner's system is excellent. 

Thus the mechanical portion of the pianoforte 
teacher's work may be very beneficially supplemented 
and extended, by being placed in fresh lights under 
different conditions. The use and meaning of any 
study are never so manifest as when it is seen to be 
applicable in several directions. 

Here concludes what may be regarded as the first 
period of instruction. Given sufficient time for prac- 
tice, fair average ability and no physical defects to 
contend against, good results may reasonably be 
looked for. As the pieces selected for study assume 
a more important character, the pupil should be made 
to perceive how they are constructed ; how one por- 
tion grows out of another ; and by what artistic process 
a composition has obtained its symmetry and balance. 

The Study of Harmo7iy should now be begun. In 
addition to the study of part-writing and perhaps 
counterpoint, standard compositions should be care- 
fully analysed. This gives a power of comprehension 



334 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

and appreciation quite apart from any capacity for 
interpretation, and probably better worth acquiring. 
Many persons combine considerable musical talent 
with a physical inability to achieve excellence as per- 
formers. Such of these who have persevered to this 
point will have learned to find an intellectual and 
sympathetic delight in the works of the great masters, 
and an artistic pleasure in the performance of their 
more gifted interpreters. 

More successful executants may now proceed (when 
it is considered desirable) to the more serious study of 
scales and finger exercises, the teacher watching care- 
fully for any signs of physical weakness. Willing but 
weak hands are too often injured by overwork, and the 
adoption of some means for strengthening them, suitable 
to each individual case, should be made an essential 
part of their training. Indeed the teacher would do 
well to make a careful study of the peculiarities of 
hands, very great difference of treatment being re- 
quired in different cases. Some hands are so unfit for 
pianoforte playing as to make it a question whether it 
is worth while, for any reason, to continue the attempt. 
To return to scales and finger exercises — it will not be 
going too far to say that they cannot be practised too 
assiduously at this point. As a stimulus it may be 
found advisable to allow the pupil to avail herself of 
the numerous musical examinations so much in vogue 
at the present time. The plan adopted by Mr. Oscar 
Beringer in his Technical Studies is admirable, and 
strongly recommended. Musical me7nory should be 
assiduously cultivated. No piece of music can be said 
to be learned until it has been committed to memory. 
Any tendency of the process to impoverish the power 



Pianoforte Teaching. 335 

of sight-reading can be adequately guarded against by 
the daily reading of new music. 

A Regularly Organised System of Sight-reading 
Classes. — No school should be without such classes, 
and they should be for that matter supplemented by 
a few minutes each day to be occupied in playing 
through a new piece from beginning to end, without 
stop or interruption, however wild the blunders may 
be. These will soon become fewer and fewer. During 
the hours of solid practice, however, blunders are quite 
another matter, and those unable to help themselves 
in this respect require — 

The Attentive Superintendence of Practice. — The 
time allowed for practice should be arranged to suit 
the requirements of the pupil, and need never be ex- 
cessive or interfere with the general course of study. 
With care and thought, much good work may be done 
in a short time. A large proportion of pupils of all 
ages are unable to perceive their own faults, and the 
time for practice may thus become a means of form- 
ing and confirming fresh bad habits as fast as the old 
ones have been eradicated. Moreover, since the time 
allotted in schools to practice must needs be short, 
every moment of it should be utilised ; and very clear 
explanations should therefore be given to those who 
superintend it of what is required as well as to the 
pupils themselves — explanations which should be 
punctiliously followed. There are also many cases in 
which the instruction of the promising or fairly well- 
trained young pupil may be almost entirely under- 
taken by a competent assistant teacher, but subject to 
the careful supervision of the master, who should be 
responsible for her proper progress. 



336 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Before closing these remarks, which have not been 
easy to render systematic or consecutive, it would be 
inexcusable in these days to omit all mention of — 

Examinations. — This is too large a subject to be 
dwelt upon in relation to music alone. But it must 
needs be said that here again the temperament of 
pupils must be considered. In some cases good work 
is helped by examinations of one kind or another ; in 
others it is hindered. On this subject we all have our 
own views. However, if they can be met easily and 
in the regular course of study, without forcing or 
cramming, or interrupting solid work, let them be 
undergone by all means. Otherwise their use be- 
comes abuse, and frequently tends to entirely false 
ideas of the proficiency of those who pass them. An 
apparently low point may be substantially preferable 
to an apparently high one. 

But no matter what point is reached, let it be 
tho7'oughly reached, even though the time occupied in 
attaining thoroughness be apparently deducted from 
what is required for further progress. The deduction 
is but seeming — not in reality. School work is neither 
the end, nor the whole, nor the largest, nor the most 
important portion of education. Far better for a girl 
is it to leave school able to play fairly well at sight, 
and to execute a moderately difficult or even easy 
piece faultlessly, than with the prestige of a brilliant 
performer which will crumble to pieces for want of a 
foundation as soon as she is left to her own resources. 
Another grand mistake, in the same connection, is 
made by parents who send children abroad for the 
continuation or completion of their musical education 
before, by having been property and systematically 



Pianoforte Teaching. 337 

grounded, they are able to reap the slightest benefit 
from foreign training. But, almost before all things, 
I would insist upon a good general education for all 
who show marked musical ability, and are thus justified 
in making music their special and paramount subject 
of study. Music is so absorbing a pursuit that it tends 
to narrowness by its own nature ; and all that inclines 
to extend the outlook and enlarge the mind during 
the impressionable period of life, is even more im- 
portant to the musician than to those who are engaged 
in pursuits of a less exclusive order. The really culti- 
vated musician is a prize product of education ; but 
the mere musician, who may be the mere executant, 
and nothing else, is the last sort of being that one 
would wish any school to evolve. 

To conclude, there is perhaps no royal road to the 
successful study of anything ; there is certainly none 
to the pianoforte. I have not attempted so vain a 
task as to try to make one. What I have undertaken 
is to point out the crags that must be faced with a 
stout heart, and the best and safest path — which is 
not necessarily the shortest — to the vast stores of in- 
tellectual pleasure and profit awaiting the aspirant, 
long before the whole journey's end. 



22 



33^ 



THE VIOLIN. 

By Lewis Hann. 

The teaching of the violin in our schools has of late 
years attained a high grade of efficiency. The pro- 
gress of musical education generally has been remark- 
able, but most especially so in the study of the violin, 
and perhaps no branch of the art demands so much 
of the teacher. It is not enough for him to be a good 
and brilliant performer ; the real gifts which constitute 
the successful teacher are great patience, self-control, 
tact, discretion and a good knowledge of character. 
It is not judicious to lay down hard and fast laws, and 
pursue a certain beaten track in teaching, for no two 
pupils are constituted alike, and it is often desirable, 
according to the disposition of the pupil, to take a 
somewhat circuitous route to attain the desired goal. 
With really talented pupils, of course, no trouble what- 
ever is experienced — it is the bringing into life hidden 
or dormant abilities in the less gifted which proves the 
art, science and experience of the teacher. 

The establishment of a string orchestral or an 
ensemble class, even in a humble way, is of great ad- 
vantage to violin students. Not only are the practices 
a source of pleasure and delight to the pupils, but they 
help greatly to improve them in the practice of sight- 
reading ; and in the study of ensemble music they learn 
to give more serious attention to the marks of exprcs- 



The Violin. 339 

sion and to observe the nuances. Also by taking part 
themselves in the performance of important composi- 
tions they learn to appreciate these properly when they 
hear them rendered by great performers. It is well 
for the pupils to attend high-class concerts as fre- 
quently as possible ; the earnest, observant student 
will derive great benefit and learn much that is in- 
valuable from hearing good works performed by sound 
artists. 



340 



CLASS-SINGING. 
By Florence Mosley, Pupil of Shakespeare. 

Class-singing is good for all ; it educates not the 
voice only, but ear, eye and memory. 
' Classes of young children should not be 
composed of less than fifteen or twenty ; if the voice 
of a pupil is too audible to herself and her neighbour, 
she becomes self-conscious and shy ; in a fairly large 
class the pupil merely swells a general body of sound. 
In a class of thirty the teacher should be able easily 
to detect a defaulter ; she should not however correct 
by name, as this tends to produce nervousness ; she 
should indicate the direction from which the faulty 
sound proceeds. A few voices should not be allowed 
to predominate over the others, and care should be 
taken to prevent any over-exertion of voice. 

Position is very important ; the pupils should stand 
upright, with heels together and hands loosely clasped 
in front. Good order must be maintained, and 
thorough attention exacted. 

The classes for young children should not exceed 
half an hour in length, but for elder pupils forty-five 
minutes to an hour is desirable. 

In each lesson a few test questions on notation 

should be given, and in order to avoid the 

answers proceeding only from a few of the 

more musical or quicker pupils, all answers should be 

written. 



Class-Singing. 341 

Ear tests are best taught by taking the middle C 
as a startins^-point, the pupils beine^ re- 

' -A 4. • ^u c 4. Ear tests. 

quired to give the name of every note 
struck within the octave, and also of the interval so 
formed ; when they are thoroughly familiar with all 
the sounds contained in that octave, the process should 
be repeated with another note as the tonic. Having 
written the ear tests, they should proceed to sing 
them, the conductor striking a note upon the piano and 
requiring the class to pitch any interval he mentions 
either above or below that note, without assistance 
from the instrument. By this means the pupils become 
familiar with the relation of one note to another, and 
so find no difficulty in reading. 

Musical dictation is another important means of 
training the ear ; the melody of a simple 

,1 , -r .,1 • 1 • 1 Dictation. 

well-known tune — if possible within the 
compass of an octave — should be played over ; the key 
and starting-note being given to the class, they should 
be required to write down the notes of the melody 
from memory. At first it will be found necessary to 
play the tune over several times, until the class be- 
comes used to the exercise. To more advanced classes, 
more elaborate melodies can be given, and the har- 
monies filled in. 

This is best taught by making each member of the 
class beat time, while the conductor plays 

, . ^ "^ Rhythm. 

tunes ol various measures on the instrument 

used for accompanying the class. This enables the 

pupils to realise the strong and weak beats. 

Another way is to dictate the notes of a melody to 
the class, making the pupils fill in the bar lines and 
time signature. 



342 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

The pupils should first read unaccompanied single 
Reading at notes from the blackboard, followed by 
s'g^t- easy exercises in unison, and then exercises 

in two or three parts ; the more advanced classes 
should read some oratorio music and standard works. 

Purity rather than volume of sound should be in- 
voice sisted upon ; the former can be satisfactorily 
production, obtained only by a series of diaphragm 
breathing exercises, which will result in the throat 
being left free and open. The first vocal exercises 
should consist of simple vowel sounds, sung on every 
note from the middle C to the fourth space in the 
treble clef These should be followed by tuned con- 
sonants, "koo" being most useful for bringing the 
tone forward. Sustained notes should then be prac- 
tised, also major, minor and chromatic scales. 

On receiving the part-song the pupils should be 
Singing in Called upon to givc the key, time and form 
parts. Q^ ^i^g composition. The simplest method 

of teaching young children to hold their several parts 
is to give them simple canons and rounds. In a 
two-part song the whole class should first learn the 
seconds and then the firsts ; when thoroughly con- 
versant with both parts, the class should be divided, 
the pupils being called upon to sing either firsts or 
seconds at any time. When the notes have been learnt 
the words should be committed to memory and the part- 
song sung without copies of the music ; we thus train 
the memory, enable the pupils to .stand in good posi- 
tion and to give full attention to the conductor's beat. 
Elder classes may be taught to sing in three or four 
parts, but much care is needed in the selection of part- 
songs, as it is difficult to get compositions with a small 



Class-Singing. 343 

enough compass to avoid straining either in the upper 
or lower registers of young and untrained voices. I 
need hardly add how much choral singing helps to 
promote a feeling of sympathy, a right kind of emula- 
tion, and a fuller appreciation of beautiful composi- 
tions than can be gained by solo singing or passive 
listening. 



344 



SINGING. TONIC SOL-FA. 

By Rhoda Rooney, Certif. Frobel Society, CI. 1. 

The Tonic Sol-fa system is one which gives every 
advantage for producing good and accurate sight- 
singing, and this without the aid of a piano or any 
other instrument. The pupils can test the notes as 
they proceed by referring to the Doh from which they 
start, and which is regarded as the governing note of 
the scale or piece. 

The Doh is not necessarily middle C on the piano, 
but is the tonic of any major scale, all the notes of 
which have a certain association with each other and 
with the governing Doh. This relationship of sounds 
can be felt by the pupils as they listen attentively to 
the first easy patterns sung by the teacher for their 
imitation, thereby discovering what is understood by 
the " mental effect of sound ". Sufficient practice of 
sounds with " the modulator " gives familiarity with 
the notes of the scale, change of key, or pitch in any 
relation, and it will be found that it becomes almost 
impossible for the class to sing out of tune. The 
Tonic Sol-fa hand-signs practised with the modulator 
are a very considerable help, whether the class is com- 
posed of little children or adults. 

Time is indicated by lines and dots. A perpen- 
dicular line is placed before a strong beat or pulse, and 
a colon before a weak pulse. A single dot divides the 



Singing. Tonic Sol-fa. 345 

beat in half, and a comma is used to show the division 
of a quarter beat. A horizontal line shows a tied 
note, or its equivalent, and a rest is represented by a 
blank. 

Three-pulse measure — Doh is E. 

I n :— : n I f :— : n I r : -.n : f I n :— : [ d,r.n,f. : s 







The great advantage of the Tonic Sol-fa system over 
any other is the definite and graduated ear-training 
which the pupils must derive from it, rendering the 
singing true and accurate, however poor the voices 
may be. 

It is also of great use in developing the voice and 
training the ear of those who are older, and have for 
some reason neglected all musical and vocal culture. 

Books recommended — Curwen's Tonic Sol-fa Courses 
and The School Music Teacher, by Evans and 
McNaught. Publishers, Curwen & Sons. 



346 



ELOCUTION. 

By Rose Seaton. 

The speaking voice is often left to what we are pleased 
to call " Nature "; but a natural voice and a fine speaker 
are like the language of the race, the product of culti- 
vation. 

Weak and toneless voices are frequently the result of 
faulty production. We may divide the vocal apparatus 
into three parts : (i) Lungs ; (2) Larynx ; (3) Mouth. 
Consider the functions of each separately, and after- 
wards their relations to one another. 

Great care is needed to develop the lungs, that they 
may store the requisite quantity of air and supply the 
waste of it constantly and silently ; breath control is 
of primary importance. 

In reading aloud, teaching, lecturing, the air in the 
lungs should be felt as an active force. All speech is 
uttered on the outgoing current of breath. The vocal 
chords in the " voice box " or larynx close when 
sound is made, and toneless or woolly voices show 
that the chords are slack and the breath is passing 
through without being used for sound, as when the 
bow of a violin passes over loosened strings. Note 
that the larynx should never be tightened by the band 
or collar of the dress. 

The three principal resonators for sound are : the 
bones of the chest, the head bones, and the roof of 
the mouth. 



Elocution. 347 

Right position is very important. Both in standing 
and sitting the muscles should support the body so 
that the lungs may expand easily. To inhale and 
hold a deep breath is a silent and useful practice. It 
strengthens the walls of the thorax, develops the lungs, 
steadies the action of the heart, and consequently the 
voice. 

The habit of bending the body over a desk or book, 
of sitting with the spine curved outward and the chest 
collapsed, of standing with the weight upon one foot, 
especially upon the heel, should be avoided. It is not 
enough to speak, but to speak well. 

All articulations are made in the mouth, and the 
sound must reach the point where the letter is formed ; 
the place of the letter in the mouth must be under- 
stood, and the quality of it. 

The alphabet is best divided into four groups : 
(i) Vowels; (2) Explosive consonants ; (3) Vibrative 
consonants ; (4) Toneless letters. 

Every word in English is complete in itself, and no 
letter must be omitted or joined to another. The omis- 
sion or slurring of the small words constantly mars the 
sense ; stress is not required, but distinct utterance. 
A small voice, if the articulation is distinct, will travel 
far, while a loud, ungoverned organ creates confusion 
of sound and cannot be understood ; nor should the 
speaker maintain a fixed pitch, but allow the voice to 
pass through many gradations of sound, and endeavour 
to express the language naturally and musically. 



34^ 



DRAWING, PAINTING, Etc. 

By Pauline M. Randerson, 

National Silver and Bronze Medallist (Painting) ; Art Master's 
Certificates, I., II. and III., Science and Art Department; 
Teacher-Artist's Certificate, Royal Drawing Society ; Drawing 
Teacher to the Princesses Marie and Victoria of Edinburgh, 
1884 ; Art Mistress, Cheltenham Ladies' College. 

Mr. Ruskin says, " Accuracy and rapidity of percep- 
tion . . . are especially what masters and schools can 
teach ". Also, that " All qualities of execution are in- 
fluenced by, and in a great degree dependent on, a far 
higher power than mere execution — knowledge of the 
truth ". With Frobel's teaching, and these thoughts 
in mind, we observe the first attempts of children at 

drawing. They draw from memory, and 
drawing of their drawings exhibit their knowledge of 

the things drawn. In the first lessons we 
do not interfere with their own natural method, but 
we help them to further investigation by encouraging 
them to look again at the object, asking them ques- 
tions about it, and drawing with them. We give 
exercises for the hand, wrist and arm, by running the 
pencil round cardboard shapes of simple geometric or 
ornamental forms ; also by repeating straight and curved 
lines on squared paper. We foster their love of colour 

and train their inventive powers, by using 

the brush. If we take a brush and fill it 
with colour, we can (without any effort of drawing) 



Drawing, Painting, etc. 349 

produce two simple units or elements. If the point 
only touches the paper, we have a dot ; if the side, we 
have a form determined by the size and shape of the 
brush. We use these elements on a network simple 
of squares (of sufficient size), and find them designs. 
capable of producing the simplest possible designs. 
By adding short lines, both straight and curved, drawn 
with the point of the brush, we increase our power and 
variety. With the same elements we can approxi- 
mately imitate some very easy natural forms, but as 
" it does not train the child to great accuracy," we are 
very careful to choose such flowers, leaves, insects, etc., 
as these simple means can most nearly represent. We 
continue our practice in drawling lines on Line draw- 
squares for two reasons, viz., it is an easy '"S- 
method (greatly used by designers) of drawing pat- 
terns, in which every variety of straight and curved 
lines may be used and placed in all conceivable posi- 
tions, hence great facility of line drawing may be 
acquired, the influence of which will be felt in the 
writing exercises, and new combinations may be made 
by the children themselves ; also, many simple draw- 
ings of objects may be done, with the advantage of 
being true in their proportions, before any actual train- 
ing has been given in that particular.' We do not 
allow the use of india-rubber in this practice. 

Our next use of the brush is for real drawing ; the 
matter for our designs being no longer mere Bmshwork 
accidental forms, but such as require actual proper. 
drawing like those on Greek vases. The flexibility of 
the brush, and natural movement of the wrist, render 
it easy to produce these forms which are varied in 
shape and thickness by pressure. The network of 



350 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

squares may be abandoned in favour of filling spaces 
(such as the cardboard shapes previously mentioned) 
with ornamental arrangements. 

We come at length to study proportions by the aid 
Proportions of the rulcr. Straight lines of various 
wtoThe lengths are ruled ; these are divided into 
ruler. simple proportions. Exercise*^ are given 

in judging the relative lengths of lines drawn on the 
blackboard, etc. Squares and oblongs are constructed. 
Simple flat objects with straight edges are used as 
models ; they are measured and drawn with the aid of 
the ruler. The drawings are always of correct propor- 
tions though the size may be varied, the measurements 
being reduced to |, J-, J, etc. The relation of this work 
to arithmetic is apparent. 

We give much time to teaching the use of the pencil 
Proportional for measuring proportions thus : one eye is 
ments with closed, the pencil is held up between the 
the pencil. eye and the object, at arm's length away ; 
the thumb indicates on the pencil the apparent length 
of the part to be measured, which (by moving the hand 
still kept at the same distance) can be compared with 
the whole until its true relationship is ascertained. 

We give exercises in drawing from memory all along 
Memory the course, the subjects being chiefly animal 
drawing. forms SO interesting to children. We now 
pass on to drawing from flat objects having some 
Object curved as well as straight edges. Let us 

drawing. supposc wc havc choscn a Japanese hand- 
screen, which we hang on the blackboard parallel to 
the class. The size of the drawings is first determined. 
The proportions are thought out and indicated. The 
model is handed round the class, attention being called 



Drawing, Painting, etc. 351 

to its construction. When replaced in its original 
position, the curved edges are compared with construc- 
straight lines to ascertain their true nature. ^'°"- 
A drawing is then made on the blackboard, the class 
following step by step. When complete the drawings 
may be tinted with flat washes of colour. The pattern 
may be drawn with the brush or a new one invented. 

Mr. Taylor reminds us that " it required all the ages 
to the fifteenth century of our era to master Fore- 
the laws of foreshortening ". To introduce shortening, 
these *' laws " we use straight-edged flat objects, such 
as a map or picture on the wall. We sit, not now 
facing the model as before, but so that one edge may 
be described as being nearer to us, another farther 
from us, and two receding. We have to deal with 
appearances rather than realities. The edges we know 
to be horizontal, no longer appear so ; we compare 
them with the pencil held horizontally until 

,. , , , , . 1 . Appearances. 

we realise the angle they make with it. 
The width has apparently grown much less and must 
be compared with the front edge. The farther edge, 
which we know to be the same length as the nearer 
one, now looks shorter. Thus we think out the appar- 
ent changes and make our drawing accordingly. In 
the same way we draw the top of a table, and when 
able to do so correctly we place flat objects with 
curved edges on the wall or table, or diagrams with 
curved lines on them, and by comparing the curves 
with straight lines we realise their apparent forms. 

In consequence of the children having each a differ- 
ent view of the model, it is more satisfactory ,,, 

•' Class and 

to take a very small class, giving each one as individual 
much personal attention as possible until ^^^^ '"^" 
they get accustomed to the work. 



352 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

It is well to have some work of a more popular 
nature to alternate with these lessons in foreshortening. 
For instance, the brush may be used for painting easy 
leaves, flowers, etc., direct from nature, or for flat tint- 
ing of ornamental forms drawn from copies or the 
cast. 

Exercises in drawing from written descriptions, 
Plane involving knowledge of simple geometric 

geometry. terms and figures, should also be given. 

We proceed to model drawing proper, working in the 
^Q^gi same way as in the lessons on foreshortened 

drawing. plancs ; obtaining as accurately as possible 
the angles at which lines appear to recede ; measuring 
the widths of receding planes and comparing distant 
lines with near ones. We have to deal with perspec- 
tive, " the science of appearances," and we 

PcrsDcctivc. 

do this in the most practical way. We 
realise that it is only too possible to teach this subject 
in a wrong manner, by putting rules in the place of 
accurate observation. We therefore evolve our per- 
spective sketch from the model and find it a great 
help to intelligent drawing. We frequently draw our 
models from memory. Alternating with these lessons 
we frequently take a course of elementary shading. 
We encourage the child in its own natural preferences 
Individual ^"^ mode of expression, having an ex- 
tastes, cellent opportunity for doing so in the 
work done at home during the week, and especially 
during the vacation. 

We seek to modify the rather stiff and rigid kind of 
Suggestive drawing hitherto necessarily done, knowing 
drawing. ^h^t higher art demands a suggestive treat- 
ment. We use such natural forms as fruit, flowers, 



Drawing, Painting, etc. 353 

foliage, of which we draw such Hnes as seem best to 
interpret them. We study very carefully 

, . 1 11 TT7 , Growth. 

their growth or development. We use also 
casts of animals, human features, etc. 

We endeavour to make our shading course a good 
foundation for paintine^. We give exercises 

r, . . ^ , ^ , .^ , . Shading. 

in flat tintmg and graduating to obtain 
power over the material (chalk, ckarcoal, pencil or 
otherwise) and to ascertain its possibilities. We draw 
from objects having flat planes such as a cube, placed 
so as to receive a strong contrast of light and shade ; 
from cylindrical or other rounded objects, in which we 
study specially the shaded side with its reflected light, 
and the position of the high light. We work from 
groups of objects of various colours, trying to obtain 
their relative tones, textures, etc. 

We try to arouse interest in the light itself, showing 
(by working with the class) how we must 
sacrifice minor details to emphasise its play 
on the group ; also in the mystery of shade, wherein 
reflected lights must often be subdued and 

jVlvstcrV" 

details lost. Pupils have to draw also 
from memory. 

The figure or painting may follow. 

No originality is claimed for the methods and course 
advocated. They are founded on the desire to be edu- 
cationally useful, interesting to the pupil, and a good 
ground on which to build artistic work in painting and 
designing for wood carving, china painting, needle- 
work, etc. 



23 



354 



BRUSH DRAWING. 

By Mary Farbrother, Cert. Frobel Society. 

All children take pleasure in drawing. Who has not 
seen a baby make unintelligible strokes on a piece of 
paper, at the same time exclaiming, " See, a chicken ! " 
" a train ! " " a gee-gee ! " But the pleasure caused by 
such productions is not to be compared with the de- 
light with which a child of three or four years old will 
handle a brush, dip it in the paint, and then produce 
a coloured impression on the paper. The happy 
laughter of the baby as he sees his flower or leaf 
appear will not soon be forgotten by those who have 
put this magic wand into tiny hands. And the in- 
terest derived from brush drawing does not pass away. 
Each year the child will be able to obtain truer repre- 
sentations of the objects he attempts to reproduce, 
and every fresh effort will give pleasure anew to the 
child and the teacher. 

Brush drawing may be regarded from an educa- 
tional standpoint. Many useful papers have been 
printed showing its educational value, and the help 
it gives in developing the artistic sense, powers of 
observation, etc. 

With very little children it seems best to keep to 
the simplest exercise for some time, and to let them 
represent any leaves, flowers or insects, which can be 
made with the flat impression of the brush ; they will 



Brush Drawing. 355 

soon learn to hold the brush perpendicularly, and thus 
obtain thin lines for stems and branches, and the 
finer parts of other objects. Later on they will be 
able to represent the forms of various animals, as well 
as an infinite variety of flowers and leaves. 

It is most essential that the class should have the 
real object to observe and copy, and whenever possible 
a specimen should be given to each child, for, as 
Ruskin says, " The sight is more important than the 
drawing " ; and an earnest seeking after truth and 
accuracy must leave its impression on the character. 



I 



356 



PAINTING. 

By Arthur Richardson, Pupil of Bougereau, Paris. 

Let beginners have real objects to draw from, or any 
plaster casts of ornaments which can be made suffi- 
ciently interesting. An H.B. pencil is the best to use 
at first, which may be changed for a B. or B.B. as 
more shading is required, until the pupil is ready for 
the more vigorous qualities of charcoal. Use the 
charcoal in stick on a rather rough paper, with bread 
for correction and picking out lights ; in fact, use the 
bread as if it were a white paint. It is better to sub- 
stitute charcoal for chalk and stump as it is quicker 
in execution. For complete representation, oil colour 
gives the fullest range of light and shade possible. 

Pupils should not spend time in elaborating and 
finishing, from which little knowledge is gained ; it 
is better spent in mastering new difficulties than in 
making tidy an old drawing. 

Let it be clearly grasped before beginning what sort 
of a drawing is going to be made, and how the result 
is to be reached. One can generally explain better 
by working on the pupil's own drawing, but one must 
encourage unaided effort. Each new study should 
present fresh difficulties : one must insist on precision, 
especially in the drawing and placing of shadows and 
bright lights. Learners should try to get every touch 
right at first, and never knowingly paint or shade an 
incorrect tone. 



Painting. 357 

Perspective should be taught from real objects ; a 
few simple rules are sufficient : rules must be used to 
assist the eye in getting directions right, not to take 
the place of looking to see how lines actually do go. 
Though geometric models give all necessary problems 
in drawing (till we come to study from the human 
figure), yet they are less interesting than other things. 

Let the first study for complete shading or painting 
be something that has an evident brightest light and a 
fairly dark bit of shadow. A big jug partly glazed is 
a capital subject. If the darkest and lightest spots "are 
got right first, the intermediate tones will come easily. 
So long as colour is made harmonious, treat it as of 
secondary importance to correct tone. Choose colours 
partly for tonic possibilities, say red, blue and yellow, 
two of each, one dark and one light, rather bright than 
otherwise. Groups of objects, or still life, are perhaps 
the most interesting subjects till the pupil is ready 
to draw from life. Drapery, a curtain or long cloak, 
thrown over the back of a chair makes a good study. 

A knowledge of the proportions of the skeleton is 
most useful when drawing from life ; more especially 
if only a draped model can be given. 

A certain amount of drawing from the antique is 
necessary before beginning from the human figure, 
which is the best and highest study both for drawing, 
tone and colour. 



358 



FRESCO. 

By Eadie Reid, Pupil of Sir W. B. Richmond, R.A., K.C.B. 

The value of drawing for decorative purposes has 
been neglected in the past. An effort is being made 
to remedy this by the teaching of the principles of 
ornament and the laws of decorative art-form. The 
study of Greek Ceramic art shows the important part 
that the brush plays in the formation of conventional 
form. It is therefore essential before dealing with the 
theories of design or composition that a thorough 
mastery over the brush be acquired. The shapes 
which the pressure of the brush gives us, will enable 
us with ease to trace the evolution of pattern from the 
primitive zig-zag or dot and line to the subtly graceful 
scrolls and meanders of later times. 

Before proceeding to more advanced problems in 
design we must confine our attention to the filling of 
spaces, such as squares, oblongs and circles, with 
these simple brush marks suggesting buds, leaves, 
flowers, etc. For this purpose we can find no better 
models than the Greek vase and the skilful brush 
renderings of Japanese art. When the student has 
succeeded in arriving at something like an original 
composition, we must be careful to insist upon the 
value of sound, well understood growth running- 
through the whole scheme, while simplicity of line 
and originality of thought should be encouraged. The 



Fresco. 359 

application of the principles of design ought to be 
demonstrated by cartoons showing the ornament 
designs of different races and ages. It would be 
advisable to work these before the student, showing 
every line of their construction, stage by stage, until 
we have a clear workmanlike drawing upon a fairly 
large scale. 

When the pupils can express themselves with 
freedom, an actual piece of work should be taken in 
hand, such as panels for a cabinet or piano, the design- 
ing of surface decoration, wall-papers, hangings ; the 
use of the stencil and frieze painting. Ladies can 
very well produce such friezes on the walls of their 
houses ; some in Cheltenham have been most satis- 
factorily conceived and executed in tempera, while 
others are designing panels and frieze decorations with 
a view to their execution in situ. 



36o 



CHINA PAINTING. 

By Minna Crawley, Silver Medallist. 

Any one possessing some knowledge of drawing or 
painting may acquire the technique of china painting 
without either much difficulty or expenditure of time. 

China painting possesses many features of interest 
which make it both a useful and attractive study for 
young people. It is one of the very oldest forms of 
art — a fact interesting of itself. The revivals in 
majolica, faience, and many other kinds of ware of 
late years, show how widespread the appreciation of 
the factile art has become ; and with the desire for good 
form and substance has come that of the most suitable 
decoration of it. 

Much may be gained in the knowledge of design by 
the adaptation of decoration to different styles, so as to 
suit the form to be ornamented. This develops also 
originality and manual dexterity, and tests patience ; 
no work in this branch can be completed without the 
process of " firing," which assuredly " tries every man's 
work " ; for while it brings to perfection the colours, 
and gives the necessary strength and gloss, it also 
fixes and brings into strong relief every error — and 
warns against future mistakes. 

Vases, flower-pots, tiles for fire-places, dessert 
services, tea-sets and many useful household articles 
can be ornamented ; and thus taste cultivated and the 
home beautified. 



36i 



ART NEEDLEWORK. 

By Minna Crawley. 

The artistic faculty latent in so many women who 
perhaps have never studied drawing or painting, has 
in this accomplishment been developed quickly and 
more easily than in the higher class of art. 

Art needlework cultivates the taste for design, 
colouring and general effect ; and is also interesting as 
an ancient revival. 

The old historical tapestries, both English and 
foreign, have been freshly studied of late, as well 
as the ecclesiastical work of the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centuries ; some of this beautiful work has been 
equalled if not excelled in some of our modern schools 
of needlework. There can be no doubt that needle- 
work, from "high art" embroidery down to the plain 
sewing and making of garments, is excellent for girls, 
and it is to be hoped that the use of the needle will 
never be given up in our schools or hornes. Both art 
and plain needlework are now being successfully carried 
on, even with the very limited time that can be de- 
voted to them, by the pupils of the Cheltenham Ladies' 
College. 



362 



WOOD-CARVING, Etc. 

By M. S. Lyndon Smith, Honours Certificate, Class I., School of 
Wood-carving, South Kensington. 

Wood-carving and kindred handicrafts, which can be 
used for forming and beautifying the common objects 
in daily use, have much educational value ; they help 
to develop the aesthetic faculties, and give habits of 
neatness and accuracy and dexterity, and although 
children at school cannot be turned into finished 
artists, an incentive may be given at school ; and 
we may discover in seemingly dull children faculties 
which, without manual instruction, would remain 
dormant. 

Incidental teaching may be given to elder children 
in the history of ornamental design, its uses, purposes 
and meaning ; also its inseparable connection with 
architecture explained, so that they may be the better 
able to understand the beauties of our own cathedrals, 
and compare these intelligently with the work of other 
countries and times. For those who can never attain 
to great proficiency, an intelligent interest may be 
awakened in the work of those to whom we owe the 
renaissance of handicraft, which is so characteristic a 
factor of our own century. 



3^3 



MODELLING. 

By Evangeline Stirling, National Gold Medallist for Modelling, 
Naas Certificate for Sloyd. 

No better definition of modelling can be given than 
this : " As carving is the art of cutting down, so model- 
ling is the art of building up ". 

Modelling develops the power of observation, for to 
imitate we must observe closely, and only by close 
observation can we learn to appreciate the beautiful 
which is enshrined in those grand specimens of ancient 
Greek sculpture which have come down to us, and to 
which the untrained eye is blind. The sense of touch 
is quickened to a remarkable degree, for the subtle 
modelling of a surface necessitates not only its close 
observation by the eye, but its perception by the hand. 
Also the hand becomes cunning in dealing with the 
material, and the power of construction is brought out. 
It is a sure foundation for drawing and technical edu- 
cation, and instances are not wanting of its utility in 
the higher branches of learning. Any plastic material 
may be the medium, but clay is mostly used. 

The first and chief tools are the hands and fingers, 
but one or two others, the shapes of which 
will be suggested by the necessities of the 
work, may be added later on. A modelling board or 
slate, a straight-edged piece of wood and a sponge are 
required. 



364 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

Beginning in the kindergarten, modelling should 
Teachin Continue without a break through the ordi- 
(ciass and nary term of school life. In the elementary 
stage class teaching is of the greatest value, 
but no such class should contain more than eighteen 
pupils. The advanced stage will require most indi- 
vidual teaching. 

Studies should be chosen from a carefully graduated 
course, the elementary stage beginning (after 

Elementary. , 1 • 1 \ • 1 1 1 • 1 

the kmdergarten) with natural objects such 
as simple fruits, some of which the pupils may have 
already made, but which must now be modelled on a 
larger scale and with more intelligence and accuracy. 
They should then pass on to more difficult fruits, 
vegetables, leaves (taken singly and then on the branch), 
then objects such as a worn slipper, etc., etc. 

Each child should be provided with a duplicate of 
Lesson to the object, sufficient plastic material, a suit- 
^ ^^^' ably shaped board and a sponge. Equipped 

in like manner let the teacher build up a model in 
view of the class, giving the reason for each step as 
she proceeds. The first ten or fifteen minutes of a 
lesson following the completion of a work, should be 
devoted to the modelling of a small memory sketch of 
the last object executed. 

In the advanced stage the objects of study should 
Advanced be chiefly casts and natural foliage, flowers, 
^^^^^' simple drapery, casts of simple ornament of 

bold design, but not too geometric : animals' heads, 
or the enlarged human features as Michael Angelo's 
" David," masks of antique heads, hands, feet and 
whole heads. 

Casts must always be of the best and those most 



Modelling. 365 

approved for art training. Natural objects must be such 
as lend them-selves to artistic representa- 

Note 

tion. As a rule, the models should be 
executed in the round, and only at the end of the 
course should bas-relief modelling (where foreshorten- 
ing must be resorted to) be allowed, for this is the 
most difficult of all plastic work. 

Should there be any marked artistic talent it will 
have shown itself before the end of the course, when 
the pupil may be allowed to specialise. 



366 



SLOYD. 

By Evangeline Stirling. 

Sloyd, as taught at Naas in Sweden, its head- 
quarters, is the most perfect educational system of 
handwork in wood which has yet been produced. It 
is suitable for girls as well as boys of the ages of ten 
and eleven and upwards. 

Each child is required to make a series of useful 
articles called models, in which round work and the 
square work of the carpenter are duly alternated ; and 
each model introduces, with the nicest regard to the 
graduation of difficulties, some new tool or fresh exer- 
cise with a tool. It is used as a means of developing 
physical power and of forming character and habit, 
rather than of attaining utilitarian ends. The tools 
are mostly those ordinarily used by a carpenter, with 
three or four extra ones, viz., the knife, the axe, the 
draw-knife and the spoon-iron. Specially shaped 
carpenters' benches, adapted to the size of work done, 
are also used. 



3^7 



CONCLUSION. 

RELATION OF SCHOOL TO HOME. 
By Dorothea Beale. 

So far we have spoken of the Hfe of the child in the 
school. I now enter on another branch of the sub- 
ject no less important, which in a book intended for 
teachers I shall treat from a teacher's point of view. 

I have spoken of the great change which has taken 
place during the last fifty years. In the days of Locke, 
of Rousseau, of Sandford and Merton, and of the 
Edgeworths, it was only possible to educate a boy by 
a private tutor at home. Now the sons of the nobility 
are no longer educated in their own homes, nor sent, 
as in earlier days, to other families. A similar change 
has taken place in the education of girls ; every year 
more of those who would formerly have received their 
education entirely from governesses and masters at 
home, or at most gone to a very small boarding school, 
are studying as day-pupils at large schools and colleges, 
or living in boarding-houses. The question arises 
then, since the time is in the case of day-girls divided 
between the school and the home, how shall the rela- 
tions between the two be adjusted ? In the case of 
the day-girl, about eleven-twelfths of her time are spent 
at home ; in the case of the boarder, nearly a third of 
the year. Everything must depend upon the harmoni- 



368 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

ous working of the home and the school, if the educa- 
tion is to be profitable, and the problem requires the 
most careful attention. Teachers full of zeal and de- 
votion are eagerly seeking to deepen their knowledge, 
to widen their experience, and when they have come 
to the conclusion that a well-proportioned curriculum 
is necessary for mental development, that early speci- 
alisation is harmful, that daily distractions are wasting 
the nervous energy of the growing girl, they are aggra- 
vated by hearing, " Mother thinks geometry is no good 
for a girl "; " Please, I am to drop my English lessons, 
and give nearly all my time to music " ; or, " 1 could 
not do my lessons because I was at a bazaar " ; or, 
" Friends invited me " ; or, " Mother does not approve 
of my working in the holidays ". 

And then they are tempted to do what specialists 
in all ages have tried to do — to set up a beneficent 
despotism, to say, " I am Sir Oracle, and when I ope 
my lips, let no dog bark ! " I once heard the Head of 
a College address a body of teachers, advising them 
what to say to an opposing mother : " My dear madam, 
I know what is best for your child ". There are doctors 
who assume a dictatorial attitude, but what should we 
say, if a mother let the child go on taking his medicine 
without expostulation, when it seemed to be injuring 
the child ; or, on the other hand, refused to give the 
child medicine which was beneficial, because the child 
did not like it ? As the doctor needs to listen to the 
experience of the mother, and the mother to carry out 
the advice of the doctor, so do parents need to trust 
the children's teacher in matters of which an educa- 
tional expert can form the best judgment, and teachers, 
like doctors, need to profit by the experience of the 



Relation of School to Home. 369 

parent, and should be willing to give reasons for their 
advice, knowing that the more their patient under- 
stands, the more intelligently will he carry out the 
directions given. 

But how shall this be ? Well, as a quickened sense 
of the supreme importance of education has been 
awakened in teachers, so has it in parents. But mothers 
cannot in these days lead quiet lives, and devote them- 
selves to the home as they once could. The multiform 
external activity, which we have noticed among women 
workers, has its good side even as regards family life, 
for the family that lives for itself alone can no more 
lead a healthy life than the individual, but it has its 
dangers too. We all know how great are the claims 
of society, of culture, of philanthropy, right in them- 
selves, yet sometimes displacing a higher claim. All 
of us, specially mothers and teachers, want to know 
how to conciliate the rival duties, lest the words should 
be said to us, " Thine own vineyard hast thou not kept". 

It is of the very greatest importance for the child's 
character, that there should be complete co-operation 
between home and school. Consider the difference 
between home and school discipline ; I may say that 
the home government is personal — there is not strict 
system and unvarying law. A girl comes down late 
to breakfast ; or she is in the drawing-room when she 
should be in the study. She chooses friends and books 
that the mother disapproves, and there is irritation : 
the mother expostulates, the child is provoked. In the 
school on the other hand there is inexorable law, the 
consequence of neglect must be borne, there is no 
scolding, no entreaty. It will be an advantage to the 
home to have a little more rule, and to the school to 
.. 24 



370 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

have children brought up with some of the freedom 
which must be theirs one day. 

The child who sees the mother yield up her own 
power to law, bearing inconvenience, denying herself 
pleasure, and what is harder still, denying it to her child, 
will learn to respect duty, and impose laws on herself. 

Besides this, there are ways by which fuller co- 
operation may be brought about. All professions 
find the advantage of meeting together to discuss their 
special problems. There is the Teachers' Guild on the 
one hand, and a Parents' Educational Union on the 
other. I have tried in vain to bring these together 
here. The guild is too professional for the parent ; it 
does seem, however, as if the newly-established Child 
Study Society might unite both. A fair number have 
joined the child study evenings and given valuable 
help. In the Pedagogical Seminary for July, 1897, 
which is a mine of valuable suggestions for parents 
and teachers, there is an interesting account of the way 
in which the school and the home have worked to- 
gether in solving educational problems. 

The movement initiated by the able president of 
Clarke University, U.S.A., for founding a science of 
education upon systematised observation is a most 
important one ; it will help to build up a true 
philosophy upon facts, and so save us from the aimless 
talk of mere theorisers who want to square circles, or 
to discover the philosopher's stone. 

A good library, accessible to parents and teachers, 
which should contain books and periodicals not written 
exclusively for the profession, would be a great help. 
A niche in the general school library might perhaps be 
reserved for parents. 



Relation of School to Home. 371 

I have found much advantage from throwing open 
such lectures as I give in our large hall to parents and 
Heads of Houses. Many come to a scripture lesson 
given to Division I. collectively, and to literature 
lessons ; some have joined our Plato or Browning 
readings, and occasionally have been present at lectures 
given in the training department. It is quite usual for 
mothers to accompany their daughters to the " Cours " 
in Paris. Of course parents could not attend schools 
ad libitum^ but it need not be quite a terra incognita. 

The head mistress in many schools sets apart certain 
hours for seeing parents ; could it not be arranged that 
each class teacher should have some free time for 
seeing parents of her pupils, especially at the beginning 
of a new year ? There is much to be said against 
evening visiting, and ordinary social meetings would 
be useless for the purpose of discussing difficulties. It 
is a great matter to substitute candid discussion for 
fault-finding to third parties ; we shall not always 
agree, but we shall learn to respect one another's 
opinions, to understand one another's difficulties, and 
to work more effectually with one another in the 
difficult, sacred task committed to us. So far from 
finding parents generally anxious to interfere, I have 
difficulty in persuading them that I earnestly desire 
they should tell me of anything that needs attention. 

The essential thing is that there should be co-opera- 
tion and a sort of concordat between the school and 
the home. Certain rules agreed on : — 

1. There must be a room for study and certain hours fixed 
for home work, which must not be altered without grave reason. 

2. Late parties, bazaars, theatricals, etc., etc., must gener- 
ally be allowed only in the vacation. 



372 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

3. No absence from school, no coming back late, no excuses 
for unprepared lessons should ever be permitted, except for 
some very sufficient reason— never because pleasure was pre- 
ferred to duty. 

4. If parents and teachers differ, that difference should be 
discussed by neither in the presence of the child. 

5. Parents should take interest in the school work ; ask to 
see the written work ; get to know the teachers and friends of 
their children ; attend lectures, if possible, and supplement 
school lessons by home reading ; perhaps join some common 
society, e.g., Teachers' Guild, Parents' Educational Union, or 
Child Study Society. 

6. Teachers should invite and welcome any communications 
from parents, should try to know something of the home life. 

7. Submission should be required in things lawful from the 
beginning, and the reins loosened as children grow up : the re- 
verse method is fatal. 

8. Parents should not allow the children to read indiscrim- 
inately. Distaste for intellectual work is created by exciting 
novels ; irreparable injury is done to the moral nature by let- 
ting children enter into sympathy in imagination with the base 
and impure. 

9. The only safeguard is to provide in the home good litera- 
ture, and to read with the children. Especially should holidays 
be utilised as a means of learning how to spend time rightly in 
after-life, and some regular and independent study undertaken 
during long holidays. 

10. Health should never be sacrificed to fashion. High heels, 
tight-lacing, etc., etc., should be absolutely impossible. Woollen 
clothing, a carefully studied dietary, regular hours, sufficient 
sleep, well-ventilated bedrooms, daily baths, proper artificial 
light, suitable seats and tables, all these things which are 
studied in boarding-schools should be considered also in the 
home. Care should be taken in avoiding infection. 

11. In planning the studies and life-work of children, parents 
and teachers should be guided, not by the consideration of what 
they want the children to be, but of what they are ; the special 
gifts of God are to be specially cultivated, and both should 
ask, "Lord, what wouldst Thou have me to do?" Pascal's 



Relation of School to Home. 373 

father forbade mathematics. Some parents insist on music 
unwisely. 

12. Especially should parents use Sunday rightly; the re- 
ligious instruction of their children maybe given at school, but 
the home reading has much to do with this, and the example. 

13. Children should have a regular allowance of money from 
quite early years, and be trained to spend it rightly, and to 
keep accounts. 

14. Should it be impossible for the home supervision and 
training to be carried out in harmony with the day school, 
either a private governess should be engaged, or the children 
sent from home as boarders. 



374 



SECTION II. 

THE MORAL SIDE OF EDUCATION. 

By Lucy H. M. Soulsby, of the Manor House School, Brondes- 
bury Park. N.W., late Head Mistress of Oxford High School. 

Lord, with what care hast thou begirt us round ! 

Parents first season us : then schoolmasters 

Deliver us to laws ; they send us bound 

To rules of reason. George Herbert. 

I 

Many girls leave college with a vague idea that they 
had better take up teaching, because it is the only way 
of earning a livelihood for which they are in the least 
prepared. Unfortunately their preparation, too often, 
consists merely in having been taught themselves. 
Having eaten dinners is some preparation for the 
career of a cook, but not much ; and these young 
teachers may perhaps find an educational cookery- 
book useful ! The comparison does not hold good 
altogether, for almost every woman has the instinct of 
motherhood in her, which makes her more or less a 
born teacher, while it is only a few who are born cooks. 
Still, every young woman finds help in talking to an 
older one, who has had the same work, made probably 
the same mistakes, and has found a practical way out 
of them. We all value practical experience ; what else 
is training but practical experience systematised ? But 
it is not every young teacher who has an experienced 
friend at hand, or who can afford to be regularly 



The Moral Side of Education. 375 

trained. It is hoped that this book may be, in printed 
form, such talk as she would welcome had she an ex- 
perienced friend at hand. 

The high pressure at which most people live is not 
favourable to much individual thought. A xheseif-edu- 
girl at college may well feel that her three nation of the 
years there are the great opportunity of her should in- 
life for taking in the ideas of living leaders (^^^ Mental 
of thought, and for making friends with her leisure. 
equals. She is hardly to be blamed if every moment 
of her day is occupied with hard work, anxiety 
about her schools, and with the social amusements 
which are part of the education of college life. Still, 
this full and happy life involves a danger that should 
be guarded against, a danger lest the girl should be so 
much occupied in living her own life, that she has 
no leisure to stop and think out what should be the 
principles and the aim to guide her in moulding — 
as every teacher does — the lives of others. 

The moral thoughtfulness, which Dr. Arnold de- 
manded of his VI. Form, is the main re- ,„ _ 

. . . . (^) Know- 

quisite for a true teacher : no dexterity m ledge of the 
imparting knowledge will make her an 
educator if this is lacking. The study of character 
and practical casuistry, though not on the list of 
" final schools " at any university, is yet the most indis- 
pensable of all "schools" for a teacher. It may well 
be that her opportunities of gaining knowledge of the 
world are restricted by her circumstances. College is 
her furthest flight, and this is a world of its own with 
the disadvantage of being disproportionately peopled 
by too many of one generation. Under ordinary 
conditions of family life, the rising generation is kept 



376 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

in touch with maturer ideas by a fair proportion of 
uncles and aunts, as well as by fathers and mothers ; 
but, at college, the niece's world is narrowed (though 
this is not usually the light in which it strikes them) 
by the exclusion of aunts ! College undoubtedly gives 
much knowledge of character to a thoughtful student, 
but its experiences need to be brought into true pro- 
portion by comparison with the larger world beyond. 

There are many novels, essays and biographies 
which afford a good substitute for knowledge of the 
world to the girl who has a quiet home, besides the 
many books bearing directly on the study and forma- 
tion of character, which every teacheK and mother and 
elder sister should read. Such are : Sir Henry Taylor's 
autobiography and letters. The Memorials of Miss 
Charlotte Williams Wynne; all Sir Arthur Helps' 
works and Mr. Hutton's essays. Miss Mozley has 
written two volumes of essays which are full of 
delicate insight into character : one, Social Essays, 
reprinted from The Saturday Review, can only be 
obtained second-hand, but her Essays from Blackwood 
are still in print. Sir Henry Taylor's Notes on Life, 
and Lord Chesterfield's Letters (selections) will also 
be found very useful. Among the more directly 
educational books, attention should be directed to 
L Education Progressive, by Madame Neckar de Saus- 
sure ; La Famille, by the Comte de Gasparin ; L Edii- 
cation des Filles, by Fenelon ; U Education des Meres 
de Families, by Aimee Martin ; Principles of Educa- 
tion, Notebook of an Elderly Lady, Youth and Age (all 
three by Miss Elizabeth Sewell) ; Miss Yonge's 
Womankind, Miss Mason's Home Education, Miss 
Shirreffs Intellectual Education, Mrs. William Grey's 



The Moral Side of Education. 377 

Thoughts for Girls on Leaving School, and Mr. Sidg- 
wick's Form Discipline. 

Nothing can replace in a teacher the study of indi- 
vidual peculiarities of character : the motives, the 
special hindrances, the growth of each child in her 
class must be studied and individually met, if she is to 
rise to the true level of her work. 

This is assuming that the teacher feels the full re- 
sponsibility of beine: put in a position where, , , , . , 

u ^1 • u-t u . u T7 u W Insight 

by the way m which she teaches French, or into charac- 
mathematics, she can help or hinder the ^^^' 
Spiritual growth of each of her pupils. But even 
supposing that this overruling underlying motive 
of every true educator be put aside for the moment, 
and we consider only the smaller question of more 
or less success in imparting knowledge — still, this 
very success (other things being equal) will lie with 
that teacher who has the insight into the peculiar 
disposition of each child, who can bring to bear on 
each nature the motives which appeal to it and who 
can foresee and obviate the difficulties, which vary in 
each child, according to its mental, moral and physical 
equipment. In all ways scholastic success is furthered 
by seeking first something higher still. A great edu- 
cator used to say : "If you teach one boy arithmetic 
only and another boy arithmetic and religion, other 
things being equal, the second boy will beat the first in 
arithmetic, because his nature is more widely developed". 
But it may be thought that this is asking more of 
teachers than can be fairly expected. A Moral re- 
girl who has taken life from the outside, ^^^he*"'^''^ 
with a comfortable, one might almost say, teacher. 
" wholesome " disregard of motives and such-like 



37^ Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

complications, who looks forward to giving her lesson 
in a special subject, and to then being free to be as 
untouched by the " malady of thought," as absorbed in 
games and the amusements of life, as was rightfully her 
state at fifteen, may well feel that she is not prepared 
to enter on teaching as a career combining the responsi- 
bility of doctor and clergyman. If so, let her consider 
carefully before she adopts the teaching profession. 

A teacher is as much morally bound as any mother 
to consider the principles of the inner life, to think 
out a clear conception of her moral and intellectual 
aims for her children, and as such bound to feel con- 
stant moral responsibility for what she does, and is, 
and for how she improves herself. 

It is true we see both mothers and teachers take 
up their responsible positions in life without this moral 
thoughtfulness, and we sometimes see the children 
turning out well in spite of it. But the fact that 
Nature has wonderful curative and educative powers, 
does not lessen the personal responsibility of those 
who should have used art to improve nature. Chil- 
dren have been known to recover from illness in spite 
of a doctor's mistakes or neglect, but we do not there- 
fore condone the doctor's carelessness. 

If a girl is not prepared to take up the teaching pro- 
fession from its deepest, i.e., its only true side ; if she 
wishes to remain thoughtless, then let her choose some 
other form of livelihood — millinery, clerkship, gardening 
— where outward diligence will fairly meet all demands, 
so far as mere honesty to her employer is concerned. 

But let the teacher who shrinks from moral respon- 
sibility remember that, in this side of her work alone, 
is to be found permanent interest. All mechanical 



r 



The Moral Side of Education. 379 

work must pall sooner or later, and teaching is little 
better than mechanical, if it is of the external kind. 
Elementary teaching is often called mechanical, be- 
cause its subjects and their extent are very limited, but 
Latin grammar in the high school is, after a time, 
capable of becoming quite as dull as English Grammar 
in the elementary school. Or, rather, both are equally 
capable of being interesting if, and only if, the teacher 
cares supremely for what is more important than any 
grammar, the development of each child who learns 
from her. 

For, no matter how large the class, the true teacher 
must study and respect the individuality of ^^ t 
each member of it. Though her class may needs 
pass a most successful examination, yet, in ledge oT^ 
examining herself, she must mark down thecircum- 

° ' stances and 

(against herself), as a failure, the name of character of 
each child who has remained to her merely ^^^ ^^^^ ' 
one of the crowd. The eyesight, the hearing, the 
spine, the headaches, the home surrounding of each 
child, should be known to its teacher, and should 
modify the demands made upon that child. 

Curvature of the mind is far more common than cur- 
vature of the spine, and the teacher must have keen 
intellectual sympathy with each child's individual 
mental tangles. She must clear the ground of harmful 
stumbling-blocks, and yet leave enough to exercise the 
mental muscles. Surely if the difficulty of a task can 
fire enthusiasm, the teacher should burn with zeal. 

The moral temperament of each child is an even 
more complex study than the mental pecu- (d) a right 
liarities ; praise, for instance, is a tonic for i^jfcfpresence 
one and poison for another. The teacher of mind. 



380 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

must have presence of mind to criticise on the spur 
of the moment, with due regard to the child's moral 
digestion, to the abstract question of justice in the 
class as a whole, and to maintaining a high, and yet not 
depressing, standard of work. One child requires to be 
repressed and one to be encouraged to do itself justice. 
One child has thoughtful difficulties which need 
sympathetic unravelling ; another suffers from mere 
inattention, and requires decisive pulling together. 

It stands to reason that, to appreciate all these shades 
of character and to satisfy the needs of each, in such a 
manner as not to waste the time of the class (and not 
to sin against the code of rough and ready justice, to 
which the childish mind, quite rightly, owns allegiance), 
is a very delicate task, and involves much of that moral 
thoughtful ness which is the foundation of a good teacher. 

One reason for the supreme importance of this 
(c) Self- quality is that it not only means insight 

mastery. jj^^q others, but also involves self-mastery 
without which no educative control of others is pos- 
sible. Forcible control is quite possible to a severe 
or hot-tempered nature : children are easily cowed, 
but they do not learn to control themselves if they 
are subject to this martial law. If a mistress finds 
that her children are good with her and tiresome 
with other people, she may rely on it that her own 
discipline is defective. Probably she has allowed per- 
sonal affection for herself to be an admissible motive 
for good conduct, whereas insubordination would be 
almost better for the child ! This last would be 
repented of, in time, as a fault, whereas many a girl 
goes through life mistaking impulse for principle, 
because at school, obedience " to please Miss So-and- 



The Moral Side of Education. 381 

so " was accepted, as equivalent to obedience to duty. 
It may be that the teacher has mastered the children's 
tempers by dint of having a worse one herself; if so, 
the children will recoup themselves, for the enforced 
restraint of her presence, by licence in her absence ; 
whereas the control exercised by a serene, equable 
nature develops the element of self-control in the child, 
and also a sense of self-respect which tends towards 
good behaviour when with other teachers. 

This is one great reason why teachers should make 
it a matter of principle, as well as of The teacher 
worldly prudence, to avoid overstrain. You "^^o^e^r-^^ 
sometimes hear a young teacher boasting of strain. 
the tax which she lays on her constitution ; she tells it, 
half as a grievance that she should have so much to do, 
half in triumph that she is so peculiarly constituted 
— ^just as poor people exult in ailments that mark 
them out from the common herd ! But these ex- 
cesses of work (whether caused by bravado, or by 
bad management, or by an ill-informed conscience) 
are not a luxury of which she herself can defray the 
expense ; the cost is really borne by her home people, 
by her fellow-teachers, and, worst of all, by her class, . 
who all suffer from her overwrought nerves — in plain 
English, from her temper. I say, worst of all her class, 
because she may be a means of wholesome discipline 
to the other sufferers, but she does distinct moral harm 
to the children. And do not let her imagine that heroic 
efforts to control outward signs of temper will qualify 
her to be a teacher : children are acutely sensitive to 
atmosphere, and suffer even more under one who is 
elaborately controlling her temper, than under one who 
frankly loses it and then is serene again. If a teacher 



382 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

is to be worth her salt, she must have no temper ! She 
must be of a serene, sunny temperament which enjoys 
the children's presence, and her anger, when needed, 
must be of the impersonal kind which Fuller describes 
as one of " the sinews of the soul ". 

Of course scolding has to be done, but there should 
be no connection of ideas in the child's 

(6) Inju- 
dicious mind between* a merited scolding and the 
reproos. teacher's temper. Mr. Arthur Sidgwick's 
essay on Form Discipline gives the whole principle of 
the matter, but there are three suggestions I would 
like to add for the use of women teachers. One I 
take from Mrs. Beecher Stowe's book on Little Foxes. 
She there describes two households in each of which 
a young servant is being trained. In one, the 
mistress looks at the dinner table and remarks that 
the salt is not what it should be : in the other, the 
mistress, on coming to inspect the table, exclaims, 
" Why, Sally, how bright your silver is, and you have 
remembered everything to-day ; the only thing that is 
not perfect is the salt, and I am sure you will always 
look specially at that in future ". There was no com- 
parison between those mistresses as to success in ser- 
vant-training, and probably the teacher who blends 
praise and blame will cultivate a hopeful energy of 
self-improvement in her children, unknown in the 
class taught by one who coldly points out faults and 
passes over merits. 

My second suggestion is, as the Spanish proverb 
says to authors : " Leave something in your inkstand "; 
underscold rather than overscold. A woman usually 
has a power of statement that makes her take an 
artistic pleasure in putting her case completely and 



The Moral Side of Education. 383 

convincingly. But children have a fine sense of justice 
(until it is blunted by contact with the world), and the 
culprit who undergoes one of these comprehensive 
scoldings is apt to feel that full measure for the crime 
has been meted out and so she thinks no more of it. 
Understate your case and that same sense of justice 
will make her say to herself all that you leave unsaid, 
and this self-condemnation will probably be the most 
effectual part of the scolding. At all events, very little 
harm comes from scolding too little, and irreparable 
harm often comes from scolding too much. When the 
nail of reproof is once in, every additional blow of the 
hammer tends to loosen it. 

My third suggestion is, avoid scolding as much as 
possible when you have reasonable cause for supposing 
your own nerves likely to be on edge. There are times, 
e.g., the end of the summer term, when you are not 
likely to see things in true proportion : at such seasons 
distrust your own power of judging, and look the other 
way as often as possible, for blunders are liable to be 
more severely dealt with in July, than crimes in the 
fresher air of September ! 

Let us now pass on from the question of the state 
of mind desirable in a teacher, to consider the aim and 
possibilities of her work with the child. 

During the whole of school life, a girl's physical 
frame is so entirely in the making that con- 
siderations of health should outweigh every- teacher's 
thing else. She is building the house in b™ ^ °" 
which she is to live all the rest of her life, ^^^1^^ 

' — physical, 

and it is far more important what sort of mental and 
house she builds than how much she em- 
ploys herself with the various occupations that she 



384 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

can pursue at leisure, throughout her tenure of this 
" house ". Any study can be followed up in later life, 
if health demand its cessation during these growing 
years, but no after-study can repair early impoverish- 
ment or damage of the physical frame. 

Of course it stands to reason that the object of this 
house-building is that the householder may be un- 
hampered in after years and able to lead a large and 
noble life. We should have small value for the physi- 
cal frame if it were tenanted by an imbecile mind, or a 
nature without moral sense. Therefore, when we say 
that the body is the main consideration in youth, we 
do so because soundness of body is the surest means 
of securing moral and mental soundness. Fortunately, 
body, mind and spirit are so intertwined that what is 
good for one is usually good for all. We can hygieni- 
cally insist on good hard mental work, because it is 
essential to bodily health that there should be routine 
and effort and concentration of mind. We can insist 
on self-denial and self-control, for these are as essential 
to bodily health as to spiritual. The teacher who be- 
lieves herself to be an educator, not merely an in- 
structor, finds all the apparently conflicting elements 
of a peculiar case, wonderfully harmonised by giving 
predominance to the moral aim. If your first object 
in life is to increase a child's chance of becoming an 
even-tempered Christian woman, you will not let con- 
siderations of examination successes tempt you to 
allow overstrain ; while, at the same time, you will be 
inexorable in demanding, as moral training, the steady 
effort and the willing work, which will probably bring 
the successes. 

Do not let the day school teacher feel as if undue 



I 



The Moral Side of Education. 385 

burden were being laid on her, when we speak of the 
whole future of the child as thus depending ^j^^ power 
on the teacher's breadth of aim. It is of the 

, . -^ , , 1 • • • teacher in 

dtiticult to place any limit to the possi- moulding 
bilities of the teacher's influence, even at a ^^^^^^t^^- 
day school, where she only has the child for four hours 
out of the twenty-four. It is true that the mother and 
the home, during the first six or seven years of the 
child's life, have determined the main elements of 
its nature ; but in dealing with these elements, at a 
later stage, there are endless possibilities of combi- 
nation, of encouraging some and repressing others. 
Though we teachers do not, as a rule, get children 
at the early stage when most can be done with them, 
yet in schoolroom days we find their brains still 
plastic enough for us to work cheerfully and hope- 
fully, in the teeth of the many hereditary evils which 
would crush our efforts, were it not that we believe 
education to be able to cope on fairly equal terms with 
heredity. Every time we induce children to make an 
effort for the right, or to think accurately, we make a 
groove in their brain which serves as a railway line along 
which thoughts of the same kind will pass more easily 
next time. Every time we excite a wrong feeling — 
irritation, obstinacy, irreverence, or allow a deviation 
from some acknowledged standard of duty— we lay 
cross lines of rail in the wrong direction, which will 
hinder their progress in the right path, now and in the 
future.^ 

The art of concealing art is nowhere more necessary 
than in this incessant watchfulness required of the 

1 See Miss Mason's Home Education. 
25 



386 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

teacher, as it is very bad for the child to feel that its 
Bracing in- ^Me vvorld tums on its own moral and 
schoof^*^ physical well-being. The chief good of 
(a) resulting school lics in the uniformity of the routine, 
formity^of i" the absence of special exemptions ; it 
treatment. rests and braccs the child to feel under 
inexorable Laws of Nature which know no favourites. 

At the same time, while we in our larger vvorld feel 
under fixed laws, we yet believe in a special provi- 
dence which arranges for our welfare, even though we 
are unconscious of its action ; the teacher should play 
the part of unseen providence to the child. 

It is perfectly possible in a high school to con- 
sider each individual girl, and to arrange matters 
more or less for her interests, though this possibility 
rests on the fact that exceptional cases are not proper 
subjects for high school education. Even an ordi- 
nary child has her peculiarities, which should be allowed 
for, but, in the main, it is the regularity and uniformity 
of the school routine which make the most valuable 
part of her education. 

The child learns at school to be unself conscious, to 
(d) Wh 1 appreciate others ; to bear being surpassed 
some without depression, and to stand success 

competition, ^j^j^^^^ unduc cxultation ; and she learns 
these valuable lessons mainly through standing on the 
same platform with her companions, and having to fight 
on equal terms. When parents beg that some of the 
subjects taken by the rest of the class may be excused 
to their child, they do not realise that, by interfering 
with the equal terms of contest, they destroy half the 
value of school life. The value of a high school lies 
not merely in its instruction (though this is probably 



The Moral Side of Education. 387 

given by a trained specialist in each subject), but even 
more, in "the give and take" on equal terms which 
teaches a child to know her own powers and her own 
weaknesses. A child subject to undue self-apprecia- 
tion, or self-depreciation, would probably gain much 
from going into the miniature world of a high school, 
as would also the dreamy child ; in the latter case 
particularly the value of the school lessons lies in their 
difficulty, and children suffer if they are excused or 
helped with a lesson because they have failed to under- 
stand the teaching in class. Instant concentration of 
the faculties on the matter in hand is one of 
the most valuable lessons learnt in school, tration of 
and to repeat information, or explanations, ^^^ ^*^^' 
to the absent-minded child, is to encourage a fatal 
weakness. Of course the blank in the child's mind 
(which makes a pitying mother beg that the lesson 
may be excused) may be caused by irrelevancy or 
indistinctness of voice, or of mind, on the teacher's 
part. But if three-quarters of the class have followed 
the lesson, it may be safely taken for granted that 
effort and practice will bring success to the remaining 
quarter ; a success which will mean not merely the 
knowledge of the Euclid or geography in question, 
but victory over a habit of mind that; if unchecked, 
will neutralise any talent the child may possess. 

The child's efforts after concentration of mind need 
careful co-operation on the part of the ^ 

^ ^ Dangers of 

teacher (who, from her own carelessness, school 
is apt to indulge the child's carelessness), ^o^^^^'^^^^s- 
whereas the equally valuable qualities of diligence and 
perseverance are almost evolved of themselves by the 
competition of any school which has a good work- 



388 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

ing spirit. The teacher needs to be even more 
alert in counteracting the mistaken forms which 
school diligence is apt to take, than in rousing the 
spirit itself. Emulation, eagerness for marks, putting 
school opinion before those of home — all these are 
very real dangers. The better the school, the more 
acute the danger, and the more need is there that 
the authorities should act as a drag on the coach. 
Emulation is a natural quality in the child and a very 
useful one to the teacher ; but there is great danger 
in its degenerating into personal rivalry. Something 
may be done to soften this spirit of competition by 
setting before the children a fence which all may leap, 
not a throne which only one can occupy. The fence 
can be as high as you will, but if the opportunity of 
clearing it be open to all, the class will exult in the 
number of successes, without any feeling in the many 
of personal loss involved in the gain of the few. 
" Marks " can be so arranged as to obviate thetempta- 
tion to personal rivalry which is often sup- 
not necessi- posed to be inseparable from them. When 
taterivary. ^j^^ weekly marks are added up, letters are 
in some schools assigned, according to the percent- 
age of marks gained, arranged in decades. The 
exact number of marks is not brought before the 
child, but only the question to which decade she 
belongs. A red A denotes 90 per cent., a black 
A 80 per cent. ; B means 70 per cent., and so on 
through the alphabet. Every member of the class 
who deserves it can attain the " red A". The same 
system can be pursued in prizes ; all who reach a 
certain standard of marks in term work or in exami- 
nations, or in both combined, can gain one. Thus 



The Moral Side of Education. 389 

esprit de corps to some extent takes the place of per- 
sonal- triumph — the whole class is proud of its number 
of *' red A " members and prize-winners, instead of 
suffering from the temptation to feel a little bitter, 
which must exist when there is only one place of 
honour to be had. 

The value of moral and religious lessons in school is 
especially great because of the almost uni- Advantages 
versal disposition on the part of girls to [^essonlTn"^ 
consider home exhortation as nagging, school. 
What is said in a school lesson goes home to the con- 
science with no friction, because the teacher cannot have 
known of that last peccadillo at home, and the mother is 
not at hand to look the fatal phrase, " I told you so ! " 

Mothers need not feel that the school lesson displaces 
theirs — rather it enforces what they say, («) They re- 
since the child probably listens with in- ^^^^^ 
creased interest to what they say when it teaching, 
is unconsciously echoed by an outside authority. 

It is very difficult at home not to omit certain sore 
points in these moral lessons, for fear of ,,, , ., , 

• . • . • 1 U-1J T ('^l Avoid the 

seemmg to aim at special children. In a danger of 
series of lessons at school, this difficulty is P^^^^^^i'^i^^- 
obviated and the victim can feel that the arrow has 
hit home, without the indignity of being watched by 
home eyes to see if it has taken effect. 

It is easier, also, in speaking to a number to take 
larger views of life and its duties, than might 
seem suitable in any individual family, large views 
Social duties, good citizenship, high ideals ° "^^' 
of future usefulness can be held up to elder girls at 
school as a part of religion ; while such faults as 
partisanship, political or otherwise, narrow-minded- 



390 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

ness, family selfishness can be discouraged without any 
danger of personality. 

These moral lessons should serve a distinct purpose 
in the school by imbuing the girls with high ideals ; the 
fact of belonging to a large public body such as a high 
school should assist them in assimilating wider ideas 
of life. But it must not be forgotten that moral lessons 
in no way supersede the necessity for definite religious 
instruction ; abstract ideals will have little power 
against future temptations unless they are supported 
by sound Biblical knowledge and religious belief 

From one point of view, it may be said that parents 
{(i) Put should feel responsible for this instruction, 

p^fnTon'the t»ut surely the teacher would not be con- 
true basis. tent to give up sucH a hold on the child as 
is furnished by the religious lessons. ft must be 
almost impossible to maintain real control over the 
tone of the school, if the deepest part of the child's 
nature is left outside the school's jurisdiction. 

Besides, though the responsibility and the pleasure 
[e) Give re- ^^ ^^^^ branch of education do belong pri- 
ligionits marilv to the parent, yet, when the claims 

right posi- r i i ^ r ^ ^ • • 

tion in the oi school eat up SO much oi the day, it is 
curriculum. ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ mother to get enough time 

to deal fully with the subject. Also, the better the 
school and the more fully it employs the mental 
faculties of the child, and wins its allegiance, the more 
important it is that such a great authority in the child's 
world should proclaim itself supremely interested in 
this branch of learning. Children often have to learn 
music at school, merely because they only attend to 
their practising when it is done for a school authority. 
Much as we may wish home to be supreme in all cases, 



The Moral Side of Education. 391 

we must recognise that children often go through a 
phase in which they yield more unquestioning sub- 
mission to school rules than to home wishes, and give 
keener energy to school lessons than to the extra ones 
devised by the mother, and secretly resented by the 
child as an unjust addition to its burden. 

Besides, it is possible there may be homes, we will 
hope they are rare, where religious teaching is not 
sufficiently attended to ; certainly our better - class 
children are often more ignorant of their Bibles than 
those who have been to a good Sunday school. 

Let us assume, therefore, that the school must have 
a definite and fairly complete course of religious in- 
struction, including Biblical and moral lessons ; church 
schools would of course add doctrinal and prayer- 
book lessons. 

But the Bible lesson is not only a subject in the cur- 
riculum, it should be a leaven in the school. 
This can only be the case if the children the school 
feel that, in spite of all imperfections and 
shortcomings, the Bible lesson really is the truest out- 
come of the teacher's own nature, that it is to her the 
most interesting lesson of the week, bearing on the 
whole of life, instead of being an isolated subject in 
one pigeon-hole of her mind. 

Let us take it as a principle that these lessons should 
have the first and freshest hour of the morning given to 
them, that they may be felt as a continuation of school 
prayers, as a further consecration of the day, not as a 
mere lesson to be sandwiched in with French and 
algebra, as if all were of equal importance.^ Let the 

^ If the exigencies of the time-table forbid the first hour, then let it 
be the last. 



392 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

children realise that religion comes first in arranging 
a time-table, and that no pressure of examination work 
can be taken as a valid excuse for curtailing these 
lessons. Children sometimes think that because no 
marks are given for divinity it will pay to get an ex- 
cuse for this, and to devote the time to lessons which 
tell in their weekly class-list. This is only a crude 
force of a temptation common to every stage of life, 
and it would be one of the most valuable of all school 
lessons could such a child be taught that religion, if 
real, must come first in Monday's lessons as well as in 
Sunday's services. 

Itjs easy enough to find matter for the Bible les- 
sons;^ the life of our Lord, a three years' 

Subjects for ' '' 

Bible course of Old Testament history, as ar- 

essons. ranged in Mr. Glazebrook's three volumes ; 

the life of St. Paul, considered as the setting of his 
Epistles, and including a general survey of each of 
those Epistles ; a special study of any one of the Pro- 
phets, giving the gist of his message, viewed first in the 
light of his own times and local surroundings, and 
then considered in its relation to our own times ; the 
women of the Bible ; the Jewish feasts and ritual ; any 
one of these courses will provide interesting matter for 
a year's lessons. 

A very useful book has recently been written called 
Ad Luceml^ which gives Old Testament history, the 
Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles and Church history 
up to the present day. Its object is to show the his- 

1 Full and detailed suggestions on this subject will be found in Mr. 
Bell's invaluable little book on Religious Education in Secondary 
Schools. 

2 By the Rev. A. B. Simeon ; published by Wells Gardner. 



The Moral Side of Education. 393 

tory of the world as bearing on the Incarnation, and it 
is enabled to cover so much ground by selecting and 
emphasising such facts as bring out this point of view. 
It would be interesting to children of about fifteen, and 
useful to any teacher, by helping her to focus her own 
teaching. 

Probably all teachers will say the difficulty lies 
rather in how to treat this vast stock of „ 

Requisites 

material. There should be no difficulty in of a Bible 
making the children feel that the Bible is 
the most interesting book in the world, quite apart 
from its religious importance. 

So many books on Eastern manners and places are 
within the reach of teachers that they should not be 
content till their own conceptions of the Bible scenes 
and characters are as vivid as Tinworth's terra cottas. 

Children have much in common with the old Scotch 
woman who was so shocked at what seemed (^) vivid- 
to her irreverence in Dean Stanley when he "^^^ 
tried to persuade her that Jerusalem was a real place 
which he had visited ; it is a new light to them to be 
made to realise that Bible heroes and places are as real 
as those in English history. Doing this arrests their 
attention, and they go on to perceive that the tempta- 
tions and virtues of those days were also' like our own, 
that even the minor Prophets, whom they have avoided 
as utterly alien to their world, speak straight to ourselves 
in their warnings about wealth and labour and luxury. 

Until we make Bible lessons practical for ourselves 
and for our children, we must not be con- (^) practi- 
tent : in old days the Bible was used only ^^^^^y- 
as a storehouse of isolated texts for personal applica- 
tion ; we realise now that due reverence for the Word 



394 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

of God requires that we should study it, and teach it, 
as exactly and reasonably and vividly as we do any 
other history and literature, but we must not forget 
that if we stop here, the old-fashioned unintellectual 
method of study infinitely surpassed in wisdom our 
modern cleverness. Unless our lessons make the Bible 
more profitable for doctrine and reproof, for amend- 
ment of life and instruction of manners, they are 
failures, no matter how much critical and geographical 
learning has been brought to bear on them. Perhaps 
{c) Devout- each lesson need not have a special ethical 
ness. Qj. spiritual bearing (though it is a pity if it 

has not), and we should beware against overdoing our 
moral instruction. A child's mind is like a narrow- 
necked bottle, and we often pour in too much at once. 

Especially is this the case with illustrations ; the 
{d) simpii- teacher has had their use so inculcated that 
^^^y- a Bible lesson is too often a string of anec- 

dotes and pictures in which the central idea is hope- 
lessly lost ; one truth, one picture, and one illustration 
are as much as any young child can grasp in one lesson, 
and children of a larger growth would often gain more 
if teachers were more economical in their explanations. 

Keeping the spiritual aim in view would assist in 
, , ^ . , dealing with some of the critical difficulties 

(e) Careful . ° 

treatment of which bcset a thoughtful teacher. It is most 
important not to give mature food to an 
immature mind, or to bring before the child, who has 
not realised any difficulties, the critic's suspension of 
judgment, which is such a comfort to the teacher. But 
though we should avoid giving an impression that facts 
and authorship are moot points, still we can avoid 
putting up stones of stumbling which will afterwards 



The Moral Side of Education. 395 

have to be cleared away. Children need the old stories 
told in all simplicity, the stones of the childhood of the 
race, but if we keep before them " the one far-off Divine 
event," towards which all those stories pointed, if we 
teach them Jewish history in the light of the Divine 
education of the human race, instead of treating the 
Flood and Jael and Joshua's wars, etc., as finished 
episodes which stand on their own merits, so to speak, 
surely then there will be little or nothing in the best 
modern lines of thought to upset their faith, and 
much to enrich it. 

To sum up shortly, the following are the main points 
I would seek to impress on a youngr teacher, 

• 1 . 1 1 . 1 r 1 • Summary. 

m considermg the moral side of education. 
First and foremost the heavy responsibility attached 
to the teacher's office — an office which combines the 
functions of clergyman, doctor and instructor. Next, 
the personal qualifications required of the teacher, 
holiness, serenity, insight into character, knowledge of 
the world ; then the aims of the teacher's work, the 
building up a sound mind in a sound body, by the 
help of the good habits arising from right conditions 
of school life, most of all by the help of the Bible 
lesson, which must be the inspiration of the whole 
school course. 

I should like to end by quoting some words of 
William Law, the great mystic of the last century, 
which put before us the true ends of education. In 
his Treatise on Christian Perfection he says : " Show 
me a learning that makes man truly sensible of his 
duty : that fills the mind with true light : that makes 
us more reasonable in all our actions : that inspires us 
with fortitude, humility and devotion". 



396 



SECTION III. 

CULTIVATION OF THE BODY. 

By Jane Frances Dove, Certificated Student of Girton College, 
Cambridge, 1874; Head Mistress of Wycombe Abbey School, 
Bucks; previously Head Mistress of St. Leonard's School, 
St. Andrews, N.B. 

So every spirit, as it is most pure, 

And hath in it the more of heavenly light, 

So it the fairer bodie doth procure 

To habit in, and it more fairely dight 

With chearefull grace and amiable sight ; 

For of the soule the bodie forme doth take ; 

For soule is forme, and doth the bodie make. 

Spenser. 

As the object of school life, or rather of life at school, 
is not merely teaching but education, and as education, 
whatever the true derivation of the word may be, 
The mistress means the gradual drawing out and de- 
as educator, yelopment of all the faculties of which 
the human being is capable, we shall speak in this 
chapter not of the " teacher," but of the " mistress " 
as the person who in school life takes the place of 
authority analogous to that of the parent in the home, 
and upon whom falls the responsibility for the time 
being of seeing that a due balance is being maintained 
in the development of every faculty. The importance 
of this harmonious development of the powers is mani- 
fest. We do not desire girls to be brainless athletes 
any more than we wish that they should be delicate 
or stunted blue-stockings, and either of these exagge- 



Cultivation of the Body. 397 

rated types is made doubly deplorable if, as sometimes 
happens, there is a deficiency of moral power. 

The most important conditions for health are first 
of all a wholesome environment ; secondly. Health 
wholesome occupation for the mind ; and conditions, 
thirdly, proper exercise for the body. 

The environment will be discussed later. 

The occupation of the mind will also come chiefly 
under the head of mental training, but here it may be 
desirable to notice that the mind must receive much 
of its training through the exercise of faculties other 
than the intellectual. This truth is of Meaning of 
course the foundation of the whole idea recreation, 
of recreation, recreation consisting much more in 
change of thought and a difference in the objects 
on which the attention is fixed, than in the par- 
ticular form of exercise through which this object 
is attained. It is for this reason that games of all 
kinds are so much more valuable than mere walk- 
ing under ordinary circumstances, because walking 
is so purely mechanical, especially when exercised 
for limited periods among well-known surroundings, 
that the mind continues to occupy itself with the 
thoughts, and possibly with the intellectual problems, 
upon which it was before fixed. Better than walking, 
as both an exercise and a recreation, I some forms 
should count riding, rowing or bicycling, of recreation 
In riding and bicycling there is the great valuable 
interest of managing the horse and propel- ^^""^ ^^^^"^^ 
ling the bicycle, the exhilaration and quickened circu- 
lation produced by passing rapidly through the air, 
together with the refreshment gained through the 
eye by the contemplation of new and varied scenes, 



398 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

especially if they be beautiful. Every form of occupa- 
tion or exercise that will keep girls in the open air is 
for that reason alone valuable, because there is no 
bodily want so imperious as the necessity of breathing 
fresh, unvitiated air ; but as a true recreation the first 
position must undoubtedly be given to games, because 
in them there is always a special interest upon which 
the mind must be concentrated, and which therefore 
entirely prevents the possibility of the thoughts dwell- 
ing upon the subject of the last lesson, and sends the 
girl back braced and invigorated to overcome the in- 
tellectual difficulties that may be required of her. I 
Games think I do not speak too strongly when I 

TheaitV^ ^^y ^^^^ games, i.e.,, active games in the 
school life, open air, are essential to a healthy exist- 
ence, and that most of the qualities, if not all, that 
conduce to the supremacy of our country in so many 
quarters of the globe, are fostered, if not solely de- 
veloped, by means of games, 

I have said that games are essential to a healthy 
existence ; of course I mean that they are so under 
the circumstances of school life. Without this pro- 
viso the assertion would be an exaggerated one. For 
I think if it were possible, with a due regard for the 
necessities of their training, to make girls cultivate a 
farm, or even do all the work of a large garden, or 
Games give build a house, or make a road, the interest 
exercise. Qf performing a real work of utility, to- 
gether with the exercise of the muscles and other 
faculties, would give the necessary recreation and 
muscular exercise ; but the initial difficulty can 
hardly be overcome, vis., that in building a house, 
or cultivating a farm, the exigencies of the work 



Cultivation of the Body. 399 

must be considered rather than the training of the 
workers. Hence it is that games have been invented 
as a means of exercise in the open air, which will 
occupy varying numbers of players, which can be 
dropped and resumed according to the exigencies of 
the weather, varied according to the capacities of the 
players, which possess endless interests, develop num- 
berless faculties, and yet which can be pursued upon 
limited spaces of ground, the possibilities of which for 
the purpose are never exhausted, and without the using 
up of valuable material. In fact for people who are to 
be intellectual workers, games are the modern adapta- 
tion of the old command " to till the ground," which, 
like other laws of a fundamental nature, cannot at any 
time of the world's history be neglected. Efforts have 
from time to time been made to carry out the injunc- 
tion literally, as in the attempts of Mr. Ruskin to 
inspire Oxford undergraduates to try the experiment 
of road-making, or in the foundation of schools, 
which are meeting with a considerable measure of 
success, in which the boys perform, besides a certain 
proportion of indoor work, a good deal of agricultural, 
including woodmen's, labour. But for most schools, 
with their limited possibilities as regards Games 
acres of land, trees and materials, prafnes l^tSl!!l^ 

' ' <=> minimum 

are the only possible means of satisfying amount of 
the need. These ought to be as joyous and can be 
and spontaneous as possible, and therefore fimf^d^" 
should be of every possible kind to suit ^•"^^s, 
different tastes. The joyousness and spontaneity are 
so especially necessary for girls on account of their 
extreme conscientiousness and devotion to duty. 
Boys, for all I know to the contrary, may perform 



400 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

their duties equally well, but they are rarely inclined 
to worry over them as girls do, and they have such 
overflowing animal spirits that they always contrive 
to find relaxation, by means of fun and activity of all 
kinds at odd times, which either does not come natur- 
ally to girls, or which, if indulged in by them as well 
as by boys, would make life an unbearable pande- 
monium for their elders. 

Let us then have games of all kinds ; every game, 
with, I should say, the single exception of football, 
is suitable. Let us have lawn tennis, fives, bowls, 
croquet, quoits, golf, swimming, skating, 
small archery, tobogganing, basket-ball, rounders 

and hailes, as many of these as can be pro- 
vided for, and some at one season of the year, others 
at another. All these are useful, because only a small 
number of individuals, one or two, or at the most 
four, is necessary to make most of them enjoyable, 
and therefore they can fill up gaps of time when large 
numbers are not available for organised games. Let 
these games also be encouraged by means of tourna- 
ments and competitions held occasionally, and let 
prizes or challenge cups be offered for success in these 
competitions, and where there is a golf course arranged, 
let there be an autumn and a spring medal. 

Games, however, have a much higher function to 
perform in school life than any I have yet mentioned. 
Here is a splendid field for the development of powers 
Their higher o^ Organisation, of good temper under trying 
functions. circumstances, courage and determination to 
play up and do your best even in a losing game, 
rapidity of thought and action, judgment and self- 
reliance, and, above all things, unselfishness, and a 



Cultivation of the Body. 401 

knowledge of corporate action, learning to sink indi- 
vidual preferences in the effort of loyally working with 
others for the common good. 

Women have plenty of devotion and unselfishness 
of an individual kind — that is to say, they can lose 
themselves entirely in the interests of their particular 
friends or of their husbands and children, but this per- 
sonal devotion is quite compatible with what I may 
call family selfishness, and they may be, and often 
are, quite incapable of realising any interest Necessity 
whatever that is not bounded by the four for the 

11 r 1 • 1 ^T-1 rr r ^ ' Cultivation 

walls of their home. The effect of this of corporate 
narrowness is to make their lives extremely ^'^^"^^• 
mean and petty, and they have in consequence 
a deteriorating effect upon every member of their 
families and upon all society in which they mingle. 
It is true that the family is the unit which lies at 
the base of all national existence, and which forms 
the foundation stone for all teaching, moral and 
spiritual, but it is essential to remember that it is 
only a unit, and that an aggregation of such families 
or units forms a community, a nation, and that 
the members of a family are likewise citizens of 
kingdoms, political and spiritual. The woman who 
indulges in family selfishness is a bad citizen. 
To be a good citizen, it is essential that she should 
have wide interests, a sense of discipline and or- 
ganisation, esprit de corps, a power of corporate 
action. Now the schoolmistress is the person who 
has the best opportunity of teaching these principles 
to women, and I would have her fully recognise her 
privilege and her responsibility. Men acquire corpo- 
rate virtues, not only at school and at college, but 

26 



402 Work and Play In Girls' Schools. 

almost in every walk of life ; whereas comparatively 
few women ever find themselves members of an orga- 
nised profession, and the proportion, even of those 
who have the advantage of college life, is still exceed- 
ingly small. It remains therefore for the school to teach 
them almost all that they will ever have the opportunity 
of acquiring of the power of working with others, and 
sinking their own individuality for the common good. 
The opportunity must be made the most of. Now 
girls are quite as susceptible as boys to the influences 
In the life of school life. Therefore let us see that 
generally. |.j^g influences are such as develop the 
best characteristics. Make them trustworthy by 
trusting them, open and straightforward by taking 
it for granted that they have nothing to hide. 
Give them beautiful surroundings ; let the house be 
well managed and comfortable but not luxurious ; 
satisfy every reasonable want liberally ; do not keep 
their minds concentrated upon themselves by having 
a multiplicity of minute and irritating rules, but ex- 
plain to them broad principles of conduct, and ex- 
pect them to apply these themselves to the niinutice 
of their own lives, pointing out patiently again and 
again where the girls' application of principles clashes 
with the interests of the majority. Thus the principles 
^ of corporate life are being imbibed every 

By means of ^ ^ •' 

organised hour and minute of the day, though no- 
games, where more completely than in the play- 
ground, and in the playground the large organised 
games, such as cricket, hockey and lacrosse, are the 
most useful for this purpose. 

Of course it is exceedingly diflicult to obtain space 
enough upon which to play these games, but if a school 



Cultivation of the Body. 403 

is to be a residentiary school at all in the full sense 
of the word, it must have several acres of ground im- 
mediately surrounding it. I forbear to specify the 
minimum number of acres, because though it may be 
desirable for the whole school to be able to play at one 
time every day, it is not essential, as it is possible by 
an expenditure of trouble on the part of the head- 
mistress to economise both playground and school- 
room accommodation by arranging for each Area of 
to be available in succession for the use playground, 
of different portions of the school. A very useful 
guide, however, is to be found in the fact that, taking 
twelve well-known boys' schools, the average area of 
the sites is twelve acres for every hundred boys. 

There ought to be one ground levelled and turfed, 
about a hundred yards by fifty, for every thirty or forty 
girls. It is rarely that more than two and twenty, as in 
cricket, or twenty-four, as in lacrosse, are required for 
a game ; but out of the whole number there will always 
be a few who are "not playing games to-day," and 
the balance occupy themselves usefully with some of 
the other smaller games previously enumerated. The 
captain of the house or form, or whatever the sub-, 
division may be that has the use of the " ground," 
must arrange that every individual of the forty is put 
down to play in the organised game three or four, or 
as many times as is possible, in the week. The half- 
holiday will naturally be the day upon which foreign 
matches are played, or home matches with other divi- 
sions, or scratch matches arranged by the captain of 
the games. The captain of games and the ^ 

° r- o Qrganisa- 

captains of divisions are of course girls, se- tion of 
lected in the one case by the whole school, ^ -'^xs'"®"" • 



404 Work and Play in Girls* Schools. 

and in the others by the girls of the division over 
which she presides. Of course if the number of 
grounds available is not as great as the number 
of suitable divisions, divisions must have grounds 
allotted to them in turn, and this reduces seriously 
the opportunities for practice. A good deal, how- 
ever, may often be done with great advantage on 
a smaller piece of ground in practising for the game at 
the time in vogue, especially in cricket, where very 
useful coaching is given at the nets. Often special varie- 
ties of a game are developed by the local peculiarities 
of the only available spot for playing it. Every 
Etonian knows the correct shape for a fives-court, 
and how the peculiarity has been perpetuated from 
the balustrade of the stone stair in the quadrangle 
which leads to the chapel. The old Scottish game of 
hailes has likewise localised itself in the playground of 
the Academy, Edinburgh. It is desirable that there 
should be a mistress, whose special interest may be 
claimed by the girls in any particular game, and 
whose advice may be sought by the captain of games 
in the matter of answering challenges and provid- 
ing the necessary apparatus. The captain should 
also be supported by another girl as secretary 
and treasurer, to collect subscriptions and keep the 
books. 

The experience of many years has evolved the plan 
Cycle of of choosing regularly one game for each 
games. term, and always keeping to it. Thus 

lacrosse might be taken in the September term, 
hockey in January, and cricket in May, and if all 
schools adopt the same plan, outside matches are 
then possible, and there are few things which tend so 



Cultivation of the Body. 405 

strongly to keep up the esprit de corps of a school as 
meeting other schools on the playing-field. 

There will be no difference of opinion as to the 
suitability of cricket for the summer term, but many 
schools play hockey in September, and carry it on for 
two terms. We have found, however, that there is not 
really enough interest in the game itself to keep up 
enthusiasm for such a long period, but inasmuch as it 
keeps nearly all the players inconstant movement and 
requires the minimum amount of arrangement before- 
hand, and can therefore be begun at once on a cold 
day without loss of time, it is the best game for the 
January term, during which the most inclement weather 
of the year is usually experienced. Football being 
quite out of the question, on account of its roughness, 
we have fallen back upon lacrosse, a game which re- 
quires the same qualities of combination, obedience, 
courage, individual unselfishness for the sake of a side 
— a player who attempts to keep the ball instead of 
passing it being absolutely useless — and is 
full of interest on account of the various 
kinds of skill required, fleetness of foot, quickness of 
eye, strength of wrist, and a great deal of judg- 
ment and knack. The game of lacrosse well played 
is a beautiful sight, the actions oT the players 
being so full of grace and agility. The skill re- 
quired, moreover, is so great that the attempt to 
acquire it is a splendid training in courage and 
perseverance. 

Hockey is so well known that it is hardly necessary 
to say much about it, excepting that it is a very great 
mistake to regard it as essentially a rough game. All 
that is necessary to prevent roughness is to have a strict 



4o6 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

rule against raising the stick above the waist, an offence 
of this kind giving a free hit to the opposite 
side. Of course, hard knocks are some- 
times received, but is there no value in the lesson of 
cheerful endurance that may thus be learned, and is 
it possible to enjoy anything good in life or even to 
live at all, without running some risk of bodily harm ? 
Hockey has besides its special advantages which 1 
have already mentioned. 

As regards cricket, I am well aware that most real 
cricketers would laugh at the idea of girls attempting 
t^e game. I shall always remember the remark made 
by the head master of a public school, after watching 
the girls at play for some time with the keenest in- 
terest : " Yes, they will never make cricketers, but 
they are having splendid exercise in the open air ". 
This, however, was some years ago, and the girls have 
worked hard and improved since then, and 

Cricket. , . 

I venture to think that if the same kindly 
critic could again see their play he would think some- 
what better of it. Indeed, I am often surprised at the 
real pleasure and approbation expressed at what even 
to me seems our feeble attempts. Granted, however, 
that the game in the hands of girls can never be 
quite the same game that it is for boys, it is still a 
perfectly safe game when played between elevens of 
tolerably equal strength. It is, in my opinion, quite 
unsafe when played by men against women, or even 
by big boys against little ones, but admirable from 
every point of view so long as boys play boys and 
girls play girls of corresponding size and strength. 
The amount of interest and variety in the game is 
unsurpassed by any other, and it is so well known 



Cultivation of the Body. 407 

that an intelligent interest in its details can be taken 
by almost any one. No roughness is produced ; all is 
gentleness and courtesy, combined with strength and 
determination. The traditions of the game are such 
that girls attempting to play it must throw themselves 
completely into it, and cannot allow themselves to 
give way to idleness and ineffectiveness. This is well 
illustrated by the remark of the captain of a team of 
ladies who recently played an eleven from a well-known 
school, and were beaten by them. She congratulated 
the head mistress, and said : " Your girls play like 
gentlemen, and behave like ladies". 

It is unfortunate that, broadly speaking, girls can- 
not throw and that the bowling in a girls' eleven is 
apt to be lamentably weak. I have not been able to 
decide in my own mind whether this weakness is due 
to physiological disabilities or to the want of early 
training, but I am inclined to think the Deficiency 
latter. It seems to be generally acknow- ^^s^^far 
ledged in the nursery that it is of no use to training, 
attem'pt to keep the boys in strict control, that they 
must be allowed to have their fling, and create an 
uproar, and climb, and throw stones, but the whole 
force of the nurse's authority is usually exerted to 
prevent the girls under her charge from falling 
under the opprobrium, in nursery etiquette, of being 
" unladylike ". I am the more inclined to this 
opinion, as I observe that where parents have the 
good sense to allow their girls the same facilities 
for activity, natural and necessary for the young 
animal, as their boys, the girls do learn to throw 
equally well, and attain the same easy graceful- 
ness of movement which is natural to the untram- 



4o8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

melled boy. Such parents, I grieve to say, are still 
very rare, with the result that not more than three 
or four per cent, of girls of fourteen have any idea 
of throwing a ball, and much less of bowling. This 
can scarcely be wondered at, seeing that " Sir B. W. 
Richardson lately stated that in his student days it 
was taught in all sobriety by anatomical authorities 
that the joint of a woman's shoulder was more shallow 
than a man's, so that she was almost sure to dislocate 
it if she threw a ball with force ! Thus, comically, 
does preconceived theory upset the scientific vision." 
However, great strides have already been made by 
girls in acquiring skill in games, and much greater 
strides will be made in the future, to the enormous 
gain, not only physically but mentally and morally, 
both of women in particular and of the nation as a 
whole. 

We now come to the consideration of exercises, 

which thous^h really recreative in their ten- 
Great value , , 

of Swedish dencics, are much less so than games, and 
gymnastics. ^^^^ among thcsc comc gymnastics. Now 
no nation has more carefully thought out the subject 
of physical education than the Swedes, and at the 
Central Institute in Stockholm, under the super- 
intendence of Professor Torngren, professors of gym- 
nastics, both preventive and curative, are trained, 
who have a thorough scientific knowledge of their 
work, and can produce results in the way of physical 
training second to no others in existence. It has been 
my happiness for many years to watch the results of 
the work produced by one of the professor's pupils, 
and I cannot speak too highly of the work she has 
accomplished. The essence of her method is a syste- 



Cultivation of the Body. 409 

matic training of all the muscles. She possesses a 
thorough knowledge of the structure of the human 
frame, both muscular and nervous. By a carefully 
thought out series of free exercises, supplemented by 
work upon the admirably devised Swedish apparatus, 
the muscular system of her pupils is thoroughly and 
harmoniously developed ; and here let me say that, 
strongly as I believe in out-door games, I severe 
do not consider it safe to allow girls to in- games not 

, , . , 111 -1 • • safe without 

dulge m them absolutely without restriction, gymnastic 
nor at all, at least in the severer games, un- *''^^"^"s;- 
less they are receiving systematic muscular training 
in the gymnasium and make a practice of changing 
all their garments as soon as play is over. For 
this reason, the time during which it is possible for 
girls to play hard is carefully cut down to a maxi- 
mum of an hour and a half Also, no exemptions 
whatever are given from gymnastic lessons. By 
this means hard games are made safe, whereas other- 
wise there would be constant danger of overstrain, 
and mischief might ensue which would perhaps not 
be apparent at the time, but might seriously endanger 
a girl's health in after years. There is nothing in my 
opinion more dangerous for young people 
than physical and nervous exhaustion. The of over- 
harm is done in a gay, thoughtless moment, ^^^^ '°"" 
which may not be overcome for years. This care is 
especially necessary in the case of girls, both on account 
of physical organisation and because their muscular 
system has, as a rule, been so imperfectly developed in 
childhood. There is still another and very important 
reason. It has already been stated that girls are so 
very good and conscientious. One form which this 



4IO Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

characteristic takes is that they will quietly attempt, and 
by pure nerve-force will perform, if the occasion seems 
to require it of them, feats for which their muscular 
development is entirely unfitted. This brings me to the 
reason why Swedish gymnastics are so greatly superior 
to the ordinary form of gymnastics, which used to be 
prevalent in boys' public schools and army gymna- 
siums. In this kind of gymnastics, the attention of 
the instructor is far too much occupied in making his 
pupils perform feats, many of which are of an acrobatic 
nature, rather than directed to the harmonious develop- 
ment of the whole body ; hence, in some cases, the 
shoulders become abnormally broad and square, and 
other unsymmetrical effects are caused. In fact, the 
amusement of the pupils is considered rather more 
than their physical welfare. 

Then, since every girl must appear twice a week in 
the gymnasium as long as she remains in the school, 
dressed in an easy-fitting costume, consisting of 
knickerbockers and tunic, the gymnastic mistress has 
every opportunity of noticing the physical develop- 
Physicai ment, and I have found that she very quickly 
covered at dctccts cven the slightest curvatures or other 
gymnastics, physical defects, and, with the parents' con- 
sent, can give curative treatment, which is very speedily 
efficacious in curing weak or crooked backs, stoops, 
displaced shoulder blades, sprains and other ailments. 
The mistress also gives the girls a good deal of useful 
advice, according to their several needs. She notices 
how they sit or what postures they take for different 
avocations, and tells them if they are wrong, and why 
they are wrong. She does not undertake any medical 
responsibility, but having had, so far as the bodily 



Cultivation of the Body. 411 

frame goes, a thorough medical training, her work 
among a number of girls is simply invaluable, and no 
physical features that ought to be noticed escape her 
practised eye. It is well known to schoolmistresses, 
if not to parents, what a serious difficulty these physi- 
cal defects cause in a girl's moral training. Nothing 
is worse for a girl than to be forced by circumstances 
to think much about her own health. Therefore, it is 
our part to save them as much as we can from having 
to direct their thoughts upon themselves more than is 
required by ordinary common-sense. Think how hard 
it is for a girl who has a weak back, and is ordered to 
lie down for certain hours in the day. She cannot lie 
and do nothing, and therefore attempts reading as 
being apparently the only possible occupation. The 
difficulty of fixing the book in the right position and 
getting a proper light upon it is such that very fre- 
quently the eyes are overstrained and a new difficulty 
is produced. Now most weak backs can be curative 
strengthened by strengthening the proper gymnastics, 
muscles. Muscle is strengthened by use, and the 
Swedish gymnast knows what exercises, or what 
rubbings, will produce the desired results, and pro- 
ceeds to strengthen slowly and judiciously. The girl 
at the same time is allowed plenty of fresh air and 
suitable games, and soon recovers her normal con- 
dition, all the while pursuing the same kind of life as 
the others, though probably with some relaxation in 
the way of lessons. Such weak backs ought not to 
occur as often as they do, if proper attention Defects often 
were paid from the first to the physical con- fhe result of 

'^ '■ Ignorance, 

ditions of life. I do not mean anythmg fashion or 
abstruse or difficult, but just the ordinary ^^^'-^o'^*'- 



412 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

commonplaces ; that high-heeled shoes throw the 
body out of its natural balance and overstrain some 
muscles ; that hard, stiff clothing pressing upon 
muscles weakens them by causing atrophy, a fre- 
quent cause of weak backs ; that a growing child 
must have abundance of sleep, food, fresh air and 
exercise, and while living in cultivated surroundings 
and being encouraged in intellectual pursuits, should 
not be expected to spend more than three or four hours 
each day according to age, in doing definite brain work. 
At the age of fourteen a healthy girl may be expected 
to begin to work as much as five hours a day. So 
much for gymnastics, the necessity for which it is to be 
hoped has been sufficiently demonstrated. 

Dancing is also a capital form of exercise, provided 
it is not pursued, as is sometimes the case, 

Dancing. . r i • i i • t-i 

to the pomt of physical exhaustion. ihe 
art of fencing is also well worth acquiring. Also 
bicycle evolutions to music, and even roller skating. 
Having stated that three hours is enough for intel- 
lectual work for most girls up to the age of eleven or 

twelve, four hours up to fourteen, five up to 

Hours that . ' ,, .., -ir 

may reason- Sixteen, and that six is the utmost a girl oi 
spint^n ^"y ^S^ ought to attempt ; having also said 
intellectual that an hour and a half in the day is enough 

work. r 1 '1 • • rn 

lor the organised games, it remains to nil up 
the rest of the day, which, excluding sleep and meals, 
and the necessary time spent in dressing, usually 
amounts to from two to three hours. The time-table 
of every girl in the school may be different ; I append, 
as examples, the actual time-tables of twenty girls for 
a week, the total of forty-four hours being made up of 
five days of eight hours and one day of four hours. 



Cultivation of the Body. 



413 



"Fiox P"^-io ^^^5?-t?^^4^4^^^^4^^4^^;^:r^^^- 



•suopBdnDDO 'IBJOX 



■*vO fOVO vo VO vo vo CO 



•3uiU3pi«r) 



•doqs?tJOyV\^ 



•3IJOAV3[p33^ 



•3uipB3y IBjauar) 



•3ui3uis }jB(j 



eoH0»«nl«nl'«nHicoHimHinHt 



•SDpSBUUlXr) 



•3upUBQ 



-iJ <u 



•3UIAVBJQ 

•3ui3uig 



•UHOJA 



•OUBIj 



•>lJ0MpB3q 'IB^OX 



icnmcoo o mcirno moooc 



} 00 00 00 00 00 



•Xjojsjh 



•ajnjduDS 



iCOCOCOCOfOfOfOfOCO< 



•ajiUBja^n 



•XUOIUJBH 



•33U3PS 



•Xj?3uiouo3ux 



•BJiq33iv 



•XJJ3UI039 



•Dp3tUmUV 



M P-C M pj N N N 



fOfOfOCOcOfOrOfO< 



fnrofomrofnfnrn( 



M ro ro fO on N N 



•q3U3JJ 

•UBlUJSr) 



•upBq 



•^aajp 



t^ t^ t>. tv(^ : Fv 



•qsii3ug 



io>o >o m 



"" ■— -a 
o c t^ 
few— . S 

C bciJ "J 

■s ° >>^ 

-"•a C tn " 
?i.iJ "" <u c 
g"? W)5E 
E2 c - >. 

U3 O 2 W 

o S"" •= « 

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io-*0'OrOi-"intvOC»»otv_ >o_ r^P>f^. T' 

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•auiBfj 



1 ^ v> "« «» s^ ho* •* -^^-ae ~*S8o-«,^w«o-»» 



=>. = => 



414 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

And here it is important to note that a great deal 
of the training requisite to make a girl really useful, i.e.^ 
to make her industrious, prompt,Jntelligent, thought- 
ful, thorough and accurate, can quite as easily be 
given by means of work which is not intellectual, 
thereby saving the poor brain, which we have often 
strained to the uttermost in the past, from the weari- 
ness and fatigue consequent upon overwork, and girls 
may be sent out from school not anaemic and weak- 
^., ^ backed, hatin^j the sig^ht of a book, but 

The true ' i-> t> j 

end of healthy and vigorous, keenly alive to every 

opportunity that offers for self-improvement, 
earnest and self- restrained, with trained powers ready 
to devote themselves to the duties which offer. For 
the purposes of training then, I would suggest a variety 
of handicrafts,^ such as bookbinding, needlework, the 
practising of various musical instruments. 

Occupations * , . . 

not purely part smgmg, drawmg and gardening. In. 
inte ectua. j,Qj^g cases time also is given for general 
reading in the library — this may include English and 
other modern languages — and is often valuable in keep- 
ing up a modern language that has been acquired early, 
besides cultivating breadth of view and literary taste. 
The whole school ought also to be organised as a Fire 
Brigade and regularly drilled. It will be noticed at 
once that cooking, dressmaking, domestic economy, 
sick nursing, physiology and hygiene are omitted. 
These subjects are admirable at school age for girls 
who intend to make them their work in life, but for 

^ It is to the admirable curriculum arranged by Miss Gray, the head- 
mistress of St. Katharine's School, St. Andrews, that I am indebted 
for my views on the subject of handicrafts and short hours for intellec- 
tual work. 



I 



Cultivation of the Body. 415 

our own girls, though some of them suggest suitable 
holiday recreations, I believe that they are best ac- 
quired by devoting six months or a year specially to 
the purpose when school life is over. They do not 
seem to me to admit of a sufficient amount of train- 
ing, in proportion to the amount of time they con- 
sume. The knowledge, so essential for the welfare of 
the individual, of phenomena, such as the properties 
of air and water and the laws of heat, is acquired and 
the practical applications are pointed out by every 
intelligent teacher during the study of physics and 
chemistry ; and care of the health receives constant 
practical attention, so that it is unnecessary to 
emphasise it during school life by special lessons. 
Needlework is essential for every woman, and facility 
with the needle is more easily acquired early, say 
from ten to fourteen, when the fingers are really 
large enough to use such a delicate instrument as a 
needle ; but, as with everything else, having acquired 
the elements thoroughly, it must be a matter of indi- 
vidual taste whether the worker proceeds to acquire 
the higher branches of the art. The same may be said 
of piano, violin and drawing. Bookbinding, Handi- 
woodcarving and joinery give great scope ^'"^^^^• 
for the development of neatness, accuracy and artistic 
talent. An immense deal of interest may also be ex- 
cited by gardening, and much information of a practical 
and botanical kind, likely to be useful in later life, may 
be obtained. Every girl who wishes it, should have a 
small plot of garden to cultivate for herself. 

Here it may be as well to mention that where facili- 
ties for bathins: exist, provided great care is ^ . 

*=* ,, ... r Swimming. 

exercised in only allowmg girls m perfect 



41 6 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

health to indulge in it, and then for not too long at 
a time, no finer exercise exists than swimming. The 
necessary position of the swimmer, with arms extended 
and head well thrown back, is an admirable corrective to 
any tendency to stoop that may be acquired by book work. 
Before concluding this chapter on the cultivation of 
the body, it may be useful to append tables of the 
heights and weights of girls at different ages. These 
are compiled from careful measurements taken regu- 
larly three times every year at St. Leonard's School, 
St. Andrews, during a period of nearly six years, an 
Importance Avery's weighing and measuring apparatus 
of noting being^ used. The girls were always weiefhed 

the weight . , . . r , i • , 

and rate of m their gymnastic costume ot the thickness 
growth. worn in winter, and measured in their 

shoes. A certain small percentage were usually found 
to have lost weight, the proportion being larger in the 
surnmer time. We found, however, that such losses 
were unimportant, unless persisted in. If, for example, 
a growing girl did not increase in weight during a year, 
and was lighter than the average for her age and height, 
then it would be high time to send for the doctor and 
have her thoroughly overhauled. On the other hand, 
if a girl was found to be persistently idle and inatten- 
tive, though apparently in good health, on consulting 
the weight book it would usually be found that she 
was underweight for her age, and a cure was easily 
effected by cutting off some of her work, giving her 
extra nourishment and more time for exercise in the 
open air. It is indeed truly awful to reflect on the 
number of bad habits, that is, moral faults, that may 
be induced and fostered in those under our charge by 
neglect of suitable health conditions. 



Cultivation of the Body. 



417 



The tables are sound, so far as they go, but they do 
not go nearly far enough, the basis upon which they 
are founded being too narrow, and it is much to be 
wished that the Anthropometric Society could see 
its way to organising a series of observations over a 
much wider area. 



I. — Table showing the average height and weight of British girls 
from the ages of nine to twenty, stating in each case the number of 
observations made. Also showing the average increase per annum 
deduced from the same observations taken three times in each year. 











Number of 


^ Incr 






Ages. 


Height. 


Weight. 


observations 


;ase. 












made. 
















In Height. 


In Weight. 1 


From 


ft. in. 


St. lb. 


oz. 




in. 


lb. 


oz. 


9 to 10 


4 3-38 


4 4 


10 


22 








10 ,, II 


4 5763 


4 12 


14 


36 


2-383 


8 


4 


II ,, 12 


4 8-403 


5 6 


6 


49 


2-64 


7 


8 


12 „ 13 


4 11-509 


6 5 


I 


81 


3-106 


12 


II 


13 „ 14 


5 1-639 


7 2 


2 


218 


2-13 


II 


I 


14 »> 15 


5 3-128 


7 12 


3 


490 


1-489 


10 


J 


15 „ 16 


5 3-972 


8 6 





737 


-844 


7 


13 


16 „ 17 


5 4-451 


8 II 


6 


870 


. -479 


5 


6 


17 „ 18 


5 4-666 


9 I 


7 


627 


-215 


4 


I 


18 „ 19 


5 4-804 


9 4 


10 


242 


-138 


3 


3 


19 ,, 20 


5 5-267 


9 5 


6 


51 


-463 




12 



27 



41 8 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 



II.- 


-Table showing average 


III.- 


-Table showing 


average 1 


height 


for age, disregarding 


weight 


for height, disregarding | 


weight. i 


age. 






Age 




Number of 






Number of 


in 


Height. 


observations 


Height. 


Weight. 


observations 


years. 




made. 






made. 




ft. in. 




ft. in. 


St. lb. oz. 




9 


4 1-35 


5 1 


3 10 


3 3 8 


I 


94 


4 3739 


12 1 


3 II 


3 5 


3 


lO 


4 4-385 


12 


4 


3 10 4 


I 


lO^ 


4 5-565 


21 i 


4' I 


4 2 10 


3 


II 


4 6-481 


20 


4 2 


4 3 4 


II 


Hi 


4 8-322 


26 


4 3 


4 4 5 


10 


12 


4 10*582 


35 


4 4 


4 5 12 


12 


12^ 


4 11-696 


44 


4 5 


4 8 14 


12 


13 


5 1-458 


69 


4 6 


5 I 12 


15 


I3i 


5 1-728 


122 


4 7 


5 5 3 


27 


14 


5 2-708 


192 


4 8 


5 9 12 


28 


I4i 


5 3232 


256 


4 9 


608 


42 


^5 


5 3-72 


349 


4 10 


6 8 I 


56 


i5i 


5 4-048 


389 


4 II 


7 3 15 


118 


i6 


5 4-263 


434 


5 


7 5 13 


221 


i6i 


5 4-488 


445 


5 I 


7 10 


263 


17 


5 4-6o6 


376 


5 2 


8 I 


309 


i7i 


5 4-644 


296 


5 3 


8 5 14 


564 


i8 


5 4-671 


182 


5 4 


8 10 II 


625 


i8i 


5 4-797 


97 


5 5 


8 13 4 


466 


19 


5 4-831 


40 


5 6 


9 4 12 


274 


i9i 


5 4-854 


12 


5 7 


9 7 9 


217 


20 


5 4-89 


8 


5 8 


9 II 10 


125 








5 9 


10 2 5 


54 










10 10 8 


" 



ENVIRONMENT. 

We now pass to the inanimate surroundings. 

The first essential is that the soil upon which the 
school is built should be a dry and wholesome one. 
Gravel of course is the best, but there are many other 
varieties of soil and subsoil which admit of perfect 
drainage. 



Cultivation of the Body. 419 

Tlie altitude is also a question to be taken into 
account. The greatest altitude compatible Healthy 
with accessibility is as a rule the best, because situation, 
then the air will be fresh and abundant, and probably 
bracing. The aspect is also of importance. This should 
be as sunny as possible, and the girls' sleeping and living 
rooms should be flooded with sunshine for great por- 
tions of the day, whatever happens to the rest of the 
establishment ; as comparatively sh(jrt hours are spent 
in schoolrooms, the importance of sunshine in them is 
less great, though they must be bright and attractive, 
for cheerful surroundings and associations help to pro- 
duce the cheerful minds which most easily cheerful sur- 
conquer intellectual difficulties. There must foundings. 
be no gloominess, with its depressing effects upon 
youtliful spirits, anywhere. The nature of the sur- 
roundings has much to do in fact with the ideas, 
pleasurable or otherwise, which will be associated with 
the recurrence of any given lesson, and will often 
colour our recollections through life. 

It is desirable also to ascertain the rainfall. There 
are certain portions of our island where the rainfall is 
very much heavier than in others, and often places 
only a few miles apart may differ by being either in- 
side or outside a rainy band. Where outdoor exercise 
is as important as it always must be for 

. . Climate. 

young people, it is absurd to start a new 
school in a place where the games will be constantly 
interrupted by rain, or where, when it has rained, the 
ground is of a nature which does not quickly dry up. 
Of course what one really wants to know is the 
average number of rainy days and the seasons of the 
year when they chiefly occur, rather than the number 



420 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

of inches per annum of the rainfall, but these are de- 
tails which are not generally easy to ascertain. 

Having secured a suitable spot, with abundant space, 
,, ., . a large portion of it level for the purpose of 

Ventilation , r r- 

and play, see that the building is commodious, 

warming. ^ell-built, well-lighted, and thoroughly dry, 
and have all the windows hung top and bottom so that 
there may be plenty of fresh air, and have good fire- 
places. Fireplaces are decidedly the most healthy 
method of warming for all living rooms, but hot-water 
pipes are unobjectionable, and far more convenient 
and economical for schoolrooms. 

Every school of course has its own method of ar- 
Arrange- rangement, but it is preferable where pos- 
MdinLs sible to have a central building for teaching 
and lighting, purposes, containing schoolrooms, art-room, 
laboratory, workshops and gymnasium, surrounded by 
houses of residence, each holding about twenty-five 
girls. The houses should be warmed with fireplaces, 
the school by means of any warming apparatus at the 
time in vogue. In both school and houses it is most 
desirable to have electric light because it does not 
vitiate the air. 

The accommodation in the building will naturally 
be arranged in accordance with the ideas of school 
organisation which it is intended to carry out, 
different plans being suitable for different kinds of 
schools. 

An abundant and thoroughly wholesome water 

supply is absolutely essential, and the drain- 
Water L L ^ J 

supply and age must be well planned and perfectly laid, 
rainage. ^^ ^^ ^^ stand the vaHous customary tests, 
and must be properly trapped and ventilated. 



Cultivation of the Body. 421 

As regards area and cubic space and other minute 
details of a hygienic kind, I cannot do better Air and 
than, refer mistresses to Dr. Clement Dukes' ^p^^^- 
admirable Health at School, published by Cassell & Co., 
which is a complete compendium of the subject, merely 
premising that for a book published in 1886 and re- 
published in 1895, a less sweeping condemnation of 
all girls' schools might have been made. 

I do not myself feel that there is danger of un- 
wholesome crowding in secondary residentiary schools, 
provided that there are separate living and school 
accommodation, such as I have already indicated, and 
also provided that every girl has her own cubicle fully 
furnished. The smallest area upon which it is possible 
to arrange the usual cubicle furniture with any degree 
of comfort, is sufficient to provide enough cubic space 
of air in a room twelve feet high. 

A chapter on the Cultivation of the Body seems 
hardly complete without some mention of that without 
which the body cannot grow or even continue to exist, 
namely, food. As will have been seen from the tables 
given above, growth during the early years spent at 
a secondary residentiary school is exceedingly rapid, 
and food is necessary to support it ; also every form of 
activity of any of the faculties of the being Yoodi must 
causes waste of substance and necessitates be abundant, 
recuperation, which will be obtained chiefly by means 
of food and sleep. Food, therefore, must be abun- 
dant ; it must be of good quality, well cooked, 
attractively served, and helped in a tempting manner. 
Plenty of time should be given for partaking of the 
meal, but the girls should not be kept sitting so long 
as to be bored, and conversation should be freely in- 



42 2 Work and Play in Girls' Schools. 

dulged in. I do not myself think that solid meat should 
be given except at the midday meal, but both at break- 
fast and at supper there should always be a savoury 
There must dish, Consisting of fish, eggs, macaroni, 
be variety. ficc or vegetables, with occasional admix- 
tures of meat, ham, tongue, etc., to ensure variety ; 
porridge should also be provided for breakfast. The 
great essential is variety. Besides these three meals 
there should be a light luncheon consisting of hot soup 
and bread, or cocoa, or milk, according to taste ; and 
in the afternoon, after games and changing, the refresh- 
ment of tea and bread and butter, now and again varied 
witii cake or a bun, before going into afternoon school. 
Sugar in abundance and milk should always be upon 
the dinner table, to be partaken of according to taste 
with the pudding, and jam or marmalade 

Sugar and ^ ^ -' 

fruit and golden syrup should be provided for 

necessary. breakfast and supper. In this way the 
quantity of saccharine matter, so essential for a grow- 
ing child, is supplied. Greediness is not induced 
because the natural appetites are freely and whole- 
somely supplied, and the habit of self-indulgence is 
kept in abeyance for the same reason, because the 
ordinary diet is so satisfying that there is no craving for 
sweets and other tuck-shop delicacies. But even so, it 
is desirable to give sweetmeats occasionally after meals, 
rather than allow girls even to fancy that they want 
to go and buy them for themselves. Fresh fruit also is 
very good and wholesome and should be available 
when required for health ; it will often be needed if the 
water is at all hard, and should occasionally be given 
in liberal quantities, say instead of pudding. Vege- 
tables too must never be forgotten. Some people 



Cultivation of the Body. 423 

will be inclined to say that girls are not fed as well 
as this in their homes ! That may some- Disastrous 
times be possible, and indeed I have known eftectsof 

- - , ^ ., , . , insufficient 

of cases where, from a terribly mistaken orunwhoie- 
view of economy, or from a desire to teach ^°'"^^°°^- 
self-restraint, growing girls have been stinted in food, 
with most lamentable results in after life. I am not, 
however, afraid that school will ever enter into com- 
petition with the home, no matter how good the 
puddings are ; and it is natural that such things should 
be more considered at school where it is realised that 
even such minor matters as the bread and butter enter 
into the general scheme of education, and may influence 
for good or evil the future lives of the pupils. In some 
homes, on the other hand, girls receive food much too 
rich or too stimulating, made dishes and late dinners 
not being conducive to healthy digestion. 

Before closing this chapter a word must be said 
about the emotions ; healthy bodily development is 
hindered or prevented if they are too early encouraged, 
as it is also by want of food, rest, fresh air, Danger of 
exercise and interest, or by the excess of ^attn^the"' 
either physical or intellectual activity. The emotions, 
emotional nature is over-stimulated by excessive time 
spent upon music, especially if the music is of a certain 
kind. Much care is needed, more particularly if there 
is decided musical taste, to begin with composers who 
appeal least to the emotional nature, and not to 
specialise in music at all until a thorough intellectual 
groundwork has been laid in the general education. 
Latin, mathematics and vigorous games hold a far 
more important part in the general scheme of a com- 
prehensive education than is always apparent. 



425 



INDEX. 



Absences from school, effect on 

class teaching, 34. 
Acton, Lord, on study of history, 126. 
Aim of education, 2, 67. 
Aim of school life, 414. 
Air and space in schools, 421. 
Algebra— 

Age for beginning, 247. 
Educational value, 237. 
Geometry and algebra, relation be- 
tween, 246. 
Alphabet, 46. 

Books for teachers, 52. 
Alphabets, phonetic, 11 1. 
Ambition, intellectual, fostering, 40. 
Analysis of sentences, 60. 
Ancient history, 160. 

Books recommended, 166. 
Educational value, 159. 
Higher classes, history for, 164. 
Illustrations, models, etc., sugges- 
tions, 164. 
Junior classes, scheme of work, 161. 
Parallel chart, 167. 
Apparatus needed in teaching, 29. 
Arithmetic — 
Addition, 222. 
Approximations, 235. 
 Decimal notation, 222. 
Division, 227. 

Exclusion of various branches, sug- 
gested, 237, 247. 
Factors, measures, multiples, 227. 
First teaching, 216. 
Fractions, 229, 232, 236. 

Decimals, 223, 233. 
G.C.M. and L.C.M., 231. 
Historical method of teaching, 237. 

Sketch of lesson, 218. 
Logarithms as part of scientific 

arithmetic, 248 note. 
Money, addition and subtraction 

of, 221. 
Multiplication, 224. 
Practice, 235. 



Proportion, 234. 

Subtraction, 223. 

Art in education — 

Beautiful surroundings in school, 

etc., 322, 
Drawing and painting [see that title]. 
Historical art, 321. 
[.S>^fl/^(7 various titles. Music, Draw- 
ing and painting, etc.] 
Art needlework, 361. 
Articulation, 347. 
Astronomy — 

Mathematics as stepping-stone to, 

245. 
Psychological order of study, 254. 
Attendance at school, regular, neces- 
sity for, 34. 

Bacon on knowledge, 2. 

Bearder, Mr., on phonetic alphabet, 

97- 
Beautifying schools, importance of, 

322. 
Bedford college, opening, 4. 
Bible lessons \see Religion and philo- 
sophy]. 
Biological sciences, 260. 
Field work, 263. 
Microscopes, using, 265. 
Museum, school, arrangement of, 

263, 272. 
Notes of lesson on seedlings, 269. 
Observation, developing, 261. 
Psychological order of study, 252, 

255- 
Sequence of lessons should be out- 
come of teacher's own individu- 
ality, 266. 
Text-books recommended for bot- 
any, 253, 271. 

Botany {see Biological sciences]. 

Brush drawing, 348, 349, 354. 

Bryce, Dr., on science teaching, 249. 

Buss, Miss, first high school estab- 
lished by, 4. 



426 



Index. 



Century question, 176 note. 
Character — 

Formation of, books on, 376. 
Insight into, essential for teachers, 

376 
Moulding, power of teacher in, 385. 
Charts, illustrated \see Time maps]. 
Cheltenham Ladies'College,opening,4. 
Chemistry — 

Method of teaching, need for im- 
provement in, 307. 
Position in scheme of science teach- 
ing, 308. 
"Practical" training, importance 

of, 310. 
Pre-examination classes — broad 

principles recommended, 312. 
Preliminary course of elementary 

physics, 308, 312. 
"Pure" and "physical" chem- 
istry, order of teaching, 315, 316. 
Technical language not required, 

309- 

Typical lessons, 317. 
Child study society, 370. 
China painting, 360. 
Civilised nations, energy devoted to 

education by, 3. 
Class-singing — 

Dictation, 341. 

Ear tests, 34 r. 

Educational value, 340, 343. 

Length of lesson, 340. 

Notation, questions on, 340. 

Part-singing, 342. 

Rhythm, 341. 

Sight-reading, 342. 

Size of class, etc. , 340. 

Tonic sol-fa system, 344. 

Value of, as supplement to piano- 
forte teaching, 332. 

Voice production, 342. 
Class teachers and specialists, com- 
parison between, 21. 
Classical studies \see Latin and Greek]. 
Classification in any subject, method, 

38. 

Committee of Ten, report- 
Arithmetic, exclusion of certain 

branches suggested, 237. 
English, teaching, 62 
Geometry, instruction in, 239. 

Compayr^ on education, I'j note. 

Competition — 

Bracing influence of, 386. 
Personal rivalry, avoiding, 388. 



Composition — 

Committee of Ten, report, 63. 

Dale, Mr., on, 55. 
Conduct prizes, objections to, 33. 
(Consonants, classification of, 47, 48, 
Corporate virtues, cultivating, 401. 
Corrections, giving in exercise books, 

etc., 27. 
Cricket, 404, 406. 

Curriculum for pupils of different ages, 
10, 12, 20. 

Dale, Mr., on oral composition, 55. 

Dancing, 412. 

Davies, Miss, University privileges 

won for women by, 4. 
Dialects in English colonies, danger of 

developing into different languages, 
no. 
Difficulties of teachers, remedy, 23. 
Diphthong table, 51. 
Discipline of home and school, 369. 
Distractions, avoiding, in teaching, 37. 
Drainage of school buildings, 420. 
Drawing and painting — 

Brush work, 348, 349, 354. 

Educational value, 322. 

Foreshortening, 351. 

Individual teaching, advantage of, 

SSI- 
Individuality, encouraging, 352. 

Line drawing on squares, 349. 

Memory drawing, 350. 

Model drawing, 352. 

Mural decoration, 358. 

Natural drawing of children, 348. 

Object drawing, 350. 

Painting, 356. 

China painting, 360. 

Perspective, 352, 357. 

Plane geometry, 352. 

Proportional measurements, 350. 

Ruskin, quotation from, 348. 

Shading, 353. 

Suggestive drawing, 352. 
Dress, manner, etc. , of teachers, 

effect of, 35. 
Duration of school-life, 15. 

Economics— 

Educational value, 186, 190, 191. 

Interest of pupils in, 188. 

Method of teaching, 188. 

Text-books, use of, 189. 
Education — 

Ain\ of, 2, 67, 



Index. 



427 



Books on, 38, 43, 376. 

Definition, 7, 324. 

Mistakes to be avoided, 17. 

Moral , aspect [see Moral side of 
education] , 

Reform in women's education since 
1848, 3. 
Electricity and magnetism, 299. 
Elocution, 346. 
Emotions, danger of over-stimulating, 

423- 
English language, training in, 54. 
Books recommended, 66. 
Committee of Ten, report, 62. 
[See also Grammar.] 
English literature — 

Aim and method of teaching, 192. 
Periods of literature, studying, 198. 
Poetry, reading, 194. 
Prose, reading, 198. 
Reading courses, suggested, 200. 
Shakspere, study of, 195. 
Style, sense of, cultivating, 199. 
Environment of a school, 418. 
Euclid [see Geometry] . 
Examinations — 

Internal and local, comparison be- 
tween, 34. 
Value of. 33, 
Examiners, 34. 
Exercise — 

Dancing, fencing, etc., 412. 
Games [see that title] . 
Gymnastics [see that title]. 
Some forms more valuable than 

others, 397. 
Swimming, 415. 
Exercise books, corrections, giving in 
books, etc., 27. 

Faculty, definition of, 20. 

Family selfishness, women prone to, 
401. 

Fearon, Mr., on analysis of sentences, 
60. 

Fines, objections to, 33. 

Fire brigade, school should be organ- 
ised as, 414. 

Fitch, Sir J., on study of history, 

137- 
Food, suitable, for growing girls, 421. 
Foreign languages — 

Latm and Greek [see that title]. 
Modern languages [see that title]. 
Pronunciation, teaching, value of 
" Le Maitre Phondtique," m. 



French — 

Books recommended, loi. 

Pronunciation, 49, 97. 

Rules, 102. 

Translation, 98, loc. 

[See also Modern languages.] 

Gamks— 

Corporate virtues developed by or- 
ganised games, 402. 
Cricket, 404, 406. 
Cycle of games, 404. 
Higher functions of, 400. 
Hockey, 405. 
Lacrosse, 405. 

Over-exertion, dangers of, 409. 
Playground, 403. 

Severe games not safe without gym- 
nastic training, 409. 
Small numbers, games for, 400. 
Value of, as means of exercise, 
398. 
Gardening, educational value, 415. 
Geography — 

Aim in teaching, 275. 
Course of lessons, notes, 282. 

England, supplementary work 
with reference to, 287. 
Physical geography [see that title]. 
Geology, psychological position in 

science teaching, 255. 
Cieometry— 

Algebra and geometry, relation be- 
tween, 246. 
Definitions, forming, 242. 
Educational value, 240. 
Euclid, objections to, 243. 
Kindergarten, beginning in, 239. 
Methods of teaching, 242, 244, 248, 
Practical geometry for young chil- 
dren, 239. 
I ext-booics recommended, 240, 242. 
German— 

Diflficulties of the language, re- 
moving, 102. 
Literature, attractiveness of, 103. 
[See also Modern languages.] 
"Girls' Public Day Schools' Com- 
pany," founding, 4. 
Gladstone, Dr., spelling reform, 

statistics, 107. 
Grammar, English, 59. 

Books recommended, 59, 66. 
Committee of Ten, report, 64. 
[See also English language.] 
Greek and Latin [see Latin and Greek]. 



428 



Index. 



Gymnastics, Swedish — 

Physical defects, correcting, 410. 
Superiority of, to ordinary gym- 
nastics, 410. 
Value of, 408. 

Habits, right, forming, 39. 
Hamilton, Sir W. , on teaching, 134. 
Hand arts [see Manual training]. 
Harris, Dr. — 

Art in education, 322. 

History, definition of, 114. 

Manual work, view§ on educational 
value of, 323. 

Mistakes to be avoided in educa- 
tion, 17. 
Head mistresses and head masters, 

control exercised by, 22. 
Health — 

Book recommended, 421. 

Care of, during school years, 383. 

Necessary conditions, 397. 
Heat and light, 302. 
Height and weight of girls at different 

ages, 416, 418. 
Hieroglyphics, interesting children in, 

45- 
High schools, first school established 

• by Miss Buss, etc., 4. 
Higher education of women, reforms 

since 1848, 3. 
History — 

Ancient history [see that title]. 

Approaching subject, methods, 121. 

Definition, 114. 

Educational value, 114, 137. 

German scheme of teaching, 166. 

Junior class, history for, 121. 

Moral lessons from, 115. 

Political economy more important 
for girls than constitutional his- 
tory, 120. 

Psychological order of study, 258. 

Senior classes, history for, 122, 124. 
Class library, forming, 130. 
Contemporary writings, studying, 

Continuity of history, tracing, 126. 

Essay-writing, value of, 135. 

First-hand acquaintance with 
authorities desirable, 130, 131. 

Historical novels, etc., recom- 
mended, 133, 150. 

Maps, lack of, suggestions, 129. 

Pictures, etc., educativ^e power 
of, 132, 321. 



Post-school work, 136. 

Previous knowledge to be as- 
sumed, 126. 

Sectional teaching, advantages, 
127. 

Selection, principle of, 126. 

"Spirit" of the period, catching, 
124. 

Syllabus of lessons, 128, 130, 138. 

Testing work, 134. 

Text-books recommended, 132, 

145- 
Time maps [see that title] . 
Historical novels, value for elder 

classes, 122, 133. 
Hockey, 405. 

Home and school, relation between, 
367- 
Rules for home government in con- 
nection with school work, 371. 
Humanities — 

Inclusion in course of study, im- 
portance of, 20. 
Teachers' studying, necessity for, 9, 
Hygiene, school, book recommended, 
421. 

Ideal, ultimate, or perfect develop- 
ment of individual, keeping in 
view, 41. 

Ideals, highest, encouraging, 41. 

Individual life, developing, 41. 

Inquiry, spirit of, awakening and 
sustaining, 40. 

Intellectual ambition, fostering, 40. 

Intellectual sympathy with pupil, ne- 
cessity for, 38. 

Intellectual work, number of hours to 
be devoted to, 412. 

Interest, awakening, in pupils, 37. 

Judgment cultivated by study of 
history, 117. 

Knowledge of the world essential 

for teachers, 375. 
Known to the unknown, proceeding 

from, in teaching, 38. 

Lacrosse, 405. 

Laing, Mr., establishment of first 

high school, 4. 
Languages — 

Enjoyment of work essential for 

pupil, 104. 
Latin and Greek [see that title]. 
Methods of teaching compared, 69. 



Index. 



429 



Modern languages [see that title]. 
Order of teaching, 94, 257. 
Latin and Greek — 

Advanced work, methods, 77. 
Books recommended, 71, 75, 77, 78, 

81, 82, 89. 
Composition, hints on teaching, 75, 

80. 
Construing, lessons in, 72. 
Conversation, 72. 
Educational value of Latin, 68. 
Examples prefixed to exercises to 

be learnt by heart, 76. 
Greek accentuation, 83. 
Greek preferred to Latin, 104. 
Late learners, chance of success, 

86. 

Methods of teaching compared, 69. 

Models and illustrations of classical 

life and history, suggestions, 85. 

Position in girls' education, 67, 94, 

103. 
Pronunciation, 82. 
Reading to be begun as soon as 
possible, 71. 
Illustrative works to accompany 
reading, 79. 
Repetition, 77. 
Scheme of work, 87. 
Style, attention to, 80. 
Translations — 

Old English versions, value of, 

84. 
Unseen translation, beginning, 

76. 
Usmg, 79. 
Verse writing, 81. 
Weak points in girls' work, 86. 
I^aw, William, on true learning, 395. 
" Le Maltre Phon^tique," alphabet 
and specimens of writing from, 
III. 
Learning by heart, value of, 54. 
Lectures, school, parents attending, 

371- 
Leisure — 

Mental leisure required by teachers, 

375- 
Ripening of character, need of 

leisure for, 210. 
Time table arranged by Miss Beale, 

13- 
Length of lessons, 16. 
Letters, classifying, importance of, 50. 
Light and heat, 302. 
Lighting in schools, 420. 



I^iterature — 

English literature [see that title], 
(jerman literature, attractiveness of, 
103. 
I^ogarithms as part of scientific arith- 
metic, 248 no/e. 

Magnetism and electricity, 299. 
Manual training- - 

Educational value, 323, 414. 
Handicrafts, suggested, 414, 415. 
Modelling, 363. 
Needlework, 361, 415. 
Sloyd, 366. 

Wood-carving, etc. , 362. 
Maps — 

Constant use of maps, importance 

of, 30. 
Historical maps, lack of, 129. 
Marks- 
Chart showing fluctuation in, 32. 
Inspection by head mistress, ad- 
vantage of, 31. 
Personal rivalry, method avoiding, 
388. 
Martineau, Dr., on history, 114. 
Mathematics- - 

Algebra [see that title]. 
Books recommended, 248, 249. 
Geometry [see that title]. 
Historical method of teaching, ad- 
vantage of, 248. 
Mi.xed mathematics, 248. 
Mazzini on "Solidarity of Man," 

120. 
Meiklejohn, spelling book, exhaustive 

nature of, 109. 
Mental state of pupil, teaching must 

be adapted to, 39. 
Method of teaching subject should 

be adapted fo age of pupil, 19. 
" M^thode mngmonique p)olonaise" 

applied as a record of time, 169. 
Miall, Professor, on difficulties in edu- 
cation, 23. 
Microscopes, use of, in schools, 265. 
Mill, Mr., on study of history, 137. 
Milton, quotations from, on — 
Divine philosophy, 41. 
Education, 2 /to/e. 
Mistakes in education, 17. 
Modelling— 
Educatfonal value, 363. 
Individual and class teaching. 364. 
Studies, 364. 
Tools required, 363. 



430 



Index. 



Modern languages — 

Books recommended, iii. 

Composition, loi. 

Enjoyment of work essential for 

pupil, 104. 
Exercises, 99. 

First lessons should be oral, 96. 
Order of studying, 94, 257. 
Philology, value in teaching lan- 
guages, lOI. 
Phcnetic system, success of, 96. 
Reform in method of teaching, 

necessity for, 96. 
Translation, 98. 
Vocabulary, forming, 99. 
[See also titles French and German.] 
Money, origin of, 219. 
Moral side of school education — 
Competition, wholesome, benefit of, 

386. 
Conccjntration of faculties, practice 

in, 387. 
Moral lessons in school, value of, 389. 
Religion and philosophy [see that 

title]. 
Responsibilities and qualifications 

of teachers \see Teachers] . 
School worldliness, danger of, 387. 
Uniformity of treatment, value of, 

386. 
Miiller, Professor Max, on English 

spelling, 106, 107. 
Mural decoration, 358. 
Museum, school, arrangement of, 

263, 272. 
Music — 

Class-singing [see that title]. 
General education, necessity for, 

337- 
Pianoforte [see that title] . 
Sending children abroad for musical 

education, 320, 336. 
Taste, cultivating, 320. 
Violin, 338. 

Needlework, training in, 415. 

Art needlework, 361. 
Newton on discovering truth, 40. 
Nineteenth century, illustrated charts, 
182, 184. 

Observation, development of, value 
of biological sciences, 261. 

Occupations for training purposes 
which are not purely intellectual, 
414. 



Oral composition — 

Committee of Ten, report, 63. 
Dale, Mr., on, 55. 
Order of study — 
Importance of, 17. 
Psychological order, 19, 251. 
I Organisation, power of, games de- 
! veloping, 400. 

i Over-exertion in games, dangers of, 

I 409- 

Overstrain, teachers avoiding, 381. 

Pagliardini, spelling difficulties, 

109. 
Painting and drawing [see Drawing 

and painting] . 
Parents and teachers — 

Co-operation, means for securing, 

370- 
Relations between, 368. 
Parker, anecdote on "conscience," 

206. 
Parsing exercises, usefulness ques- 
tioned, 59. 
Pedagogical Spininary, extract from, 

on teachers, 35. 
Philology — 

Books recommended, 52, 66, 102. 
Knowledge of, value in teaching 
I languages, loi. 

! Philosophy and religion {see Religion 
and philosophy]. 
Phonetic system [see Spelling reform], 
; Physical defects in girls— 
I Correcting, by Swedish gymnastics, 
I 410. 

Frequent causes of, 411. 
j Physical geography — 

Courses of lessons, subject-matter, 

275, 277, 279. 
Definitions, forming, 278. 
; Observation and experiment, 275, 
I 276. 

I Psychological position in science 

teaching, 254. 
j Written work, style of, 276, 277. 
i Physics — 

I Books recommended, 303. 
! Definitions, forming, 294. 
i Diagrams, value of, 299. 
i Electricity and magnetism, 299. 

Elementary course of lessons, 292. 
I Apparatus, 296. 

Practical work, 296. 
t Elementary physics as a basis for 
I chemistry, 308, 312, 315. 



Index. 



431 



Heat and light, 302. 

Position in science teaching, 255,291. 

Senior classes, 302. 

Syllabus of lessons, 304. 
Physiology — 

Books recommended, 256. 

Psychological position in science 
teaching, 256, 292. 
Pianoforte — 

Aim in teaching, 326. 

Difficulties of teachers, 327. 

Ear, cultivating, 332. 

Examinations, 334, 336. 

Gradation of study, 329, 333. 

Hands, treatment of, 334. 

Harmony, 333. 

Memory, cultivating, 334. 

Practice, superintending, 335. 

Selection of music, 331. 

Sight-reading. 335. 

Singing class, value of, 332. 

Studies recommended, 332, 334. 

Thoroughness, importance of, 336. 

[See also Music] 
Pitman, Mr. — 

Pitman alphabet, suggestion, iii. 

Spelling reform, 109. 
Place-taking in classes, disappearance 

of, 31. 
Playground, 403. 

Pleasant, lessons, making, 38, 104. 
Poetry, learning, 53, 54. 
Political economy, educational value, 

120. 
Practical precepts for teachers, 37. 
Prizes, objections to, 32. 
Progress, promoting, 39. 
Psychological order of study, 19, 251. 
Punishments, nature of offence and 
suitable punishments, 33. 

Qukkn's College, founding, 4. 
Questioning of pupils, judicious, 40. 

Raffokt between teacher and class, 

importance of, 34. 
Reading, 44, 51. 

Books recommended, 47, 54, 66. 

{See also Alphabet.] 
Recitation, value as moral training, 

54. 
Recreation — 
Certain forms more valuable than 

others, 397. 
Games [see that title]. 
Meaning of, 397. 



Reform in women's education since 

1848, 3. 
Religion and philosophy — 

Bible lessons, 391. 

Books recommended, 211, 215. 

Conscience, 206. 

Consciousness and self-conscious- 
ness, 205. 

Definition of religion, 203. 

Dogmatics and ethics, relation be- 
tween, 202. 

Foundations of faith, classification, 
213. 

Historical art, educative power of, 
321. 

Leisure for thought, 210. 

Personal element in child's religion, 
204. 

Position in time-table, 391. 

Psychological order of teaching, 
206, 209, 258. 

Reading and discussion, 211. 

Religion in relation to science and 
philosophy, 204. 

Sceptical phases, dealing with, 210. 

School lessons — 

Advantages, 389, 390. 
Scope of, 2C2. 

Special training, for teachers, 212. 

Written work, importance of, 209. 
Reports, advantages of, 33. 
Reproofs, injudicious, avoiding, 382. 
Right habits, forming, 39. 
Ruskin, quotations from, 2, 348. 

Sakpokd, Professor, on logarithms, 

248 nofe. 
School and home, relation between, 367. 
Rules for home government in con-, 
nection with school work, 371. 
School buildings — 

Beautifying, importance of, 322. 
Situation, 418. 

Ventilation, lighting, etc., 420. 
School life — 
Aim of, 414. 
Duration, 15. 
Science — 

Biological sciences [see that title]. 
Central idea in teaching, necessity 

for, 311. 
Chart showing progress during the 

Queen's reign, 184. 
Early training essential, 309. 
Experiments, success with, import- 
ance of, 295. 



432 



Index. 



Historical method of teaching, 248, 

249. 
History, supplementing, 115. 
Imagination and reasoning power, 

cultivating, 267. 
Introductory teaching, 314. 
" I^ecture " lessons and '* practical " 

work, 295, 312, 
Psychological order of study, 251, 

308. 
Scheme, suggested, 292. 
Sequence of lessons, care in plan- 
ning, 265, 266. 
Size of classes for "practical" in- 
struction, 313. 
Shakspere— 

Illustrations from, in teaching 

history. 123, 133. 
Study of, 195. 
Shirreff, Miss, on education, 3. 
Silence rules, value of, 14. 
Singing— 

Class-singing [see that title]. 
Tonic sol-fa system, 344. 
Situation of school building, soil, rain- 
fall, etc. , 418. 
Sixteenth century— chart of historical 

events, 171, 174. 
Sloyd, 366. 
Soames, Miss, promoting phonetic 

system, 108, no. 
Solitude, value of, for young people, 13. 
Sounds, classification of, 46. 
Space and air in schools, 421. 
Specialising in youth, results, 20. 
Specialists and class teachers, com- 
parison between, 21. 
Spelling reform — 

Books recommended, 66. 
Foreign languages, acquiring — suc- 
cess of phonetic system, 96. 
Necessity for, 53, 106. 
Phonetic alphabets, in. 
Present spelling condemned by 

philologists, no. 
Soames, Miss, promoting, 108, no. 
Spencer, Herbert, on education, 17 

note. 
Spenser, quotation from, 396. 
Stubbs, Bishop, on study of history, 

137- 
Study- 
Courses arranged for pupils of 

different ages, 10, 12, 16, 20. 
Hours to be spent in, 412. 
Subjects, classification of, 9. 



Sunday quiet for young people, 

necessity for, 14, 21 r. 
Swedish gymnastics [see Gymnastics]. 
Swinmiing, 415. 
Sympathies enlarged by study of 

history, 114. 
Sympathy, intellectual, with pupils, 

need for, 38. 

Teachers— 
Aim, 383. 
Circumstances and character of each 

pupil, knowing, 379. 
Class teachers and specialists, 21. 
Corrections, giving in exercise books, 

etc., 27. 
Difficulties of, remedy, 23. 
Externals, importance of, 35. 
Higher attainment, seeking, 6. 
Holding attention of class, 34. 
Humanities, study of, 9. 
Knowledge of the world essential, 

375- 

Mental leisure, necessity for, 375. 

Moral responsibility of, 377. 

Overstrain, avoiding, 381. 

Practical precepts for, 37. 

Reproofs, injudicious, avoiding, 382. 

Right judgment and presence of 
mind, 379. 

Self-mastery, 380. 

Time-saving methods, 24. 
Teachers and parents — 

Co-operation, means for securing, 
370. 

Relation between, 368. 
Teachers' Guild, 370. 

Educational museum, 85, 165. 
Tenses, discriminating, 61. 
Time available for school teaching, 

15- 
Time-maps, 168. 

Ancient history, 181. 
Illustrated charts, 171. 
Syllabus of lessons on modern his- 
tory, 177. 
Time-saving methods for teachers, 24. 
Time-tables — 

Courses of study for pupils of dif- 
ferent ages, 10, 12, 16, 20. 
Hours to be spent in intellectual 
work, 412. 
Tonic sol-fa system, 344. 

University education won for wo- 
men, 4. 



Index. 



433 



Ventilation in schools, 420. 
Victorian era, illustrated charts, 182, 

184. 
Violin, 338. 
Voice production, 53. 

Class-singing, 342. 

Elocution, 346. 
Vowels — 

Diphthong table, 51. 

Sounds, discriminating, 49, 97. 

Walter, Miss L. E., on preliminary 
science teaching, 314. 



Ware, Mr., on phonetic alphabet, 

96. 
Warming school buildings, 420. 
Water supply in schools, 420. 
Weight and height of girls at different 

ages, 416, 418. 
Wood-carving, etc., 415. 
Educational value, 362. 
Woodward, Professor, on analysis 

of sentences, 60. 
Writing, preliminary teaching, 45, 

Zoology [see Biological sciences]. 



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Xiongmans' Gazetteer of the 
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Maunder (Samuel). 

Biographical Treasury. With Sup- 
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Rev. James Wood. Fcp. 8vo., 6s. 



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Treasury of Geography, Physical, 
Historical, Descriptive, and Political. 
With 7 Maps and 16 Plates. Fcp. 
Svo., 6j. 

The Treasury of Bible Know- 
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25 



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Treasury of Knowledge and 
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Scientific and Literary Treasury. 
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The Treasury of Botany. Edited 
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Moore, F.L.S. With 274 Wood- 
cuts and 20 Steel Plates. 2 vols. 
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Willich.— Popular Tables for giving 
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Children's Books. 



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